United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

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Power-independent cooling system for a high-power research reactor

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by

Vitaly Uzikov, Lead Ingeeneer, JSC “SSC RIAR” (Russian Federation)
Irina Uzikova, Nuclear Safety Engineer, Assystem E&OS (France)

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Abstract
This paper presents the results of the analysis of a universal system for cooling of the research reactors core. The cooling system based on the passive principle of natural convection of the coolant. This cooling system develops the concept of a reactor plant presented in [1]. This Chapter presents à three-dimensional model, technological and design diagrams of a reactor unit. The examples of the numerical assessment of transients during operation in normal and accident modes are shown to substantiate the possibility of using such system in research reactors of medium and high power, providing a neutron flux of more than 1 × 1015 cm-2/s.
A fundamental feature of the presented passive heat removal system is the absence of active elements in the cooling circuits, such as circulation pumps, shut-off and control valves, as well as the presence of an intermediate circuit with a non-radioactive coolant, made according to the principle of operation of a heat pipe (thermic syphon). Such design excludes the release of the radioactive coolant into the surrounding environment for any depressurization of the circuits. The cooling circuits include only vessels, piping and heat exchangers. The absence of elements with mechanical moving parts can significantly reduce the equipment failures probability and increase the reliability of the cooling system while reducing its cost.
The versatility of the proposed system allows using it for different reactor plants of a wide power range, designed for various nuclear research areas.
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Low-power modular lead-cooled nuclear reactor

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by
Vitaly Uzikov, Lead Ingeeneer, JSC “SSC RIAR” (Russian Federation)
Irina Uzikova, Nuclear Safety Engineer, Assystem E&OS (France)
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Introduction
One of the main directions of modern development of nuclear energy is the creation of small modular reactors. Small modular reactors installed in single or multi-unit power plants make it possible to combine nuclear and alternative energy sources, including renewable sources.
However, the problem of optimal choice of the type of coolant for such reactors remains unresolved. Despite the seemingly obvious choice, the use of water as a coolant carries significant risks of a heat transfer crisis in the core in emergency situations, and the possibility of an exothermic zirconium vapor reaction has led to catastrophic consequences at the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP [1]. The use of gas, organic heat transfer fluids or salts causes no less problems and risks. Liquid metal coolant – liquid sodium requires special care in handling it due to its fire and explosion hazard, and the use of a lead-bismuth coolant leads to the formation of a large amount of hazardous radioactive polonium-210, which, in case of accidents with depressurization, can escape into the environment and lead to serious radiation consequences in the adjacent territories. Therefore, perhaps the most acceptable coolant option for small-sized modular reactors may be ordinary lead.
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Novel Cold Fusion Reactors based on the real Cold Fusion Mechanism

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by
Noriyuki Kodama
Independent Researcher
Tokyo, 206-0011 Japan, 81-90-6164-9203, noriyuki.kodama.0820@gmail.com

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Abstract
I review my Cold fusion theory as described below, and I also propose the experiment to prove hydride bond compression theory based on the currently available reactors and propose the conceptualized Cold fusion reactors based on the cold fusion mechanism.
(1) Cold fusion occurs at the metal surface T site by the compression of D2 from the surrounding lattice atoms.
(2) Compression of D-D bond can create the small D2 based on the electron orbit theory, which has been proved experimentally and theoretically.
(3) Bond compression is the common mechanism for the successful cold fusion reactors.
(4) The reactors of Buffer energy nuclear fusion and E-CAT with Li-H utilize the bond compression of Li-H and created small hydrogen (tightly bound proton-electron pair) and Lattice Confinement Fusion utilize the bond compression of Er-D and create small D (tightly bound d and electron pair).
(5) Because both E-CAT with Li-H nuclear reaction and Lattice Confinement fusion of Er-D have no mechanism of bond compression, their reactions can be unstable and irreproducible.
(6) I propose that Lattice Confinement Fusion reactor will be used to prove the mechanism of bond compression to produce excess heat because it seems to be designed to prove the lattice confinement fusion because the transmuted element seems to be stable and it is easy to compress Er-d films by mechanical stress.
(7) I propose the conceptualized Cold Fusion Reactor with nano-metal particles which potential is controlled by the metal 2 parallel electrode, and location of nano-particles can be mixed by ultrasonic oscillator to vibrate nano-metal particle in D2O to get the uniform reaction of D absorption and cold fusion.
(8) Li-H bond can be compressed effectively by the collision of nano Li-H particle by ultrasonic oscillator vibration of Nano-Li-H particle, and can be compressed by 2 parallel metal plates directly This direct compression can be applicable to Lattice Confinement Fusion, however the efficiency is low due to the reaction of D to Er.
I also propose the conceptualized Cold fusion reactor for transmutation with metal surface for Cold fusion to create small H2 and backside potential control for H absorption with H2 gas in place of D2 gas to prevent the heat generation because small D2 can be reduced by D+D fusion.
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Antiferromagnetic nucleus of Cr

