United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

 

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Magnetism from iron’s nuclear structure

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by
Alan C. Folmsbee
Independent Researcher
1565 Haiku Road, Haiku, HI USA 96708
July 2, 2018

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Abstract

In this proposed theory, the nucleus of the element iron has a shape that causes ferromagnetism.

That shape also causes the stability that is the best of all elements.

The protons in iron make loop shapes around the exterior of the nucleus.

The loops are coaxial.

The iron nucleus has a cube of protons and neutrons at its core.

The faces of the cube are covered by pyramids of protons and neutrons.

All ferromagnetic elements have the coaxial loop structure like Fe.

No nonferrous elements have that shape, within tolerances.

Most of the properties of the elements are related to the geometries of the nuclei.

A new periodic table articulates the silhouettes of elements that were compared with the structure of the iron nucleus to be certain that all elements are consistent with the Pyramidal Cube Theory.

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Reasons why modern steam engines make sense as a future drive train in future vehicles

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Peter Platell
PhD, CTO, RANOTOR AB

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RANOTOR is founded by the former project leader of SAAB steam engine project during the 70’s. The last years RANOTOR has carried out project together with automotive industry for WHR (Waste Heat Recovery) and Royal Technology University of Stockholm

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There are several reasons why it should be well founded to claim that modern steam engine has a huge potential to offer attractive drivetrains for future vehicles.

  • Superior primary energy source flexibility (solar, electricity , biofuel )
  • Can form hybrids with ICE, Electric propulsion and fuel cells
  • Low tail pipe emissions when burning a fuel.
  • Possibility to harness intermittent renewable with a thermal battery
  • Regenerative engine braking
  • High part load efficiency (high average energy efficiency)
  • Low cost (no exotic expensive material and low mass of material normalized to power)
  • Attractive torque characteristic ( high low end torque, elastic torque = increased torque when lowering shaft speed)

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Passive cooling system for research reactors

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by
V.A. Uzikov, I.V. Uzikova

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Introduction
Research reactors include a wide range of civil and commercial installations, which, as a rule, are not used for power generation. Sometimes this category also includes experimental reactors, which can be more powerful than the research ones.

The main task of research reactors is to provide a source of neutrons for research and other purposes, and the process of their producing in the form of beams can be different depending on the purposes. The range of tasks that are set before these installations is wide, including analysis and testing of materials, production of radioisotopes. Among the applications are nuclear power, nuclear fusion researches, environmental studies, the development of new materials, the development of drugs and nuclear medicine.

As a rule, in such reactors circuits with forced cooling of the reactor core by the coolant pumped by pumps are used, but low-power reactors sometimes use a circuit with natural circulation of the heat carrier, for example, in the reactor IR-200 (Sevastopol, Crimea). Despite the advantages of the passive principle of reactor core cooling, it is practically not used because of the disadvantages of the circuits with lifting motion of the coolant in the core. Moreover, these schemes of heat removal from the reactor can not be called completely passive, since a secondary circuit with forced movement of the coolant is used.

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Saving steam costs in paper producing companies using the Ecat

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by
Ulrich W.A. Kranz

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Steam consumption in paper producing companies

In papermaking operations, the expense of drying paper with steam plays an important role.

Depending on the thickness of the paper, on the production speed and on the width of the paper web, about 100 t / h of steam are needed for the paper machines for drying the paper.

A ton of steam costs on average 18-23 euros. At around 8200 operating hours per year, at least 14,760,000 euros must be expended for the steam demand of 100 t / h.

With the heat generator Ecat QX 1 MW, these costs can be significantly reduced.

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The interaction of acoustic phonons and photons in the solid state

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by
Ian Douglas Winters
Bachelor of Science in Materials Science and Engineering
University of Tennessee

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When light and sound simultaneously pass through a medium, the acoustic phonons of the sound wave scatter the photons of the light beam.

This scattering of light from acoustic modes is called Brillouin scattering.

More specifically, Brillouin light scattering is the nonlinear, inelastic scattering of an incident optical field by thermally or acoustically excited elastic waves.

The nonlinear nature of the scattering is caused by the nonlinearity of the medium, particularly that part of the linearity expression that is related to acoustic phonons.

This type of scattering occurs when an optical wave in solid or liquid nledium interacts with density variations and diffracts, or changes its path.

