Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism

by
Prof. Ch. E. Stremmenos

.

Leaving aside for the moment any rigorous theoretical approach based on quantitative analyses, I would like to focus, qualitatively only, on the subject of shielding of dispersed protons in the electronic cloud within the crystal structure. The Focardi-Rossi approach considers this shielding a basic requirement for surpassing the Coulomb barrier between the hydrogen nuclei (protons) and the Nickel lattice nuclei, resulting into release of energy, which is a fact, through a series of exothermic nuclear processes leading to transmutations, decays, etc.

The reasoning presented in this note is based on elementary considerations of

·    The hydrogen atom (Bohr) in its fundamental energy state
·    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle
·    The high speed of nuclear reactions (10ˆ-20 sec)

The hydrogen atom (Bohr) in its fundamental state, in the absence of energy perturbations, remains indefinitely in its stationary state shown below. This is due to the in-phase wave (de Broglie), which follows the “circular” path of its single orbiting electron. The wave length and radius of the “circular” path are determined by the fundamental energy state of this atom.

When hydrogen atoms come in contact with the metal (Ni), they abandon their stationary state as they deposit their electrons in the conductivity band of the metal, and due to their greatly reduced volume, compared to that of their atom, the hydrogen nuclei (naked protons) readily diffuse into the defects of the nickel crystalline structure as well as in tetrahedral or octahedral void spaces of the crystal lattice.

It should be underlined that, in addition to the deposited hydrogen electrons, in the nickel mass included are also electrons of the chemical potential of the metal. Jointly these electrons constitute the conductivity electronic cloud, distributed in energy bands (Fermi), and quasi free to move throughout the metallic mass.

In this dynamic state of “non-localized” plasma, based on the uncertainty principle (Heisenberg),

it is conceivable that, for a very short time period (e.g.  10ˆ-18 sec), a series of neutral mini atoms of hydrogen could be formed, in an unstable state, of various size and energy level, distributed within the Fermi band, which is enlarged due to the very short time (Heisenberg).

The neutral mini-atoms of high energy and very short wave length – which is in phase with the “cyclic” orbit (de Broglie) – are statistically captured be the nickel nuclei of the crystal structure with the speed of nuclear reactions (10ˆ-20 sec).

For these mini-atoms to fuse with the nickel nuclei, apart from their neutral character for surpassing the Coulomb barrier, they must have dimensions smaller than 10ˆ-14 m, where nuclear cohesion forces, of high intensity but very short range, are predominant. It is assumed that only a percentage of such atoms satisfy this condition (de Broglie).

The above considerations are based only on an intuitive approach and I trust this phenomenon could be tackled in a systematic and integrated way through the “theory of time dependent perturbations” by employing the appropriate Hamiltonian, which includes time:

The mechanism proposed by Focardi – Rossi, verified by mass spectroscopy data, which predicts transmutation of a nickel nucleus to an unstable copper nucleus (isotope), remains in principle valid. The difference is that inside the unstable copper nucleus, produced from the fusion of a hydrogen mini-atom with a nickel nucleus, is trapped the mini-atom electron (β-), which in my opinion undergoes in-situ annihilation, with the predicted (Focardi-Rossi) decay β+ of the new copper nucleus.

The β+ and β- annihilation (interaction of matter and anti-matter) would lead to the emission of a high energy photon, γ, (Einstein) from the nucleus of the now stable copper isotope and a neutrin to conserve the lepton number. However, based on the principle of conservation of momentum, as a result of the backlash of this nucleus, the photon energy γ is divided into kinetic energy of this nucleus of large mass (heat) and a photon of low frequency.

Furthermore, it should be noted that the system does not exhibit the Mössbauer* phenomenon for two reasons:

1.  The copper nucleus is not part of the nickel crystal structure and behaves as an isolated atom in quasi gaseous state
2.  Copper, as a chemical element, does not exhibit the Mössbauer phenomenon.

In conclusion, it should be underlined that the copper nucleus thermal perturbation, as a result of its mechanical backlash(heat), is transferred to its encompassing nickel lattice and propagated, by in phase phonons (G. Preparata), through the entire nano-crystal. This could explain why in cold fusion the released energy is mainly in the form of heat and the produced (low) γ radiation can be easily shielded.