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by
Alan C. Folmsbee, 1565 Haiku Road, Haiku, Hawaii 96708 USA


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Abstract
The protons and neutrons in the nuclei of the elements are, in this theory, positioned in fixed locations for all common isotopes. Sphere stacking of baryons is used with both cubic and hexagonal packing. It is asserted that all elements heavier than boron have a cube of nucleons in the center of each nucleus. To provide evidence for this theory, the properties of iron and chromium are compared using their nuclear structures. Cr has two rings of protons. Geometric reasoning shows it may be possible to make a Boolean logic gate out of four atoms because of the magnetic phenomena of chromium.
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Technology proposal to prevent the release of Fukushima tritium into the ocean

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by
UZIKOV Vitaly, engineer, Russia (uzikov62@mail.ru)
UZIKOVA Irina, engineer, France (iuzikova@assystem.com)

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Abstract
The need for isotope separation of water molecules with protium (ordinary hydrogen), deuterium and tritium arises in various industries: obtaining heavy (D2O) water for the nuclear industry; purification of radioactive water from tritium during the elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Fukushima NPP and heavy water at nuclear reactors; reduction of the natural concentration of heavy hydrogen isotopes in water for biological and medical purposes, etc. But first of all, our proposals are an attempt to propose a technology that could prevent the discharge of water contaminated with tritium into the world ocean after the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant.
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On the Role of Nuclear Binding Energy in Understanding Cold Nuclear Fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam and S.Lakshminarayana
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Survey no-42, Hitech city, Hyderabad-84,Telangana, INDIA
Dept.of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-03, AP, INDIA
Emails: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com (and) lnsrirama@gmail.com
Orcid numbers: 0000-0002-1695-6037 (and) 0000-0002-8923-772X

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Abstract
Following the concept of strong interaction, theoretically, fusion of proton seems to increase the binding energy of final atom by 8.8 MeV.
Due to Coulombic repulsion, asymmetry effect, pairing effect and other nuclear effects, final atom is forced to choose a little bit of binding energy less than 8.8 MeV and thus it is able to release left over binding energy in the form of internal kinetic energy or external thermal energy.
Thus, in cold fusion, heat release to occur, binding energy difference of final atom and base atom seems to be less than 8.8 MeV.
Qualitatively, energy released during cold fusion seems to be approximately equal to 8.8 MeV minus the difference of binding energy of final and base atoms.
Based on this idea, under normal conditions, for the case of 2He4, fusion of four protons can liberate (35.2-28.3)=6.9 MeV and it is 3.5 times less than the current estimates.
Point to be understood is that, lesser the binding energy of final atom, higher the liberated thermal energy and vice versa.
With a suitable catalyst and sufficient hydrogen under suitable pressure, if reactor’s temperature is maintained at (1000 to 1500) 0C, there seems a lot of scope for a chain reaction of cold fusion in which light isotopes transform to their next stage with increased proton number or mass number and liberate safe and clean heat energy continuously.
By arranging 4 to 6 reactors and charging them periodically in tandem, required thermal energy can be produced continuously.
In this new direction, by carefully selecting the base isotope and its corresponding catalyst, experiments can be conducted and ground reality of cold fusion can be understood at various temperature and pressure conditions.
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«Hidden» thermodynamics – rational approach to known facts

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by
Aleksei Savchenko
A.A. Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Rogova 5A, Moscow, Russia,
sav-alex111@mail.ru +7-977-520-5299

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Russian version published in J. Atomic Strategy, S-Petersburg, in three articles (3 Parts):
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1. The discrepancy between the approaches to the second law of thermodynamics and phase equilibrium. Solid and liquid solutions, Issue 109, December 2015, 17-23.
2. Entropy effects in real systems,. Issue 110, January 2016, 14-19.
3. Entropy effects in multiphase systems. Phase diagrams and eutectics melting mechanism, Issue 111, February 2016, 28-33.
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Introduction to all 3 parts
Almost all natural processes are described by the laws of thermodynamics – the first (the law of energy conservation) or the second, determining the direction of physicalchemical processes.
The first law of thermodynamics is pretty clear, but it is not properly understood all the time. Sometimes the fact that there are no ideal isolated systems is ignored.
Sometimes the energy disappears when in the description of wave annihilation in a counterphase.
Many physics textbook note – in interference and diffraction, waves, if shifted by 180 degrees, damp each other and energy disappears.
I have mentioned this in an article [1].
As an additional example, fig.1 depicts wave interference pattern generated by the source when reflected. According to a common physics approach,
there are no oscillations to the right from the source in a narrow strip, and, therefore, energy.
And it is not correct as energy can’t disappear, it only transforms from one form (state) to another (currently unknown).
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Disputable issue of matter and antimatter symmetry

