Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism

Prof. Ch. E. Stremmenos


Leaving aside for the moment any rigorous theoretical approach based on quantitative analyses, I would like to focus, qualitatively only, on the subject of shielding of dispersed protons in the electronic cloud within the crystal structure. The Focardi-Rossi approach considers this shielding a basic requirement for surpassing the Coulomb barrier between the hydrogen nuclei (protons) and the Nickel lattice nuclei, resulting into release of energy, which is a fact, through a series of exothermic nuclear processes leading to transmutations, decays, etc.

The reasoning presented in this note is based on elementary considerations of

·    The hydrogen atom (Bohr) in its fundamental energy state
·    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle
·    The high speed of nuclear reactions (10ˆ-20 sec)

The hydrogen atom (Bohr) in its fundamental state, in the absence of energy perturbations, remains indefinitely in its stationary state shown below. This is due to the in-phase wave (de Broglie), which follows the “circular” path of its single orbiting electron. The wave length and radius of the “circular” path are determined by the fundamental energy state of this atom.

When hydrogen atoms come in contact with the metal (Ni), they abandon their stationary state as they deposit their electrons in the conductivity band of the metal, and due to their greatly reduced volume, compared to that of their atom, the hydrogen nuclei (naked protons) readily diffuse into the defects of the nickel crystalline structure as well as in tetrahedral or octahedral void spaces of the crystal lattice.

It should be underlined that, in addition to the deposited hydrogen electrons, in the nickel mass included are also electrons of the chemical potential of the metal. Jointly these electrons constitute the conductivity electronic cloud, distributed in energy bands (Fermi), and quasi free to move throughout the metallic mass.

In this dynamic state of “non-localized” plasma, based on the uncertainty principle (Heisenberg),

it is conceivable that, for a very short time period (e.g.  10ˆ-18 sec), a series of neutral mini atoms of hydrogen could be formed, in an unstable state, of various size and energy level, distributed within the Fermi band, which is enlarged due to the very short time (Heisenberg).

The neutral mini-atoms of high energy and very short wave length – which is in phase with the “cyclic” orbit (de Broglie) – are statistically captured be the nickel nuclei of the crystal structure with the speed of nuclear reactions (10ˆ-20 sec).

For these mini-atoms to fuse with the nickel nuclei, apart from their neutral character for surpassing the Coulomb barrier, they must have dimensions smaller than 10ˆ-14 m, where nuclear cohesion forces, of high intensity but very short range, are predominant. It is assumed that only a percentage of such atoms satisfy this condition (de Broglie).

The above considerations are based only on an intuitive approach and I trust this phenomenon could be tackled in a systematic and integrated way through the “theory of time dependent perturbations” by employing the appropriate Hamiltonian, which includes time:

The mechanism proposed by Focardi – Rossi, verified by mass spectroscopy data, which predicts transmutation of a nickel nucleus to an unstable copper nucleus (isotope), remains in principle valid. The difference is that inside the unstable copper nucleus, produced from the fusion of a hydrogen mini-atom with a nickel nucleus, is trapped the mini-atom electron (β-), which in my opinion undergoes in-situ annihilation, with the predicted (Focardi-Rossi) decay β+ of the new copper nucleus.

The β+ and β- annihilation (interaction of matter and anti-matter) would lead to the emission of a high energy photon, γ, (Einstein) from the nucleus of the now stable copper isotope and a neutrin to conserve the lepton number. However, based on the principle of conservation of momentum, as a result of the backlash of this nucleus, the photon energy γ is divided into kinetic energy of this nucleus of large mass (heat) and a photon of low frequency.

Furthermore, it should be noted that the system does not exhibit the Mössbauer* phenomenon for two reasons:

1.  The copper nucleus is not part of the nickel crystal structure and behaves as an isolated atom in quasi gaseous state
2.  Copper, as a chemical element, does not exhibit the Mössbauer phenomenon.