These density variations may be due to acoustic modes or temperature gradients.

The first significant study of the interaction of light and sound was carried out by Mandelstam in 1918; however, he did not publish his work until 1926.

Brillouin, after whom the effect is named, independently predicted light scattering from acoustic waves in 1922.
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Working with theory about the Rossi Effect

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by
Carl-Oscar Gullstroem

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70-Working with theory about the Rossi Effect-1

 

 

– No strong magnets are found in nature. (on the surface of earth)
– Control current to enhance special strong directed magnetism in metals not found in nature
– Control electrons to enhance special strong directed nucleon-nucleon force not found in nature

 

70-Working with theory about the Rossi Effect-2

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Lemaître’s Nebula or Primeval Atom?

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by Jacques Chauveheid

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Abstract
Contrasting with dark energy cosmology seemingly viewing the universe as a star whose gravitation exclusively acts on its own source, a two-body configuration leads to Schwarzschild’s cosmological time coupled with the negative source mass of a primeval black hole.

To the end, we follow Einstein’s geometric approach in his first (static) universe, hereafter referred to as Einstein´s universe (anterior to that with cosmological constant in 1917), whose 3-space metric in standard form is structurally identical to that in the spherical Robertson-Walker metric.

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Binuclear Atoms: a model to explain Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

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by
Paolo Accomazzi
E-mail: paolo.accomazzi@gmail.com
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Abstract
In this paper we show that Helium-like Hydrogen spectra obtained by Randell L. Mills and Ultra Dense Hydrogen obtained by Holmlid [2] are interpretable as experimental evidences of Binuclear Atoms.
The Hydrogen Binuclear Atom, a model proposed 25 years ago, is a metastable configuration in which the two nuclei are held together at a very short distance in an atom-like configuration.
This should be a peculiar con guration of the Hydrogen molecule where nuclei are characterized by a high kinetic energy, and nuclear motion is coupled with electronic motion.
This is a completely different model from the usual Born-Oppenheimer picture of atoms and molecules we are used to, where nuclei oscillate about their equilibrium positions and electronic motion is decoupled from the nuclear one.
The identification of Helium-like Hydrogen Spectra and Ultra Dense Hydrogen as Binuclear Atoms has a strong impact on one of the main objections to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR): the overcoming of the Coulomb barrier thus identifying a sound mechanism for the occurrence of LENR.
Far for being conclusive, this work has the only aim to take this hypothesis more seriously, and focus the attention of people interested in LENR mechanism on this subject.
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On the comparison of metals, heavy and toxics elements in waste petroleum of Egypt and Kuwait

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by
N.A.Mansour
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University
Zagazig, P.O.Box 44519, Egypt
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Nabil M.Hassan
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University
Zagazig, P.O.Box 44519, Egypt
Department of NORM Regulation, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS)
P.O.Box 114, Yusong, Daejeon 305-338, Republic of Korea
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S.A.Abd Elaal
Central Lab. for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis, Nuclear Research Centre
EAEA, Egypt
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M.Fayez-Hassan
Department of Experimental Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Research Centre
EAEA, Egypt
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Mohamed Saad Seoud
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University
Zagazig, P.O.Box 44519, Egypt
Calibration and Radiation Dosimetry Division, Radiation Protection Department
Ministry of Health, Kuwait
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Abstract
Petroleum waste of scale, sludge and sand that maintained various level of naturally occurring radioactive materials could also contain heavy and toxic elements which cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment so that determination of these elements in waste petroleum samples are important to refineries, industrial processes, waste disposal and transports.
Thus, the present work will focus on the evaluation the concentrations of metals, heavy and toxics elements in waste petroleum samples from petroleum companies located in Egypt and Kuwait using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Techniques.
6 samples of scale, sludge and sand were collected, 3 samples from Kuwait petroleum companies and 3 samples from Egypt as well.
More than 17 elements of metals, heavy elements and toxic metals of (Si, Cu, Al, S, K, Ca, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb, As, Br, Sr, Rh, Ba and Ti) were detected in the selected samples with various values.
All the studied samples had high concentrations of Fe, K, Ca, S and Si rather than the other elements.
The concentration of Iron in Egyptian samples was higher than in Kuwait samples whilst silicon and potassium were greater in Kuwait samples.
All the other elements were almost same in Egyptian and Kuwait samples.
Furthermore, the toxic element of barium was detected in Egyptian samples with high concentration but it was not detected in Kuwait samples (XRF).
The two measurement methods show good agreement, No significant differences.
The obtained results imply that the petroleum wastes need more monitoring in order to minimize the environmental pollution.
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Energy Deficit in Beta Decay Process