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by
Aleksei Savchenko
A.A. Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Rogova 5A, Moscow, Russia,
sav-alex111@mail.ru +7-977-520-5299

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Abstract
Analyzed the common views on the origin matter and antimatter.
Proposed and rationalized the hypothesis, stating that the antimatter was not lost in The Big Bang as a result of annihilation but remained in the matter, i.e. matter itself (protons and neutrons) consists of particles and antiparticles.
Rationalized the possibility of electron placed inside a neutron and, as a conclusion, the possibility to influence the nuclear half-life.
Proposed the hypothesis regarding the origin and structure of electron, muon, proton, neutron and neutrino, regarding the nature of nuclear (strong) interaction and regarding the prevalence of stretching pressures in Physical Vacuum.
Proposed the mechanism of the expansion of the Universe by «swelling» of the Physical Vacuum energy structure itself and some conclusions of that model.
Analyzed the possible energy effects, resulting from the sharp change in the density of Physical Vacuum.
Proposed an alternative mechanism for the Relic radiation origin (microwave background radiation).
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Brief review on alternative physics – An alternative opinion on physics

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Aleksei Savchenko
A.A. Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Rogova 5A, Moscow, Russia,
sav-alex111@mail.ru +7-977-520-5299

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Introduction by V.B.Ivanov
General Director of A. A. Bochvar’s High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM)

Alternative ideas empower the scientific and technological progress.
Exactly now we need new approaches and solutions that will lead us to a qualitatively new level.
This has always been the definitive scientific principle, and it will stay so.
Even dubious solutions give rise to discussions where the grains of truth are born. Refusing is easy.
Understanding, finding grounds and defining new solutions is hard, but it is necessary.
We offer for discussion a summary of report by A. M.Savchenko who works at our Institute, on some new trends in (alternative) physics and its place in the general development of the scientific thought.
Some parts of this paper may be questionable, and they are not always backed up by the official opinion. Yet, this is a real initiative.
Let us discuss.

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Energy Nature of Configurational Entropy

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by
Aleksei Savchenko
A.A. Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Rogova 5A, Moscow, Russia,
sav-alex111@mail.ru +7-977-520-5299

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Abstract
It is shown, that the entropy of mixing is of the energy nature (not only statistical one, as the probability of state).
Energetic entropy processes (in ideal mixing) are not observable, because of their hidden nature (simultaneously occurs the emission and absorption of heat).
But they are reflected in the changes of energy condition of Physical Vacuum (PV).
A hypothesis is proposed, in which changes in the entropy of mixing are analyzed as linked with the interaction between matter and Physical Vacuum.
Experimental results were carried out of interaction between Physical Vacuum and material bodies in different energetic exposures, including distanced, which resulted in body mass reduction due to increase in energetic density of Physical Vacuum around them.
The same effect is observed during the increase of mixing entropy – it points out on its energetic nature, not only the measure of disorder.
So, the second law of thermodynamics, when applied to open systems, i.e. matter plus Physical Vacuum, gets additional physical meaning as the law of energy conservation.
A hypothesis is conceived to explain the antigravity effects from the conducted experiments.
There was an attempt to find correlation by the use of Lenz’s Rule between the rise in entropy and Universe expansion, and also some particularities of Universal expansion with possibility to exceed the speed of light.
A physical explanation of Nikolai Kozyrev’s experiments is proposed.
Methods of entropy and anti-entropy stream (flow) generation, arising in the forced mode use of vortex heat generators, were tested, as were practical uses of received effects for purification of solutions from additives and for metals melting at lower temperatures.
Probable energetic effects that appear at fast changes in Physical Vacuum density are analyzed.
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On the unification of the forces

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by
Rosemary Ainslie

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Abstract
The arguments in support of this magnetic field model are, of necessity, developed outside any standard frame of reference. This requirement is due to the unusual nature of the field’s concepts, which have no precedents within the standard model and this paper therefore precludes citations.