In conclusion, it should be underlined that the copper nucleus thermal perturbation, as a result of its mechanical backlash(heat), is transferred to its encompassing nickel lattice and propagated, by in phase phonons (G. Preparata), through the entire nano-crystal. This could explain why in cold fusion the released energy is mainly in the form of heat and the produced (low) γ radiation can be easily shielded.


Prof. Ch. E. Stremmenos   (ATHENS,  DIC. 1910)

236 comments to Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Fine,
    Your comments are always useful suggestions. Yes, I think you are right. But also, continuing to look at the Nature as an inspiration model, think to the stars formed by the dark matter.
    Warm Regards,

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. Rossi,

    Thanks for your very interesting chat and interview at Ny Teknik (Sweden) yesterday.

    The Earth’s core is made of Iron and Nickel, or as J. Marvin Herndon proposes, Nickel Silicide.

    ( http://understandearth.com/prsl1979.pdf )

    With so much Nickel, is it possible the Earth’s core supports nuclear reactions similar to those of the Energy Catalyzer? Not at the same temperature or pressure, of course.

    This may seem to be a strange question, but there has been a natural (not man-made) Uranium reactor (in Gabon), there ought to be natural Nickel reactors.
    Maybe the Earth itself is that example.


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear “HRG”:
    We have tested many compositions, but with Ni we got, so far, the results. We are continuing anyway the research, and also we have made many patent applications refarding the possible variations, disclosing the results obtained.
    Warm regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • HRG

    Dr. Rossi:
    Do you think that your process could be generalized to work with elements beyond nickel?

  • V. Godbole


    In addition to that it is necessary to postulate that the strong-force center/source (Color-Flavor forces) of the baryon and its EM-force (electromagnetic force) center/source can go apart, that they can move separately from one another. That is an additional postulate.

  • V. Godbole

    Respected Dr. Rossi

    Another possibility of overcoming the Coulomb barrier is due to the smearing of the wave functions. If the charges of two protons are smeared over an area of (1Å)^2 each then the (repulsive) potential energy is reduced by a factor of 10^-7. This means a fusion temperature of less than 1000 K (< 1/10 of a Volt). A fusion catastrophe is however prevented by the presence of electrons, which act as fusion-preventers. Is such an explanation possible/valid?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Godbole:
    I am studying your analysis. Thank you.
    Warm Regards,

  • V. Godbole

    Resp. Dr. Rossi

    The Heisenberg uncertainty relationship can be used to indicate the possibility of a charged particle behaving as if chargeless as follows:

    the uncertainty relation ΔE*Δt ~ h/2 leads to:

    Δ(Vq)* Δt ~ h/2 with E=energy=Vq=(mv^2)/2
    v=speed of particle
    V*(Δq)* Δt ~ h/2

    since the charge q is quantized therefore Δq=e

    Ve*Δt ~ h/2

    this gives in typical numbers (as an example)
    (4*10^-2)*(1.60*10^-19)*(10^-13) ~ 6.62*10^-34
    =V =e =Δt =h

    1Volt ~ 11604Kelvin
    hence 4*10^-2=4/100=1/25 volt ~ 464 K = 191°C ~ 200°C

    v=√(2Ve/m) = √(h/(Δt*m)) = 2*10^3 meters/second

    i.e. speed of Mach 6-7
    with m=mass of particle (here the proton)

    frequency of related photons ~ 1/Δt=10^13 Hz i.e. in the infrared range (no gammas or x-rays)

    Δx=Δt*v=10^-13 *2*10^3 =2*10^-10 m= 2 Å
    = distance travelled by particle/proton as if chargeless

    This can explain how a charged particle (proton) of 1/25 volts ~ 200°C energy can enter any atoma and then the nucleus without experiencing any Coulomb barrier.

