How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

by Dott. Giuliano Bettini
Retired. Earlier: Selenia SpA, Rome and IDS SpA, Pisa
Also Adjunct Professor at the University of Pisa
Adjunct Professor at Naval Academy, Leghorn (Italian Navy)

In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper? “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.

The interest on Andrea Rossi’s Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating [1]. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski [2]. says that “this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni”. But how it works?

How it works
Following Focardi Rossi [3]. a Ni58 nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the reaction

Ni58 + p → Cu59

Copper nucleus Cu59 decays with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni59 nucleus according to

Cu59 → Ni59 + ν + e+

Then (e+) annichilates with (e-) in two gamma-rays

e- + e+ → γ + γ

Starting [3] from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62, is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62 (i.e. Cu63). Each process means some MeV.

Of course how can a proton p gets captured by the Ni58 nucleus? (and subsequent Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62). Following Stremmenos [4]. a neutron-like particle, an electron proton pair, a mini-atom, a proton masked as a neutron, gets captured by the Ni58.

If the masked proton becomes a neutron the result is Ni59.
In order to have Cu59 (increase of atomic number from 28 to 29) the electron (of the masked proton) gets ejected from the nucleus. The masked proton becomes a proton.

The same process holds for all the subsequent transformations, until Cu63.
It remains to be understood the issue of the gamma radiation in the MeV range.

I am an electronic engineer, so I need easy numbers in order to understand.
However “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. Maybe I am too simple here.
Let’s calculate.
MeV for each Ni transformation
I read that starting from Ni58 we can obtain Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, and Ni62. The chain stops at Cu63 stable.
For simplicity I assume all the Nickel in the reactor in the form Ni58.
For simplicity I suppose for each Ni58 the whole sequence of events from Ni58 to Cu63 and as a rough estimate I calculate the mass defect between (Ni58 plus 5 nucleons) and the final state Cu63.
Ni58 mass is calculated to be 57.95380± 15 amu
The actual mass of a copper-Cu63 nucleus is 62.91367 amu
Mass of Ni58 plus 5 nucleons is  57.95380+5=62.95380 amu
Mass defect is 62.95380-62.91367=0.04013 amu
1 amu = 931 MeV is used as a standard conversion
0.04013×931 MeV=37.36 MeV
So each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
Nickel consumption
According to many blogs in the Internet “One hundred grams of nickel powder can power a 10 kW unit for a minimum of six months”.
How much of Ni58 should be transformed, in six months of continuous operation, in order to generate 10 kW?
I follow a procedure outlined in [2].
10 kW is thermal or electrical (?) power. The nuclear power must be larger. Assume a nuclear power twice:
20 kW = 20,000 J/s = 1.25 x 10**17 MeV/s.
Each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
The number of Ni58 transformations should thus be equal to (1.25 x 10**17)/37.36 = 3.346 x 10**15 per second.
Multiplying by the number of seconds in six months (1.55 x 10**7) the total number of transformed Ni58 nuclei is 5.186 x 10**22.
This means 5 grams.
The order of magnitude is not exactly the same but seems to be plausible. This means also 5 grams of Nickel in Rossi’s reactor transmuted into (stable) Copper after six months of continuous operation at the rate of 10 kW.
Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions.


1,009 comments to How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

  • Joseph Fine

    Dott. Paolo Savaris, Dr. Rossi,

    If there is Hafnium and Tantalum, there may have been Tungsten (Wolfram or ‘W’). Tungsten decays via emitting alphas. Perhaps, W is the source of the alphas that (I’ve said here before) then help convert Nickel to Zinc. That is, Nickel-61 may interact with an alpha to become Zinc-65 which then decays by electron capture to become Cu-65. Also, if Zinc-65 captures an electron rather than emitting a positron, there is no beta+ beta- annihilation and no high energy gammas.

    Of course, we have been talking about neutral mini-atoms or neutroids of hydrogen. Perhaps, the mysterious Phantom of the Catalyzer is an Alpha.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Erik Furberg:
    We are organizing. I suppose it will be at the same time when we will deliver the 1 MW plant in Greece.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr “FLX”:
    Aerospace applications are very far from now, I believe.
    Warmest Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Gotjosh-bis:
    When I answered to Prof. celani I was talking of the Ni that we buy. When I talkof enrichment, it is part of the further elaboration we make on the Ni. Are two different steps of the process.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Gotjosh:
    1- I do not give information regarding the reactor
    2-same as above
    3- you are not missing, has been a typo. Fig 6 was a diagram of an analysis described in the text. Not essential.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paolo Savaris,
    Why don’t you send us a report on your experiment?
    Also: check carefully that the Co is not released from the alloy of the reactor. Stainless steel contains Co.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Davide:
    In the case of electrolysis the energy gain is of some watt, therefore it is possible that it depends from electrodes thermal generation indipendent from nuclear effects. In my case, first of all we do not make electrilysis, so we have not electrodes, but , which is more important, we are producing 4 kWh/h of energy, for 24 hours per day per module, consuming from the plug a small fraction of this energy: you cannot produce this energy with the effect Prof. Capiteri has talked of. Is a totally different situation. Besides, we have no electrodes, and if the electric components of our system heat up, this is at expense of the energy that we get from the plug, so that the heating of the electric and electronic components should have to be considered as a parasitic consume of energy by the system, which is the contrary of an energy source. We did not consider it at all, because is irrilevant ( some tenth of watts), but this amount of energy should have to be subtracted from the consume of energy of my reactor from the plug, not added to it, because it is dispersed in the room, not accumulated inside the water heating volume.
    Warm regards,

  • Erik Furberg

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Its nice to hear that you will deliver your devices to University of Uppsala and to the University of Stockolm. When will you deliver to them and do you know if it is possible to go there and see the device in action? Im really exited about this device and would really like to see it in action and to talk to the people in Uppsala that is testing it.