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by
George J Chang
Theoretical Physics Department
No. 1, Gong 1st Road, Cyuan Sing Industrial Park,
Hemei, Changhua County, Taiwan
E-mail: georgejchang@aol.com

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Abstract
This paper reports a constant of energy deficit of 271 keV in all β decay processes, when we compare the β decay Q-values together with the involved particles, electron and neutrino, with the calculation of the proton/neutron separation energy differences which is equivalent to the β decay process between mother and daughter nuclides. This result, after being verified theoretically with deduction from basic definition of proton/neutron separation energy and calculation of nuclear data with both in good agreement, implies that this energy deficit of 271 keV in all β decay processes is either the value of neutrino mass or, if the result of KATRIN experiment, which concluded that neutrino mass to be less than 2.05 eV, is correct, something related to undetected dark energy.
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The geometry intrinsic to motion, space and time

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by
Brent Whipple

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Part I. A Comprehensive Principle
1. The geometry of spacetime has to support objectivity. That is inescapable.
All of natural science must share a common grounding in the reality of nature.
Also the mathematics we have discovered and use to describe the reality of nature can only arise out of, and so can only refer to, the same natural reality.
Natural science and mathematics have a common foundation, they spring from a common source.
Since this reference of the complex to the simple has been realized, the quest to understand and describe our universe has become a quest for an inferred principle that comprehends all of evolution and therefore can organize the apparent diversity of nature and affect the entire course of evolution.
Because of this the quest to understand nature has become the quest for the initial condition of the universe, that is, for the initial appearance of objective reality which we think of as spacetime.
All the mysteries of the evolution of the universe are bound up with the unknown, foundational nature of spacetime.
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Nickel – the ultimate substitute of coal, oil and uranium

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by

U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, Telangana, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com

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Abstract
Based on the principle of conservation of energy and from the well known nuclear fusion and fission reactions it is possible to guess that, the E-CAT hidden energy may be in the form of binding of protons and neutrons of the Nickel, Hydrogen and Lithium atomic nuclei.
In view of the recently developed compact 1MW E-CAT power plant designed by the Leonardo corporation, Nickel can certainly be considered as the ultimate substitute of Coal, Oil and Uranium in near future.
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Understanding the discrete nature of angular momentum of electron in hydrogen atom with (3G,2e) model of final unification

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, Telangana, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com

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Abstract
In the early publications, with reference to final unification, the authors suggested that

1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.72058686E-19 C.

2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’.

3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329560807E28 m3/kg/sec2.

4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335472E37 m3/kg/sec2. Based on these concepts, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of ‘discrete’ angular momentum of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, estimated value of Newtonian gravitational constant is GN~6.67985603E-11 m3/kg/sec2.
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Plasma electrolysis as foundation for Russian E-Cat heat generator

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by
Yu.N. Bazhutov
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A.I. Gerasimova
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V.P. Koretskiy

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After Andrea Rossi’s Heat Generator (E-cat) presentation with demonstrations of excess heat up to 600 % [1, 2] we have repeated such experiments with similar cell in Russia. As a result by us it has been received the considerable exit of neutrons (~500000) in serial and x-ray radiation [3, 4, 5, 6]. We presented them at the Russian annual Conferences on Cold Nuclear Transmutation [3, 4] and at the International Conference in Korea [6]. However we didn’t find excess heat on these installations. Therefore we decided to return to a previous study of plasma electrolysis on the Fakel-1 installations [7] and the Fakel-2 [8,9], where we already had indications on existence of nuclear radiation and excess heat in this cell mode. On the modernized installation Fakel-3 with plasma electrolysis the convincing evidence of nuclear processes was obtained. It was provided by Erzion catalysis [10] with the large excess heat. The received results have provided the positive decision on our International patent [11]. Here we present the investigation results of plasma electrolysis with anode gas discharge in usual water. In our experiments there have been used different nuclear & calorimeter diagnostic methods. Numerous demonstrations of their nuclear nature have been obtained in full accordance with Cold Nuclear Transmutation Erzion Catalysis model predictions [12-17]. In much series there were regularly demonstrated large excess heat generations (< 700%). This can provide creating of ourself Russian E-Cat (Erzion Catalyzer) Heat Generator & new perspective nuclear energetics.
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Use of drum film devices in radioactive waste conditioning technology