    We need a more rigorous QED (Quantum Electro Dynamics) analysis for this. We need charge annihilation and charge creation operators to describe this.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear “HRG”:
    In the chemical processes you are talking of there are absolutely not the conditions we put in the reactor: I mean conditons of Nickel powder treatment, pressure, temperature, presence of catalyzers, and many other issues. Luckily, it is impossible to have any kind of nuclear events in all the processes of hydrogenetion in presence of Ni, either with function of catalyzer or not.
    Thank you anyway for your useful question,
    Warm regards,

  • HRG

    Dr. Fine:
    I find it difficult to agree with your explanation, based on what I know about the chemical process industry. Hydrogenations over nickel metal have been widely used in industry and involve very large scale processes (such as hydrogenation of benzene) where heat balance is carefully monitored. An excess heat event anywhere close to those claimed (in the Focardi/Rossi process) would definitely have been noticed. It would have been catastrophic. There seems to be a missing factor here.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    I agree with you.
    Warm regards,

  • Joseph Fine


    The effect might have been observed before but it was not considered important.

    It will get more attention now.

    Also, Nickel is a reactant, not a catalyst. (Unless some of it is auto-catalytic).


  • HRG

    Nickel metal has been used as a hydrogenation catalyst for decades. Why have these effects not been discovered much earlier?

  • Wilco Wayne

    My previous posts have stated a possible hoax if there was no copper as an end product.
    I must admit that this post strikes up some very interesting possibilities that these guys are truly onto something. A whole new world of science may become reality. What a hoot for the energy guys if its real.

  • Dr. Rossi and Prof. Focardi,

    Allowable wavelengths and harmonic frequencies are easily explained if the electron is made of strings, like in the theory here…
    It actually makes it simple.

    Jim Cranwell

  • Jarek

    Bohr’s model you are starting with neglects electron’s magnetic momentum – doing it right leads to electron’s trajectory which make almost free fall to the nucleus and then is repelled due to Lorentz force and so return to the initial distance – such trajectories make it more likely for electron to pull the proton into the nucleus for the fusion

  • I’m an old hand with papers from the 1990’s. Prof. Ch. E. Stremmenos theory is very like something that was discussed early on with palladium. The idea is consistent with the data but would in all likelyhood produce the reaction too easily. There must be another constraint otherwise every Nickel / hydrogen reaction like the Sabatier process common in industry would have produced anomalies. We know that anomalous helium production in palladium electrolytic cell were reported as early as the 1930’s when Pd was first used. That was the first clue but was never fully pursued.
    We need measurements of the He out put. I gather that the hydrogen nickel part of the device is safely segregated from the water flow [a great improvement on the early cells] but can we get data on the He?
    Some of us believe that experimenters are making a nano-structure on the Metal surface that works to generate an extra flux of electrons or an accelerated stream of protons/ deuteron’s (probably both) that impinges on the metal. This would both greatly increase the probability of tunnelling way above the Heisenberg uncertainty probabilities and generate extra electron densities that screen the gammas just as an electron bath screens Cherenkov radiation.

  • Rod


    Your results about cold fusion sounds good and I don’t understand well why scientists are skeptic, after all there are many things unexplained eg. the gravity… Always first the fact, then explanations.

    Don’t worry about find an explaniation to your experimental results, if your are right probably your achievement will be recognized after your dead

    Please don’t sell your “knowledge”, it must be shared…


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Fine:
    Yes, I confirm that Monday Jan 24 the Bologna University Report will be published on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics. I repeat that everybody will be allowed to use it in every kind of publication, online, paper, written, spoken, without need of any permission. It will be not put on it the copyright.
    Warm Regards,

  • Joseph Fine


    It is unlikely Tritium would be used as an input. Tritium costs up to $100,000 per gram and is a health hazard. The working hypothesis is that a neutron-like particle called a neutroid, mini-atom, ‘deflated hydrogen’, ‘hydrino’ or hydrogen dipole (hypole) gets captured by the Nickel nucleus and may, or may not, becomes a neutron. That still results in ‘heavy’ or excited Nickel = Ni*.