This 4-part paper details concepts and arguments in support of a non-standard magnetic field model, broadly outlined by the author in a 2-part paper published in the Journal of Nuclear Physics, (JONP), 2012 and titled ‘Proposed variation to Faraday’s Lines of Force to include a magnetic dipole in its structure’. This 4-Part paper expands on a proposed unification of the forces based on a primary magnetic force that underpins the weak force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force and the gravitational force.

It argues that magnetic fields comprise an underlying material structure of dipoles that have a fixed quotient of charge. Their wide range of size and velocity is determined by an inverse proportionality constant, the smaller the particle, the faster and vice versa. Their field assemblies are exquisitely structured to generate an orbital velocity in excess of light speed, which renders them invisible. This fundamental, dipolar material spans 10 dimensions all of which have one of three alternate time frames but which share a commonality in space.

Where the standard model precludes any defeat of the unity barrier this field model both predicts and requires this potential. Proof of postulate, more fully referenced in the conclusion to Part-4 of this paper was earlier established in the first of those JONP papers, titled Experimental evidence of a breach of unity measured on switched circuit apparatus. This paper published experimental evidence of a unity breach with anomalous negative wattage measurements.

The object here is to give a detailed account of the field concepts to encourage a wider review and then a testing of both this and earlier published claims. It is coupled with a hope that the field’s fuller potentials can then be enabled through a systematic unravelling of their mechanisms in line with these insights. The model is not complete, as critical aspects of both the strong nuclear force and the gravitational force require development and/or proof. Arguments in support of this model have been developed with the use of logic and reasoned accordingly. This should enable a wide dissemination of these concepts against a broad range of specializations and as required. Questions are resolved as they conform to principles of correspondence or to experimental measurements or both.
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On the unification of the forces

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Towards the exit from the middle ages

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by
Ch. Stremmenos
Retired Professor of the Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry
of the Faculty of Industrial Chemistry in the University of Bologna

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When it comes to energy, the first thing to consider is how little we know about it. It is defined as the ability to produce work ,. but beyond that, we are not able to describe all the relevant substantive aspects. We know that energy can take many forms (kinetic, thermal, chemical, biochemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, etc.). We also know that it is a fundamental quality, and a physical entity (… and maybe METAPHYSICAL …) of the Universe . And we know that energy and matter are closely linked and interchangeable to a certain extent (as expressed by Einstein’s most famous equation E=mc²)
We are also quite sure that the law of conservation of energy it’s real. In other words, energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed. Thus, the set of methods of use are constituted by systems that convert one form of energy into another that is for our most useful needs (eg thermal engines that generate mechanical work or electricity which in turn is available for a very high number of applications, … …). Now, we also know that quantum vacuum contains an enormous amount of energy in a primitive state. This huge amount of energy, calculated mathematically amounts to 10 ^ 113 joules per cubic meter that to realize this magnitude, we will refer to the phrase of the great physicist, award .Nobel Richard Feynman who finishing his tea, to say in front of the empty cup , to his disciples…. “There is enough energy in the space of this empty cup to evaporate all the oceans of our PLANET…!”
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Ch.Stremmenos – A way out of Middle Ages energy sources

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Christos Stremmenos

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Energy is a very fundamental physical property of the Universe.Rossi-Focardi-Stremmenos
It is defined, generically, as the ability to produce work; it can take many forms: kinetic, thermal, chemical, biochemical, electromagnetic, nuclear; may originate from matter: remember the Einstein equation E = mc2.

It is also contained, in a primitive form and enormous quantity, mathematically estimated to be of the order of 10113J/m3, in the quantum vacuum.

Richard Feynman, addressing to his students in front of an empty cup of tea made the famous statement: “There is enough energy in this empty cup to evaporate all the water in the oceans of our planet!”

Due to the many forms, our knowledge of all its properties is limited but its fundamental property, the conservation law, is well established.

In other words, energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed.

Thus, all methods exploiting energy, convert one form of energy into others more useful for our needs: thermal engines generate mechanical work or electricity in turn available for a very high number of applications.

By regarding the universe as a closed system, energy is constantly circulating: it flows with mechanisms predictable from quantum mechanics, in part experimentally confirmed, from the quantum vacuum to matter; is converted to one of the energy forms creating work and useful interactions; finally, spreads back to the quantum vacuum.
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Magnetism from iron’s nuclear structure

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by
Alan C. Folmsbee
Independent Researcher
1565 Haiku Road, Haiku, HI USA 96708
July 2, 2018

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Abstract

In this proposed theory, the nucleus of the element iron has a shape that causes ferromagnetism.

That shape also causes the stability that is the best of all elements.

The protons in iron make loop shapes around the exterior of the nucleus.