.

Prof. Ch. E. Stremmenos   (ATHENS,  DIC. 1910)

219 comments to Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland,
    Still in course is the high temperature test. We have to make several thousands of hours of work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Have you completed your test of the 600C reactor yet? If so, what was the duration?

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paulina:
    The 600 Celsius reactor is working since 20 days now. We are improving. We, obviously, will make a throughly analisys of the metals when we will turn it off.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paulina

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Well then, I hope to be one of the first to read the paper on the transmutation and the forms of the copper when all is finished – thank you :)

    Congratulations on the latest developments with higher operating temperatures. Perhaps this will mean more elementally altered particles to study.

    Warm regards,
    Paulina

  • Andrea Rossi

    Information for the Readers:
    Today has been published on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics the interesting paper of Wladimir Guglinski ” How Repulsive Gravity Contributes for Cold Fusion Occurrence”.
    JONP

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paulina:
    As I said, we will give an exhaustive theoretical explication of the effect in due time.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paulina

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    Yes, I agree, it is very nice to see more of the fairer, more sweetly reasonble gender on the science blogs.

    Although, I seem to be running out of ways to get a further description and the SEM images of these complex, transmuted copper particles of yours.

    Warm regards,
    Paulina

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paulina:
    Maybe you are right.
    I see more women write to our blog: good sign.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paulina

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    It is possible that the external structure of the copper particles from your reaction go through a progression. If the copper is removed and examined earlier in the process, you may in fact observe small copper spheres. With longer exposure to the reaction conditions, the structure of the grains may get larger, flatter, and develop the more amorphous shape you have mentioned. But I think that with more samples, the particles may have a crude symmetry around a point, line or plane.

    Warm regards,
    Paulina

  • […] a reaction involving hydrogen and nickel. The theory of this reaction is outlined in this article “Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism” from the scientists’ group […]

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    I have received some comment asking me if NASA ever made a test with our E-Cat.
    The answer is : “NO, THEY DID NOT”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paulina:
    I understand.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paulina

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    Thank you. I look forward to the future when you will be able to talk about how you came to have the idea for using powder for your stable reaction. Also, I have good reason to expect some complexity of form in the transmuted copper; and you have said “the effect is much more complex than imagined originally.” For me, these results will be almost as important as the energy supply. So godspeed. (:
    Best regards,
    Paulina

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paulna:
    We dd not observe this specific phenomenon.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Paulina

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Most people have seen the beautiful banding or concentric layering of quartz inside of a geode, for example. I am not saying it is the same process but I would like to know if you have seen any reaction series like that.
    I would be greatly helped by any description you can give of the structures of the samples you have, or any patterns or interesting morphology.
    Thank you for your response and your tireless work. I ask heaven for your protection, peace and plenty.
    Warm regards, Paulina

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paulina:
    The copper has been detected by means of a SEM and a SIMS and it has been found in form of amorphous grains. But this is an issue still under probe, the effect is much more complex than imagined originally. When you say “layering or banding” what exactly are you referring to?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paulina

    Are the copper byproducts from the reaction in the form of spherules? Have the structure of these copper metals been examined under an electron microscope, and have they revealed any layering or banding?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Saverio:
    Thank you.
    You can contact me directly
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    for this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Dr. Andrea Rossi
    At the end of the eighties, I was teaching physics in high school, as you know, the discovery of cold fusion was discussed already since 1989, the chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann, they announced to the world a new and unexpected source of energy from a simple and inexpensive electrolytic cell. This announcement had a lot of interest with colleagues, I had to give continuous explanations. In Italy we have had many distinguished scientists, and we never value them enough, for example,Guglielmo Marconi, who had to go in the UK to have recognized his invention. Congratulations for your work and your goals. I am president of an association of British engineers, IET Business Partners (UK), I would like to invite you to join us, or only for an presentation of the your study on cold fusion.Today I would do a lot of questions, but I reserve later. I ask you kindly if you can give me your mail, or please contact me.