    If neutroid or neutron capture occurs, there then has to be a Beta decay to increase atomic number (from 28 to 29). If the neutroid is not quite a neutron, strictly speaking it is not a Beta Decay but a divorce due to “irreconcilable differences”. The electron (of the electron proton pair) gets ejected from the nucleus due to the neutroids’ interaction with the nucleus.

    Stay tuned and read the Monday, January 24 report.

    Joseph Fine

  • Man-on-Bridges

    Being a layman, do I understand it correctly that the process involved is as follows?

    Ni (mass 60, 32 neutrons, pres. 26,223%) + Tritium (mass 3, 2 neutrons, pres. synt) –>
    Cu (mass 63, 34 neutrons, pres. 69,17%) + gamma radiation.

  • […] Una breve spiegazione in inglese sul probabile funzionamento si può trovare QUI […]

  • Joseph Fine


    According to my estimate, a neutroid binding energy of (about) 0.0002 amu is still significant. That equals 186 KeV, which is a gamma not an X-ray.

    But how can you measure the binding energy of a neutroid, unless you first detect it?

    J. F.

    Ibid. (See excerpt from Chapter 6):

    6.4E. Interpretation of Don Borghi and Santilli experiments

    “Santilli also assumed that the binding energy of a neutroid is similar to that of an ordinary nucleon (e.g., BE = 0.0002 amu for the deuteron), since neutroids are assumed to be converted into neutrons when inside nuclei, or to decompose into protons and electrons, thus recovering again the nucleon binding energy.”

  • Enrico Billi

    my apologies for the two mistakes
    Thanks JF

  • Joseph Fine

    To our English readers, F.E.M is E.M.F.

    also, ‘axis of symmetry’.

    Thanks, the idea is clear.


  • Enrico Billi

    I have an idea about a new experiment to perform on your Ni-H system. If it is applied a difference of voltage to the Nickel, the result will be an increased density of charges on the surface. We starting to think electrons can form a weakly bound system with protons in the Nickel lattice, this bound system is allowed by the quantum fluctuations. In order to increase these fluctuations you could try to use cutted magnet connected to an induction coil to focus an intense magnetic field. If an AC flows in the induction coil the magnetic field will fluctuate inducing a F.E.M. into the Nickel. If the Nickel have a cilindric shape and the magnetic field lines follow the axle of simmetry, the fem will move the electrons along the surface, so the movement will not be chaotic for the temperature but a little bit oriented by the magnetic field.
    I was thinking if this can increase the energy fluctuations because we add the magnetic terms in the hamitonian.
    Best regards
    E. Billi

  • Enrico Billi

    Santilli’s theory is intriguing. His axioms of his “iso-mathematics” may be could be correct mathematically, but the physics is not only mathematics, is mainly experiment. With his “isodual” mathematics he develop a algebra where the number -1 take the place of the number 1.
    In Landau’s book “Foundation of Analysis”, in order to develop the algebra of natural numbers, we must set some axioms like (a) the number 1 exist and (b) its successor (the number 2) exist, but everyone have already found these axioms in our daily life experience. All the natural number algebra goes from these and other 3 axioms, if we can always define different axioms, but it doesn’t necessary the world behave following them.
    I read some of his ideas about the existence of a field of “aether” and the aetherino (a particle of zero mass but minimum energy), his existence is an axiom, not a result of an experiment. The new definition of the neutron like only a electron-proton bound state and the antimatter move backwards in time, all these things are theoretically possible.
    Galileo developed the experimental method for a good reason, we can develop all axioms and mathematics with our mind, but the final answer comes from the nature.
    So… LavolaLe lavolaLe (sorry a little joke with Ing. Rossi and me)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thank you, very interesting,

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. Rossi,

    Prof. Santilli uses the term “neutroids” for neutral intermediate ‘entities’ synthesized by an arc in a klystron with low pressure hydrogen.