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V.A. Uzikov
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I.V.Uzikova

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Introduction
So far, the common practice of radioactive waste treatment in Russia was controlled temporary storage – the so-called “procrastinated decision”. In Russia, the total amount of accumulated liquid radioactive waste (hereinafter LRW) is 477 million, and 77 millions of solid radioactive waste. However, as the world and Russian practice shows, that the controlled storage of radioactive waste in the long term results their accumulation and is not acceptable as a strategy of RAW treatment. Such strategy does not lead to the final safe solution of the problem, but requires the permanent overhead costs without clear prospect [1].

Thus, high production complexes for LRW treatment are needed. Key consumers interested in of liquid radioactive waste treatment plants are:

• enterprises of spent fuel treatment;
• existing nuclear power plants with power and research reactors;
• enterprises involved to decommissioning of boats and ships with nuclear power plants;
• enterprises involved to decommissioning of nuclear power plants and research reactor
installations;
• enterprises involved in the liquidation of the consequences of nuclear accidents
(Chernobyl, Fukushima , etc.).

Nowadays, mainly thermal and sorption methods are used for treatment of liquid radioactive waste. Using these methods, the main part of liquid radioactive waste, produced during the operation of nuclear installations of various purposes and other facilities using radioactive substances, is treated. These methods cannot be called original or specific for the treatment of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW), because they were taken from various conventional industries and modified. Mainly these are methods, usually used in purification, treatment and desalination of water.
For implementing of treatment methods of non-nuclear industry and their modification, the specific requirements of industries related to radiation must be taken into account [2]:

• leak tightness of the equipment, excluding the possibility of radioactive contamination of buildings, staff and the environment;
• feasibility of the equipment operation to minimize the need for maintenance services in the radiation conditions, which require complicated and expensive works of equipment decontamination.

The most universal method for treatment of almost all types of LRW is a thermal method, in which LRW solution is evaporated to concentrate radioactive products in a small volume.
Practice of LRW treatment shows that the main source of problems in evaporation equipment are the heat exchange pipes. During the operation, their surface is covering inevitably by sediments, which have to be removed periodically by chemical washing, with interruption of the treatment process and at the same time with producing a large amount of secondary LRW. This inevitability is caused by evaporator’s design including heat exchange tubes – the process of sedimentation of the tubes cannot be prevented, it can only be decreased by using different methods: increasing the circulation velocity in heat exchange tubes or addition of special chemicals additives. The inevitability of foam-and-droplets entrainment from the evaporator is also caused by its design, so the additional special equipment have to be used for steam and condensate purification from radionuclides. Moreover, it is necessary to perform periodically the mechanical cleaning of heat exchange tubes which leads to important radiation doses to personnel.
All these problems existing in LRW evaporation technology are well known and studied, and some alternative methods are considered in [2], but it is concluded that these methods have a low productivity and heat transfer because of the lack of an organized circulation of evaporated solution [2].
The ideal comprehensive solution of the problem of LRW treatment is to create a continuous LRW evaporation technology with cementation of the concentrate at the same time, and the possible addition of used sorbents and sludge to the resulting cement compound. The main factor limiting the use of evaporation technology is a high energy costs, but with the appearance at energy market such installations as E-Cat, this problem disappears.
For comprehensive solution of the problems of LRW concentration and its subsequent cementation it is proposed to establish a technological process based on the two following principles:

1. To perform the process of LRW concentration in the evaporator equipment, that helps to prevent droplet entrainment and excludes degradation of technological parameters in time (to exclude interruptions in work of evaporation equipment due to fouling of the heating surface).
2. To make the processes of evaporation (secondary evaporation) and conditioning of LRW (inclusion in cement matrix) sequental and continuous, thereby eliminating the need for a large number of intermediate containers and dosing of separate portions.
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Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

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Analysis of the performances of sealed timing resistive plate chambers

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by
Khokon Hossen
Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
E-mail: khokon.pme@gmail.com
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Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), that were introduced by R. Santonico and R. Cardarelli in 1981, are gas ionization chambers made with resistive electrodes separated by precision spacers.
Typical gas gap range from a few hundred micrometers to several millimeters wide.
Timing Resistive Plate Chambers (tRPCs) were introduced in 2000 by P.Fonte, A.Smirnitsky and M.C.S Williams and has, since then, reached Time Resolutions better than 50 ps (σ) with efficiencies above 99% for Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP).
In this research work, we describe the main features of gas detectors and the different types of RPCs and their properties.
We describe a cheap and easy to built sealed tRPCs and we explain how we have built it.
We describe the main results we have got operating the sealed tRPCs built in the laboratory.