The loops are coaxial.

The iron nucleus has a cube of protons and neutrons at its core.

The faces of the cube are covered by pyramids of protons and neutrons.

All ferromagnetic elements have the coaxial loop structure like Fe.

No nonferrous elements have that shape, within tolerances.

Most of the properties of the elements are related to the geometries of the nuclei.

A new periodic table articulates the silhouettes of elements that were compared with the structure of the iron nucleus to be certain that all elements are consistent with the Pyramidal Cube Theory.

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Reasons why modern steam engines make sense as a future drive train in future vehicles

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Peter Platell
PhD, CTO, RANOTOR AB

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RANOTOR is founded by the former project leader of SAAB steam engine project during the 70’s. The last years RANOTOR has carried out project together with automotive industry for WHR (Waste Heat Recovery) and Royal Technology University of Stockholm

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There are several reasons why it should be well founded to claim that modern steam engine has a huge potential to offer attractive drivetrains for future vehicles.

  • Superior primary energy source flexibility (solar, electricity , biofuel )
  • Can form hybrids with ICE, Electric propulsion and fuel cells
  • Low tail pipe emissions when burning a fuel.
  • Possibility to harness intermittent renewable with a thermal battery
  • Regenerative engine braking
  • High part load efficiency (high average energy efficiency)
  • Low cost (no exotic expensive material and low mass of material normalized to power)
  • Attractive torque characteristic ( high low end torque, elastic torque = increased torque when lowering shaft speed)

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Passive cooling system for research reactors

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by
V.A. Uzikov, I.V. Uzikova

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Introduction
Research reactors include a wide range of civil and commercial installations, which, as a rule, are not used for power generation. Sometimes this category also includes experimental reactors, which can be more powerful than the research ones.

The main task of research reactors is to provide a source of neutrons for research and other purposes, and the process of their producing in the form of beams can be different depending on the purposes. The range of tasks that are set before these installations is wide, including analysis and testing of materials, production of radioisotopes. Among the applications are nuclear power, nuclear fusion researches, environmental studies, the development of new materials, the development of drugs and nuclear medicine.

As a rule, in such reactors circuits with forced cooling of the reactor core by the coolant pumped by pumps are used, but low-power reactors sometimes use a circuit with natural circulation of the heat carrier, for example, in the reactor IR-200 (Sevastopol, Crimea). Despite the advantages of the passive principle of reactor core cooling, it is practically not used because of the disadvantages of the circuits with lifting motion of the coolant in the core. Moreover, these schemes of heat removal from the reactor can not be called completely passive, since a secondary circuit with forced movement of the coolant is used.

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Saving steam costs in paper producing companies using the Ecat

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by
Ulrich W.A. Kranz

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Steam consumption in paper producing companies

In papermaking operations, the expense of drying paper with steam plays an important role.

Depending on the thickness of the paper, on the production speed and on the width of the paper web, about 100 t / h of steam are needed for the paper machines for drying the paper.

A ton of steam costs on average 18-23 euros. At around 8200 operating hours per year, at least 14,760,000 euros must be expended for the steam demand of 100 t / h.

With the heat generator Ecat QX 1 MW, these costs can be significantly reduced.

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The interaction of acoustic phonons and photons in the solid state

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by
Ian Douglas Winters
Bachelor of Science in Materials Science and Engineering
University of Tennessee

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When light and sound simultaneously pass through a medium, the acoustic phonons of the sound wave scatter the photons of the light beam.

This scattering of light from acoustic modes is called Brillouin scattering.

More specifically, Brillouin light scattering is the nonlinear, inelastic scattering of an incident optical field by thermally or acoustically excited elastic waves.

The nonlinear nature of the scattering is caused by the nonlinearity of the medium, particularly that part of the linearity expression that is related to acoustic phonons.

This type of scattering occurs when an optical wave in solid or liquid nledium interacts with density variations and diffracts, or changes its path.

These density variations may be due to acoustic modes or temperature gradients.

The first significant study of the interaction of light and sound was carried out by Mandelstam in 1918; however, he did not publish his work until 1926.

Brillouin, after whom the effect is named, independently predicted light scattering from acoustic waves in 1922.
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Working with theory about the Rossi Effect

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Carl-Oscar Gullstroem

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70-Working with theory about the Rossi Effect-1

 

 

– No strong magnets are found in nature. (on the surface of earth)
– Control current to enhance special strong directed magnetism in metals not found in nature
– Control electrons to enhance special strong directed nucleon-nucleon force not found in nature

 

70-Working with theory about the Rossi Effect-2

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