    The neutroid is probably what we call mini-atoms, hypoles, hydrinos, deflated hydrogen et cetera.


    In the Don Borghi neutron experiment, an arc inside a klystron filled with low pressure (fraction of a bar) hydrogen gas triggers the neutroids.

    The neutroids then tunnel/combine with the nucleus and induce a delayed neutron flux.

    So something interesting is going on. It is also happening in the presence of 10 GHz microwaves.

    See Section 6.4 D (below).

    Since neutroids don’t trigger the detectors, they are not neutrons.

    Also, Dr. Santilli states that actual binding energy (of the neutroids) is low – on the order of 10^-3 MeV. So that is another evidence that we are looking for KeV’s.

    Whether that is 10.5 Kev’s (hypoles), another number of Kev’s or a range of numbers, I couldn’t say.

    So detecting the hypole or neutroid may not be so easy, unless we can get a grasp on their characteristics.


    6.4D. The Don Borghi-Santilli neutroids

    Santilli excludes that the entities produced in the tests with Klystron I are true neutrons for various reasons, such as:

    1) The anomalous behavior of the detectors, for the case of the 15 m delay, self-activated detection indicates first the absorption of “entities” producing nuclear transmutations that, in turn release ordinary neutrons.

    2) Stars can indeed produce the missing energy of 0.78 MeV for the neutron synthesis, but the environment inside Klystron I is not expected do the same, due to the very low density of the hydrogen gas, the low power of the DC welder and other factors.

    3) The physical laws of hadronic mechanics do not allow the systematic synthesis of the neutron under the conditions of Klystron I because of the need of the trigger, namely (see Sections 6.2 and 6.3), an external action bringing the proton and the electron at 10-13 cm mutual distances, that is, permitting the transition from quantum to hadronic conditions.

  • Lino Daddi

    If, as in the K capture, the presence of the electron on the nucleus is due to the uncertainty principle, hydrogen can form miniatoms especially starting from the nascent (atomic) status. This status can be obtained by splitting the molecule into two atoms, and this is especially possible after absorption in a material that dissociate the molecules (nickel, zirconium, etc.).

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. Rossi,

    Today, I received an E-mail from Dr. George Weiss, Editorial Manager of the Hadronic Journal, in reply to my query of Prof Santilli who is in Nepal.

    Below are links to Chapters 6 and 7 of “New Sciences for a New Era” by Profs. Gandzha and Kadeisvili.

    It is likely that ” Control of orbitals as a necessary condition to expose the nuclei ” is needed in the effects you are observing.

    Hope the information in Chapters 6 & 7 ( or elsewhere) proves useful.

    Best regards,

    J. F.

    See Figure 7.34:

    < …LOOKS LIKE PLANET SATURN… (with Electron Ring)

    An illustration of the support by the industry of research on new clean energies requiring suitable coverings of 20th century doctrines, depicting the conception by Michael McDonnough, President of BetaVoltaic, Inc., of the “Rutherford-Santilli neutron” that is at the foundation of its possible stimulated decay and related new clean energies.




    Begin forwarded message:

    From: ibr
    Date: January 3, 2011 4:34:21 AM EST
    To: J FINE
    Subject: Re: Jacques Dufour paper:

    On 1/2/11 2:52 PM, J FINE wrote:

    Dr. Santilli,

    Here is the link to the July 2010 paper in the Journal of Nuclear Physics proposing the details of a hypole or virtual neutron in the Hydrogen Nickel system developed by Dr. Ing. Andrea Rossi.

    Your comments would be appreciated.

    Joseph Fine


    Is the Rossi energy amplifier the first pico-chemical reactor?

    – Jacques Dufour.

