Binuclear Atoms: a model to explain Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

.
by
Paolo Accomazzi
E-mail: paolo.accomazzi@gmail.com
.

Read the whole article
Download the ZIP file
.
Abstract
In this paper we show that Helium-like Hydrogen spectra obtained by Randell L. Mills and Ultra Dense Hydrogen obtained by Holmlid [2] are interpretable as experimental evidences of Binuclear Atoms.
The Hydrogen Binuclear Atom, a model proposed 25 years ago, is a metastable configuration in which the two nuclei are held together at a very short distance in an atom-like configuration.
This should be a peculiar con guration of the Hydrogen molecule where nuclei are characterized by a high kinetic energy, and nuclear motion is coupled with electronic motion.
This is a completely different model from the usual Born-Oppenheimer picture of atoms and molecules we are used to, where nuclei oscillate about their equilibrium positions and electronic motion is decoupled from the nuclear one.
The identification of Helium-like Hydrogen Spectra and Ultra Dense Hydrogen as Binuclear Atoms has a strong impact on one of the main objections to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR): the overcoming of the Coulomb barrier thus identifying a sound mechanism for the occurrence of LENR.
Far for being conclusive, this work has the only aim to take this hypothesis more seriously, and focus the attention of people interested in LENR mechanism on this subject.
.
Read the whole article
Download the ZIP file
.

59 comments to Binuclear Atoms: a model to explain Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

  • Alessandro Coppi

    In occasione dell’arrivo di Irma, qualcuno potrebbe pensare di approfittare del caos per accedere al laboratorio al fine di rubare segreti industriali.
    Questo è un rischio da valutare, non rimarrei da solo senza adeguati mezzi di dissuasione e personale “specializzato”.
    English:
    Irma could be an occasion for espionage in your factory, due to the foreseeable mess

  • Andrea Rossi

    StudentG:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • StudentG

    Climate change is a fact, if they say change is abnormal. I would suggest that anything that not changes is more likely to be looked at from a narrow point of view, especially with large scientific and touchable (e.g. oil) evidence that climate has been changing as far as we can tell. Going into deeper detail than media outlets and sponsored research there is scientific evidence for and against climate change and clear scientific and touchable evidence for negative effects of pollution on living beeings.
    In my point of view scientific thinking works very beautifully in a narrow scientific set up with limited variables involved and fails miserably in almost any real world interpretation.

    For example big bang theory is very unlikely from a logical point of view as we are here, so everything created from a single vibration is not very feasible.
    Also expansion of the universe is very unlikely, because where is the universe expanding into and where are it’s boundaries at the first place?
    From a scientific point of view the given explanations are very logical, but from worldly thinking there is just no telling I believe.

    Scientific thinking is very likely to be paradoxical at it’s root, but for a paradoxical thinker to notice his paradoxical thinking is not very easy, as he would have to recognize himself outside of scientific thinking.
    I think modern society has been fooling itself by the science god from time to time

  • Andrea Rossi

    McClintock:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    @Frank Acland,

    i) Human induced climate change is a fact, so fossil fuels have to be phased out as soon as possible.

    ii) Present nuclear technology is not clean enough, especially because of the problem of the high radioactive and long lasting waste (caused by the actinides in the waste, that have to be stored and isolated from the environment for more than 200.000 years, which is a geological time scale, knowing also that every 100.000 years there’s an ice age, which puts lot of pressure (masses of ice) on the geological layers they want to store the nuclear waste in, accompanied with big see level change, so geological layers could crack, and geological water could wash out the dangerous actinides.

    iii) In Belgium and in whole Europe, also in the USA, almost all nuclear power plants are old and are operated beyond their normal lifespan. This gives extra costs (and makes them less competitive) and is dangerous.

    iv) Solar and wind energy are variable and destabilize the grid, so we need the E-Cat Quark X as well in stand by for the renewable sources, as well as base load in the energy mix to replace present old nuclear power plants.

    v) In Europa we plan to phase out combustion engines in cars, and want to replace them by electrical driven cars, so we need more electricity from the grid.

    vi) Because of the phasing out of present old nuclear power plants, we will have problems to produce enough energy, so we need the E-Cat Quark X ASAP to take over (as base load and as well as stand-by for the renewable sources).