    Best Regards
    Dott. Saverio Iuzzolini MIET

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Edward Paris:
    Thank you for your considerations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Prof Andrea Rossi,

    First and foremost, congratulations for your research and invention of the e-cat which hopefully without any political and other pressures or hurdles not to say other will give many possibilities and hope to mankind.
    I am not an academic or an engineer; unfortunately I did not have the possibility to become either one. I am now 56years old but have been researching and studying various forms of alternative energy for the past 15years from HHO to Tesla steam turbines, photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and hydroelectric turbine. My aim always was to try and develop a domestic power generation plant so as to be able to be independent and cut the cost for the supply of energy and therefore to reduce the expenses for my family and we can live a better life. I also looked at the possibility of such a project would change a lot of lives and a contribution to a cleaner environment.
    For this reason I admire your work and what you have achieved. According to Voyager on Rai Due this evening it seems that you will soon have an e-cat for domestic use soon on the market. Lets hope this will happen, I probably be the first to order one. Of course one would need more information such as maintenance, what replacement materials are need and frequency. From were to purchase it etc.

    May be this will be announced soon and I would be pleased to learn more. Therefore whilst I send you my best wishes and regards I look forward to hear some more news soon.

    Kind regards

    Edward Paris
    Malta

  • […] Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism, Prof. Christos E. Stremmenos, Bologne Italie, Journal of Nuclear Physics, Décembre 2010 […]

  • […] Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism, Prof. Christos E. Stremmenos, Bologne Italie, Journal of Nuclear Physics, décembre 2010 […]

  • Steven Karels

    First, congradulations to Dr. Rossi on his invention and the possibilities it provides to mankind.

    Has anyone ever considered replacing the hydrogen gas in the eCat with distilled water. The Patterson Cell uses beads coated with a copper base and then over-coated with nickel. The beads are immersed in a lithium-based salt water. Electric current flows through the beads and it is said to generate up to 1000 times its input in excess heat. It seems to me, if it worked, the water would be much safer to store than compressed hydrogen, In addition, the water is less compressible than the hydrogen gas so that relatively high pressure conditions could be applied and rapidly changed to effect a heat control system — more pressure means more heat generation; less pressure results in less heat generation. Given the presence of free hydrogen ions in the water (i.e., its pH), perhaps an LENR reaction could be initiated and maintained. Any thoughts on this?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nelis Francois:
    Very good, please contact me at
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr Rossi

    I am very admirative and interested by you invention. I am a mechanical engineer working for a international group where we are every day developping, building and operating power plant projects for heat and/or electricity production.
    We have an engineering office located in Rome and maybe we can meet to exchange ideas on how the E-CAT can be used on the industrial level.
    I am speaking personnaly and for the moment not in the name of my company.
    I thank you for your attention and remain very admirative of your works.
    Cordiali saluti
    Francois nelis

  • Andrea Rossi

    Interesting French article published on
    http://libresechanges.blog.capital.fr/
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jorge Jimenez:
    Muchas Grecias!
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Sr. Rossi, desde America, país Costa Rica, lo saludo a usted y sus colaboradores.

    Es intersante como las espectativas van en aumento conforme se va consolidando su invensión, también es interesante como se empieza a notar y ver el estado de frustración de unos u otros por no ser ellos precisamente los que tienen lo que usted ha logrado.
    No soy quien para decirlo, pero tengo la esperanza de que usted y su grupo de trabajo siempre trabajarán con la mística de abrirlo en beneficio de todo el mundo, de modo que, se calmen las angustias que se viven en muchas latitudes por falta de energía accesible y barata, por falta de justicia verdadera. Le soy franco Sr. Rossi, si ustedes saben usar su invento, el mundo vivirá mejor y usted pasará a la historia como un profeta científico que cambio la historia para bien de la humanidad. Si hay un milagro por el cual debemos ser felices es este gran regalo que su E-CAT nos está dando ya y nos dará hacia el futuro, GRACIAS!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Donald Bandrith:
    Thank you,
    A.R.

  • Congat’s Mr Rossi!!
    People are so offended at bending the rules of established science. How wonderful that Newton, and Einstein were so close with their mathematical analogies. The Universe is not limited by our understanding of it! I have felt cold fusion fact, based on helium produced and used for experimentation prior to WW2. ??
    Shame on the suppressors. We have suppressed our energy production for decades now. Fleishman & Pons should have received noble prizes, not ostracism. Their detractors should be their servants. The soul of an inventor pushes the limits of reality and the life God gives him.