    CNAM Laboratoire des sciences nucléaires, 2 rue Conté 75003 Paris France


    The nuclear signatures that can be expected when contacting hydrogen with nickel, were derived from thermal results recently obtained (Rossi energy amplifier), using the type of reaction paths proposed as the explanation of the energy produced. The consequences of proton or neutron capture have been studied. It was shown that these consequences are not in line with the experimental observations. A novel tentative explanation is thus described. Should this explanation be true, it is proposed to call pico-chemistry the novel field thus opened.

    Dear Joseph,

    Thanks for contacting Prof. Santilli currently at a conference in Nepal. The paper is certainly intriguing and we would be interested in publishing it in the Hadronic Journal following review, but I doubt Prof. Santilli has the time to review it due to too many chores. Also, you should know that he is solely interested in nuclear effects when there is the control of orbitals as a necessary condition to expose the nuclei without which nuclear effects are dubious at best due to the well known protection of nuclei by the electron cloud. If interested, you may see a review in the forthcoming monograph by Profs. Gandzha and Kadeisvili ‘New Sciences for a New Era’

    – now available in html language –


    and currently in print in tex format.

    Chapter 4 may give you an idea of the control of atomic orbitals for the exposure of nuclei, Chapter 6 deals with the synthesis of the neutron, and Chapter 7 can provide you the rudiments of the ensuing truly controlled nuclear reactions. As you can see, this field appears as being quite different than that of the paper.

    Yours, truly


    Dr. George Weiss
    Editorial manager

    Algebras, Groups and Geometries
    Hadronic Journal
    Hadronic J. Supplement
    35246 US 19 North, # 215
    Palm Harbor, FL 34684, U.S.A.
    Office tel. +1-727-934 9593
    Lab tel. +1-727-934 3448
    Fax +1-727-934 9275
    Web sites

  • I have read through a number of posts on this site now and want to express that I absolutely love the way you manage to word and also explain everything, it makes it very easy to read through. I also absolutely concur with every little thing you have stated here, these type of things are vitally important to the world and the earlier we all realize the better we will be off in general.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thank you and best Wishes to you,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thanks, very interesting,

  • Enrico Billi

    I already read about his theories, if we don’t want to exclude anything we can check his theories too. For the purpose of Rossi and Focardi i advise them to read this Santilli work about “Controlled Intermediate Nuclear Fusion”:

    The Novel ”Controlled Intermediate Nuclear Fusion” and its Possible Industrial Realization as Predicted by Hadronic Mechanics and Chemistry
    Best Regards
    Enrico Billi

  • Joseph Fine

    I excerpted (again) the below text from J. V. Kadeisvili’s paper on the Rutherford-Santilli neutron:




    The Institute for Basic Research

    “….The sole bound state of a proton and an electron predicted by quantum mechanics is the hydrogen atom, with smallest orbit of the order of 10-8 cm. Santilli hadronic mechanics has identified the existence of an additional bound state when the electron orbits within the proton structure at distances of the order of 10-13 cm or less. ”

    Remarkably, Santilli has proved that the hadronic state is (…THE ONLY ONE..??) one and one only, (…FOR…) the neutron [24,35], because, when excited, the electron leaves the proton structure, thus recovering all conventional quantum states. In this sense, the energy levels of the hydrogen atom are the excited states of the neutron. ”


    Dr. Santili currently is in the ‘Magnegas’ business (www.Magnegas.com) and could answer questions – if asked – about the ‘hadronic state’ of the neutron, its binding energy etc.

    If correct, my reasoning is that the ‘hadronic state’ is a bound state below the ground state and an intermediate state between the ground state of the hydrogen atom and a ‘plain vanilla’ neutron. Or perhaps, he means the neutron itself.

    This intermediate state may be called a miniatom, hydrino, hypole or hydrex etc. This miniatom then interacts with the Nickel nucleus.

    Would someone be so kind as to ask Dr. Santilli (in whatever language) what is meant by the hadronic state (neutron?) and if this relates to miniatoms or hypoles? Specifically, does the hadronic state have the same binding energy (?) as a neutron or is it a bird of a different feather?