To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

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by
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U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
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Introduction
In this paper by highlighting the following 28 major short comings of modern big bang cosmology the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way [1-3].
From now onwards instead of focusing on ‘big bang cosmology’ it is better to concentrate on ‘black hole cosmology’.
Its validity can be well confirmed from a combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena.
It can be suggested that, there exists one variable physical quantity in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude can be considered as a “standard measure” of the present “cosmic rate of expansion”.
Michael E. McCulloch says [4]: For an observer in an expanding universe there is a maximum volume that can be observed, since beyond the Hubble distance the velocity of recession is greater than the speed of light and the redshift is infinite: this is the Hubble volume.
Its boundary is similar to the event horizon of a black hole because it marks a boundary to what can be observed.
This means that it is reasonable to assume that Hawking radiation is emitted at this boundary both outwards and inwards to conserve energy, and any wavelength that does not fit exactly within this size cannot be allowed for the inwards radiation, and therefore also for the outwards radiation.
According to Hawking, the mass of a black hole is linearly related to its temperature or inversely-linearly related to the wavelength of the Hawking radiation it emits.
Therefore, for a given size of the universe there is a maximum Hawking wavelength it can have and a minimum allowed gravitational mass it can have.
If its mass was less than this then the Hawking radiation would have a wavelength that is bigger than the size of the observed universe and would be disallowed.
The minimum mass it predicts is encouragingly close to the observed mass of the Hubble volume.
Thus it is possible to model the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon.
According to Tinaxi Zhang [5-7], the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses and gradually grew up through a super massive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes.
According to N. J. Poplawski [8-11], the Universe is the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole and began with the formation of the black hole from a supernova explosion in the center of a galaxy.
He theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.
Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.
Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.
The rotation of a black hole would influence the space-time on the other side of its event horizon and results in a preferred direction in the new universe.
Most recently cosmologists Razieh Pourhasan, Niayesh Afshordi and Robert B. Manna have proposed [12] that the Universe formed from the debris ejected when a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole – a scenario that would help to explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.

Aether Structure for unification between gravity and electromagnetism

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by
Wladimir Guglinski
retired, author of the Quantum Ring Theory
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In the book Quantum Ring Theory I had proposed a double-field model for elementary particles (composed by two concentric fields), therefore a field model fundamentally different of the mono-field model considered in the Quantum Electrodynamics  (QED).
The inner field, named principal field Sp, gyrates and induces the outer field, named secondary field Sn.  In the book, published in 2006, it was considered that the outer field Sn gyrates.
In this model, the outer field Sn is responsible for the electric charge of the particles as the electron, the proton, etc.
Later in 2010 I changed the  double-field model, by considering that the outer field Sn does not gyrates.  However, in 2014, after a long discussion with the reader Mr.Joe in the Comments of the Journal of Nuclear Physics, he drew our attention to two key points:
  1. An outer field Sn induced by the rotation of an inner field Sp must have rotation.
  2. A mono-field model violates the monopolar nature of the electric charge in the even-even nuclei with Z=N, because they have null magnetic moment, but as all the nuclei have rotation then the even-even nuclei with Z=N would have to have non-null magnetic moment (because the rotation of the positive charge of the proton would have to induce a magnetic moment). Therefore QED violates the monopolar nature of the electric charge in the case of the even-even nuclei with Z=N.
  3. A double-field model in which the outer field Sn gyrates would have to induce a magnetic field in the case of even-even nuclei with Z=N, if we consider the field Sn in the classical sense of Euclidian space.  But the space considered in Quantum Ring Theory is not Euclidian, in order that the rotation of the field Sn never induces magnetic fields, and this is the reason why the even-even nuclei with Z=N have null magnetic moment.
Here we will analyse these questions in details.
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