    Be Happy, Be Blessed.
    And thank you Sir!
    ……………….DONALD

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kevin Heckle:
    Thanks for the suggestion,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Congratulations on your successful test of the 1 MW e-cat. My understanding of the e-cat’s heat output is that it produces heated water or low pressure steam. However, this low pressure steam is inadequate for typical turbine-gen applications. Have you considered using a reverse refrigeration cycle to generate power? There are systems that use geothermal-heat to evaporate a closed circuit refrigerant at relatively low temperatures (75 C). Heat added, the boiled refrigerant vapor passes through the turbine to the condenser with enough flow and delta pressure to effectively generate power, even though the generating temperature is low as a result of the refrigerant characteristics. A small pump returns the condensed liquid back to the evaporator. Converted water chillers (centrifugal compressor) readily available and mass manufactured have been used in places like the Chena Power Plant in Alaska, where geothermal water is available. However, your E-cat could become that heat source ANYWHERE! These mass manufactured water chillers (converted to generators) are far less expensive to produce than a typical power plant.

    Keep up the good fight!

    Respectfully,
    Kevin Heckle
    Thermetrics Corp.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Richard:
    As I said, we need time to get the necessary authorizations, but once we get big numbers for the households the price per kW will drop .
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Mr Rossi,

    Sir I live in Fairbanks, Alaska and as you can imagine it gets very cold up here for most of the year. The expense here of Oil,LPG,and even wood have become a great burden.

    I have been wondering for some time now if there could be anyway for you to send a small 1-2 kW once production begins of the small units, not to the university here, but to a common individual like myself to demonstrate its overall cost and output.

    I live in a very modest situation, and surely this device was meant in the beginning to get to the common if not poor so as to raise their lot in life. I imagine this would give great publicity, and Fairbanks, Alaska is the central hub of business for Interior and Northern Alaska.

    I and my son’s would scrap together the money and shipping costs so that this would not be any burden on you or your investors

    I also own and maintain a website on Fairbanks and all our doings, local TV and Radio here are also all close at hand unlike in other regions or cities.

    Please consider my request Sir.
    Richard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Justin Nurgle:
    You are right. We will release the basics of the theory on the Journal of Nuclear Physics. I did not yet decide when, there are many factors conditioning this choice.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Justin Nurgle

    Mr. Rossi,

    You stated that you would release the basics of the theory behind the effect of your process after the 1MW Plant start-up in October, 2011. (Re-posted below.) Today is 01 November and I am curious as to how and where you will be releasing this information? Many of the people who have been following your work for years are very anxious to see this information.
    Very respectfully,

    Justin

    Andrea Rossi
    June 18th, 2011 at 1:07 AM
    Dear J. Catania:
    After the start up of our 1 MW plant in October I will release the basics of the theory behind the effect of my process. Your insight is interesting, but has nothing to do with what happens here.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michael Gamov:
    for commercial issues please contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Michael Gamov

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    > We are trying to make this tech as much widely commercoialized as possible. Working hard on this issue.
    Please contact me: mike.gamov [chiocciola] gmail.com
    Sincerely yours,
    MG

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marcel Hunold:
    We are trying to make this tech as much widely commercoialized as possible. Working hard on this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marcel Hunold

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I work for a media company that specialises in stereo 3D. Maybe, if you and your colleagues like to, we could get in touch if you should ever require something like this, most possibly free of charge.

    Your invention is quite capable of changing everything currently going wrong in this world, so PLEASE excercise the utmost caution in your daily live, it would not be the first time that someone “vanished”.

    I don´t understand however why your group want´s to commercialize on this finding. Is it too difficult to recreate your device with some handy skills? I mean, if really anyone willing to build that device could actually do this (e.g. a neat little “how to: fusion”), it would almost instantly de-power those who are currently in power, making mankind a free and independent race.

    Maybe you are willing to comment on my thoughts.

    Best regards,

    M.H.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Cesar BP:
    I respect your opinion, but I do not agree. We are working very well in this sense.
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Cesar BP

    I am sending the previous letter with some grammar corrections, please ignore the previous.
    Thank you.

    = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
    Dear Mr Rossi.

    Congratulations about your product, some remarks i think are important for your analysis.

    At first, you choose to deploy a domestic product in big quantities, because that, no matter you try to do to avoid your e-cat product being analyzed, it will be in few days after deployed in the market. Do not waste your time and money trying to avoid that. You choose a faulty strategy if you want the secrets inside e-cat not being disclosed once you allows your product being deployed in thousands of units.

    I think you must try another solution for your problem, and the solution definitely will not be hiding your equipment secret, you will not have way to avoid a complete reverse engineering and fully material composition analysis from your equipment in few days, and in few days all your E-cat inner workings will be deployed as a public domain information in the internet for all.

    You can hide your industrial process for some time, but not what is inside your equipment.

    Good Luck.
    Best regards.
    Cesar BP.

    = = = = = = = = = = = =

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Francesco Cavaliere:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    This is the address to which I ask you to kindly send more info about the ways we can help each other.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Cavaliere

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Personally I think we are in front of a major breakthrough in energy production and most likely a Nobel price too.
    I work for an important semiconductor company and it would be a great pleasure for us to initiate a cooperation with your company.

    Please contact me for further discussions.

    Best Regards,
    Francesco Cavaliere

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear J. Catania:
    After the start up of our 1 MW plant in October I will release the basics of the theory behind the effect of my process. Your insight is interesting, but has nothing to do with what happens here.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • J. Catania

    I hate to cast a pall of gloom over these procedings and I don’t wish to offend but there is no chance of a screening by electrons lowering the Coulomb barrier for protons. For one thing it isn’t necessary to explain nickel-proton fusion. For another I’d expect that most chemistry would fail if this were tru. For instance wht dosen’t the oxygen nucleus in water immediately fuse with the two protons in the hydrogens. IE why aren’t are oceans composed of neon?

    Although nickels electron orbitals do have small probabilities within the nucleus the overall screening is low since so are the probabilities. It is essentially impossible to screen the high positive charge in the nucleus. Also any proton attempting to approach it would have to have significant energy. This is a fact that I feel cannot be changed by clever proposals and so this view will stand. Fortunately a basic reaction rate calculation seems to show that perhaps the reported rate can be achieved without Coulomb barrier screening. There is also the matter of heat release when packing hydrogen into the lattice. Since this hydrogen is removable (reversibility) but not easily there is definitely energy associated with it, much like an electron in vacuum potential falling into the well of a metal crystal. It takes at least the work function of energy to remove it to the vacuum.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    @ Thomas,
    Most part of the people run on the belief in a virtual monetary system. So most people do believe that they make progress if they achieve 1% gain in money next day, with a 0.01% loss of viability of our world on the same day. The real problem is that when the worser things get in the world, some see the opportunity to increase their gains from 1 to 2%.
    Do not blame this on Mr. Rossi.

  • Thomas Baccei

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Another thought. Considering the prospects for a global calamity precipitated by the use of carbon fuels, this process could literally save the world, or at least untold millions of lives. Every day in which vastly more resources than you have are not brought to bear on “rolling the product out” results in a huge CO2 release. If your device works at all as described, it would be a sin to waste YEARS in converting the whole worlds power needs to this system. As to your patent and intellectual property protection: you will not only be made unbelievably wealthy, but would be praised as the savior of the planet as soon as the process is verified. I can think of several ways to do this fast-lane rollout, which would completely protect you. This is the one aspect of your story which simply does not ring true. If your claims are valid, there is NO WAY it would make sense to dawdle along with demonstrations which are totally under your control. I must emphasis that I can understand your position but strenuously argue that you should change your strategy immediately for the good of the whole human race!

    Still with great respect and admiration,
    Thomas Baccei

  • Thomas Baccei

    Hello Mr. Rossi,
    I hope that technical details of your process have been prepared and located in several safe and secure locations known only to you, which could be released to the world in the event that something made it impossible for you personally to do so. This technology is of earth shaking importance and there would be many groups and individuals who would stop at nothing either to control it, or prevent its development. This would protect you, and see to it that the process is neither stolen or hidden from the world.
    Respectfully, and with great admiration!
    Thomas

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