    Best wishes for a Happy and Healthy New Year.


  • Lino Daddi

    It was not clear why the hydrogen miniatom is formed and then come it to be on the nucleus of nickel. I had attributed this to the uncertainty principle (J.Nu.Ph. April 2010). Of course the energy to get the extra mass of the neutron must come from the binding energy of the neutron itself.
    The e + e-annihilation is excluded (for lack of e +).

  • Andrea Rossi

    Yes, it could.

  • Enrico Billi

    If we have the mini-atom inside the Nickel nucleus… between proton and electron there will be an exchange of a virtual W* between proton and e-. The result will be a Nickel isotope with an additional neutron and an emitted neutrino… Most of the neutron bounding energy is released to the neutrino throught the virtual W*. The new isotope could not be in the ground state, beause the neutron shell is not closed so several levels are available, for low energy exitations the gamma transitions goes from 2MeV to 300KeV.
    So we don’t need necessary looking for an e+e- anihilation gamma, but for low levels Ni isotope transitions. Could it be right?

  • Christos E. Stremmenos

    Dear Prof.Dufour
    You are correct, but when it turns into cold fusion good probabilities are aliens. . I thing that even low grade probabilities are worth to be probed. (scattering Compton, photoelectric effect ,non reasoning mössbauer effect etc ). Also the shielding made by electrons can raise the probabilities .
    A hug from a collegue,

  • Christos E. Stremmenos

    Dear Savaris Paolo
    Your question is interesting.The answer,subject to be tested,could be yes: A spectrometric analysis of the secondary ions has shown isotopic permutations

  • Dufour Jacques

    I recall 2 well documented physical phenomena:

    – positron/electron annihilation follows the following mechanism e+ + e- = 2gammas (500 keV to conserve momentum). No neutrino is required, because both sides have 0 leptonic number.
    – the recoil energy of a nucleus, masse M emmiting a gamma of enrgy Eg is Er = Eg(square)/2Mc(square), c being the speed of light. For a coper nucleus emitting a 500 keV gamma, Er is round 2.5 eV. The energy of the emitted gamma is thus virtually inchanged.

    So I think the mechanism proposed is highly improbable.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enrico, I will not be in Italy in February. I will be in Italy from the 13th through the 20st of January and I will be glad to meet you personally.
    Warm regards,

  • savaris paolo

    Prof. Stremmenos…
    In your opinion, the proposed mechanism – interaction of hydrogen mini-atoms with nuclei of Nickel – could lead to the production of 59Ni (from 58Ni), and subsequently in a beta+ decay of 59Ni to 59Co (with higher probability than the normal electronic capture transition – perhaps due to the greater instability of the Ni-nucleos after the absorption of H-mini-atom), and with half-life very short compared with that of EC decay?

    thanks and best regards

  • Enrico Billi

    Dear Andrea Rossi, there are any laboratory doing some experiments? I will be in italy in the first weeks of february, there will be any one available for talking?

  • Andrea Rossi

    I agree,

  • Joseph Fine

    Experiments should be conducted, if they are not already underway, to detect evidence of mini-atoms, or hypoles, as they were described by Jacques Dufour in his article in this journal (July 2010).

    Hypole formation radiation (~ 10.5 Kev) may be more likely than annihilation reactions (511 Kev). Both may occur. Theory and experiments depend on each other. They both improve as our understanding increases and our misunderstanding decreases.

  • Enrico Billi

    In any way everything said by prof. Stremmenos sounds reasonable, the problem is put all these elements in a coherent model.

  • Enrico Billi

    If i can add a thing to the pubblication of prof. Stremmenos.
    The energy of the proton capture is released with the emission a low energy gamma (produced by e+e- annihilation, because an extra electron is available inside the unstable), but also the emission of a neutrino with the positron for the conservation of leptonic number.

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