    Kind Regards,
    Daniel.

  • McClintock

    Dr Rossi –

    This statement by Stephen on eCatWorld pretty much sums it up for us:

    “Personally I think Andrea Rossi is obviously a thoughtful person has his own strong views and opinions and In my view has a good moral compass. I think he wants the ECat to be something beautiful and helpful that’s why he wants to take care of its distribution. I think it has little to do with personal enrichment through money or even fame but everything to do with taking care his invention is for good and is in good hands. Sometimes it’s hard to let something like that free into the world but eventually its time”

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    People will buy the E-Cats if they will save money with them.
    We will have to make it known.
    How?
    Many options are there. Our marketing experts will help.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    StudentG suggests that the E-Cat’s impact will be minimal because of the human habit to ignore anything new, and the wide saturation of solar It would seem to me that for the E-Cat to break out, there would be a need for publicity of its benefits. How do you expect to generate widespread interest in the E-Cat?

    Thank you very much,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    StudentG:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • StudentG

    Hi,

    I would suggest that both NCY and Rossi are not necessarly right, because both rely on theory.
    What is actually observed is millions of people working in solar, wind and other “renewable” or “recycleable” resources by the day, reducing prices and increasing efficiencies multiple times a year.
    I hope that this technology will be understood from a scientific point of view, but it´s actual importance and usefullness in this mighty market economy will be minimal, not because it´s not a great invention, but time is running way to fast and there is not enough interest because of human habit to neglect anything out of the box for potentially a very long time.
    Current solar technologies are in most places more competetiv than coal and gas beginning from this year, with still very very high potential for example in hetero junction solar cells and thin film such as perovskite cells etc. Similar is true for wind and in a few years with fuell cells. Creative thinking is just way to powerful.

    I also hope that I will be wrong with this opinion 😉

  • Andrea Rossi

    NCY:
    Thank you for your attention to our work, but your theory is wrong for two reasons:
    1- we will deliver our technology and are working very hard on this
    2- to give away the IP would be a capital error, discouraging serious investments for a real development
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • NCY

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I have watched your story for many years now, and am disappointed. While progress is being made, it is being made by you alone, because you alone have the secret to highly efficient LENR.
    If others had the knowledge you have, much more progress could have been made.
    Your recent comments on the topic of the difficulties of commercialization, and the difficulties of producing to market without reverse engineering of your products, are concerning. These comments give the impression that you intend to hold your knowledge hostage until you alone can get this technology to a high level of commercial production by yourself, and only licence commercial plants, all for the sole purpose of making money before this eventual reverse engineering and copying by the chinese.
    This is barely feasible, and the reverse engineering will occur anyway. All it results in is a delay in LENR getting to market.

    LENR is the technology mankind needs NOW, not in five years when you’ve figured out a way to make money off of it. We are all getting old, and there comes a time that you have to ask, “How do I want to be remembered?”

    At the moment it seems that you are well on the track to being remembered as a man who discovered the golden goose, but hid it in his basement until the day he died for fear that someone else would steal his golden eggs and raise a flock of golden geese. While the pursuit of entrepreneurship is admirable, and you feel that something is owed to you for this discovery, your actions have directly led to the delayed development of LENR by holding these secrets to yourself.

    You could be remembered as the man who invented the technology that solved the world’s energy crisis, and saved the world by gifting this technology to it, but you won’t be able to do this by trying to commercialize the device yourself. Take a leaf out of Elon Musk’s book and release your secrets to the world, so that researchers around the globe can join you in your tinkering and develop the next wave of clean energy devices.

    Money is just money, you can’t take it with you to the grave, but respect lasts forever. Which do you want?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    Grazie! Grave non saperlo per il padre dell’E-Cat.
    Ricambio i calorosi saluti,
    A.R.

  • Alessandro Coppi

    Un gruppo di gatti è chiamato “colonia felina”

    Calorosi saluti
    Alessandro Coppi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lars:
    Premature, besides, we are still in an R&D stage.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lars

    Dear Dr. Rossi.
    You mentioned your partners.
    Can you tell what company has the right to sell the E-Cat QX where?
    Thank you.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    The data will be given during the demo.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    Very interesting! So you are in, albeit very controlled environment, almost field testing! Good to know! Very happy to hear that!
    May I ask, if you can share, Ecat surface temperature, water/steam temperature and so on?

    Best regards,
    Marco.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    The E-Car QX is working undr load. We are heating water by means of a heat exchanger.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,

    You stated that the SSM now can be 70% of the time. I wonder if this result can be achieved also under load.

    Let me explain.

    You have a nail sized object that produce about 20W, reaching, supposedly in air, a certain temperature.

    This is due to the thermal equilibrium.

    Now if this nail has to heat a load, e.g. water, the equilibrium temperature will be much lower, provided that the nail produces the same 20W.

    Questions:

    – Is the produced power always the same, namely 20W, so the equilirium temperature depends on the load? Or is the equilibrium temperature that is maintained moreless the same and so with higher load the “nail” produces more energy?

    – In the likely case in which the power is moreless the same and so the equilibrium temperature depends on the load, does the percentage of the time in SSM lower, raise or remain the same at lower temperature?

    Best regards,
    Marco.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lars:
    About 70% of the time.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Lars

    Dear Dr. Rossi
    How much of the time can the E-Cat QX be in ssm now?
    Thank you.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giorgio:
    Thank you for your insight.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giorgio

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    In your paper “Nucleon polarizability and long range strong force from σI=2 meson exchange potential”, I have noted an interesting point on the role of electron as “carrier of the nucleon”:

    “A less probable alternative to the long range potential is if the e-N coupling
    in the special EM field environment would create a strong enough binding to
    compare an electron with a full nuclide. In this hypothesis, no constraints on
    the target nuclide are set, and nucleon transition to excited states in the target
    nuclide should be possible.
    In other words these two views deals with the electrons role. One is as a
    carrier of the nucleon and the other is as a trigger for a long range potential
    of the nucleon”.

    Now, in the Iwamura experiment the CaO layer is hundreds of atomic layers far from the area near the surface where the atoms to be transmuted are deposited or implanted. Therefore, it is important to find a mechanism that explains the action at a distance and the role of CaO, the breaking of the Coulomb barrier and the usual absence of intense nuclear radiation typical of the LENR.

    An interesting hypothesis might arise from considering the formation of ultra-dense deuterium near the calcium oxide layer, where the high difference in work function between Pd and CaO favors the formation of a dense electron layer (SEL).

    Ultra-dense deuterium “atoms” are picometric structures, formed by a deuteron and an electron, that can easily migrate to the area where the nuclei to be transmuted (Cs or Sr) have been implanted. In this case the electrons can be seen as the “carriers” of the deuterons. A quite similar concept has been proposed by G. Bettini in the JONP paper “How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?”

    This hypothesis seems to me more realistic than the hypothesis of formation of di-neutrons from a nuclear capture of the electron, considering that the neutron mass is much higher than the sum of proton and electron masses.
    Ultra-dense deuterium “mini-atoms”, having no charge but a relatively “long range” high magnetic momentum, according to this hypothesis, may be considered good candidates as the very cause of the transmutation of Cs in Pr and Sr in Mo.

    Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lard:
    No.
    The problem has been caused by the control system that caused an overheating, but we did not have damages. We must put two independent circuits.
    Resolved.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lars

    Dear Dr. Rossi.
    Did the now resolved problems with E-Cat QX you mentioned, caused the goal of reaching sigma 5 to be interrupted?
    Can you say anything of what kind of problem it was?
    Thank you.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giorgio:
    The heat is produced where and when it is necessary, independently from the heat source. Our source does not produce carbon dioxyde and other pollutants, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giorgio

    First of all, congratulations for your work, I’ve been following this story for six years now and I hope it’s the energy revolution I dream of.
    A question, with a new, cheap source of energy, is not the risk that we will considerably increase the thermal energy released into the environment?
    Of course, with new energy limits, there will also be applications to overcome this.
    Or are my expectations too high and your invention will not be so life-changing?
    Best Regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lars:
    No, there is not.
    Yes, we are selling only 1 MW plants so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lars

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    is there a customer that has a working E-Cat plant today already?
    How much is it to but one today for the ones allowed to but one?
    Are all the plants you will sell now 1 MW plants?
    Thank you.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lars:
    No, but it is a well consolidated technology: to make electricity with steam is a practice that doesn’t imply experimentation. All the formulas are there.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lars

    Dear Dr. Rossi.
    Have you ever tried to produce electricity with an E-Cat and a carnot cycle?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mark:
    We are piling up 20 modules.
    Today we worked all the day on the apparatus for the demonstration, it is working.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    You say that you are increasing the power. Is this be combining multiple E-CAT QX’s together. Could you give an indication of how many you will now show at the demonstration?

    thanks

    Mark

  • Andrea Rossi

    Piero:
    We want just make a demo of our E-Cat QX.
    Period.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Piero

    Dear Andrea, I was wondering what, in your own mind, should be result of the coming demonstration of the e-cat QX.
    1. Provide hints to all the labs and individuals trying to replicate your effect
    2. Convince some nay-sayers (uhm…)
    3. Please your existing supporters (uhm…)
    4. Attract potential customers
    5. Attract potential investors
    6. Attract industrial partners (car manufacturers, utility companies, you name it ….)
    7. Revamp the interest of the (still skeptical) scientific community
    8. Make a splash with the general public through the media (CNN, CBS, WSJ…)
    Thanks, all the best

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paolo:
    Thank you for your sustain.
    The email list is always valid and you can change email when you want.
    When we will start in Europe, we will start also in Italy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paolo

    I am Italian and I am one of the first to believe in you. When do you think I have it in Italy? Is the email list always valid? Can I change mail and how can I do it ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Coco:
    It is no more my business.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Coco

    Dr Rossi,

    What happened to the $50,000,000 invested in IH by the British Investment company Woodford
    on the basis of IH having the US rights for the ecat which they now no longer have?

    could you shed light on this?

    Best.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mark:
    Single.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    1. Is the E-Cat QX demo using a single 20 watt module or multiple together?

    2. If multiple units, will they be in a production ready design, a pre-production design, or a prototype design nothing like the product which will goto market?

    Many Thanks

    Mark Saker

  • Andrea Rossi

    Janet:
    I think so.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Janet

    We are very enthusiast of your demo with the Ecat QX.
    Will it be in live streaming?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mark:
    I see what I can do!
    Thank you for your kind sustain,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark

    Dr Rossi,

    Congratulations on both the settlement and your medical recovery, I am very much looking forward to the presentation on the E-cat QX in October. I selfishly request the 27th October for the presentation. After so many faithful years following your progress, it would be a very nice birthday present!!

    I would say good luck, but you do not need it :)

  • Andrea Rossi

    msclvr:
    I agree
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • msclvr

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    “There is not one miracle solution to combat climate change: there are solutions which we must learn to operate together …
    allowing nature’s energies, as well as those of our society, to collaborate …”
    Victorien Erussard, Captain of the hydrogen vessel “Energy Observer”
    http://www.energy-observer.org/

    Warm regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    msclvr:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • msclvr

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    better to target zero emissions than 100% renewable energy ( The Economist , Jul 13th 2017 )
    https://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21725001-goal-after-all-curb-global-warming-not-favour-particular-technologies-better

    Best regards.

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>