    Another suggestion, cant you let people order this devices now so we early believers can get a chance to get this devices as soon as they are released to the market. I guess that else there will be a very long waiting time to be able to buy one of these since the demand for them would be extremely big. There will probably be millions of people that want to buy one of theese devices.

    Keep up the good work! This is one of the greatest things mankind has ever invented. All thanks to you.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Carlo,
    I thank you for your attention, but I have to respect thje law. Besides, our industrial evolution will go ahead indipendently from the patent evolution.
    Warm regards,

  • Carlo

    Gentile ing. Rossi,
    le consiglio di non farsi scrupoli nel cercare un appoggio politico che acceleri il più possibile la pratica per il suo brevetto. Gli squali avanzano.
    Ho come l’impressione che non dia il giusto peso a questa questione. Ma la mia, appunto, è ovviamente solo un’impressione.
    I miei migliori auguri all’umanità.

  • Davide C.

    salve Dr. Rossi,
    verso la fine di questo video il Prof. Carpiteri del politecnico di Torino (che si occupa di reazioni piezonucleari) dice che secondo lui nei processi di fusione fredda tramite elettrolisi l’energia liberata viene in realtà prodotta da reazioni piezonucleari dovute alle fessurazioni degli elettrodi. In precedenza aveva anche detto che in varie pubblicazioni si attestava che l’energia maggiore in questi processi veniva prodotta proprio quando gli elettrodi erano parzialmente danneggiati.
    <a href=";
    E’ possibile secondo lei collegare la cosa anche al notevole danneggiamento dell’involucro in acciaio del suo dispositivo dopo diversi mesi di utilizzo? In pratica il rivestimento esterno fungerebbe da elettrodo.
    Grazie come sempre per la sua enorme disponibilità.

  • savaris paolo

    Gentile Ing. Rossi
    In numerous tests on the system nickel-hydrogen lasting a few minutes, I found high concentrations of cobalt, with increments of 10^3 from the original material.
    In this case the production of cobalt seems an alternative to copper production!
    Perhaps, the mini-atom (electron-proton pair)remain in the Ni nucleus and this makes possible a very fast decay (electron capture or beta+) with the production of 59-cobalt? What do you think?
    In the same tests there is a reduction of the concentration of copper and increased zinc concentration, but also a “new” very high concentration of tantalum and hafnium!

    cordiali saluti e complimenti per il suo lavoro
    Dott. Paolo Savaris

  • Additional questions:

    1) Are the resistance coils in direct contact with:
    a- the nickel powder?
    b- the shielding layer(s)?
    c- the containment pipe?
    d- the water?

    2) Is there any possible electromagnetic effect from the flow of electricity through the resistance coils that contributes to the reactivity in the chamber?
    – if this is indeed a valid question, perhaps this could be tested by applying heat to the chamber from a non-electric source… have you investigated these questions at all?

    3) In the patent application a label #6 lies on the Figure 1, but appears to be missing from the text… am i missing something? what does this #6 represent?

    thanks again,

  • Greetings and thank you for your efforts and engagement,

    I have found a discrepancy, it two comments about the Nickel material you are using, and I wish to ask simply, is this an evolution in your method, or indeed a “contradiction”?

    July 14th, 2010 at 2:37 PM in reply to Dear Prof. Celani:
    Anyway, we use regular Ni, because the isotopes separation is too expensive, at least right now, and the answer 1
    relates to regular Ni with the natural isotopical composition

    April 8th, 2011 at 9:33 AM in reply to Mattias Carlsson: Did you enrich for heavier nickel isotopes to make the nickel fuel?
    Yes, we do.

    So have you developed affordable methods for separating the isotopes in the time between July 14th 2010 and April 8th?
    If so, can you report approximate efficiency gains when using enriched Ni?

    wishing you enormous success with your endeavors,

  • flx

    This device is important to aerospace if it can be scaled. Good luck forward.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Godbole:
    The patents laws are changed: no more exists in Europe the national patent, exists only the international patent, and the time a regular patent takes is up to 6 years. There is nothing we can do about this.
    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Warm regards,

  • William

    Mr. Andrea Rossi,

    Thank you for sharing that the University of Uppsala and the University of Stockholm will be receiving E-Cat units to test! This is very exciting news.

    Will the two Universities be allowed to share test results and data when they see fit, or will there be an agreement in place that stipulates when and under what conditions they can release data to the public?

    Have a great night!


  • V. Godbole

    Respected Mr. A. Rossi

    Ofcourse your italian patent will cover also Greece. But what I was suggesting is that you apply for a patent in Greece itself. They will respond more quickly and expedite it urgently within a few days. A patent given in Greece will also be world-wide valid.

    What worries me is the long wait that the italian patent office is causing. The sooner the patent comes through the quicker can you enlarge and accelerate your sales effort and production and thus pacify the many doubts and fears prvailing around us.

    Even Japan, Australia, Canada, South Korea will be very much interested in giving you a quick patent.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Alberto B.
    In due time, end october, we will give this information.
    Warm Regards,

  • Alberto B.

    Dear Ing. Andrea Rossi
    i would have some question for you about the greek plant:
    1)where the plant will be built (region,city of Greece)?
    2)where the E-CAT will be built? And which company will make this device?
    congratulations for his achievements.

    my greetings

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Corrado Gualandris:
    Thank you for your kinf words. Thyank you for your action.
    Warm regards,

  • Corrado Gualandris

    Inanzi tutto grazie per il lavoro che sta facendo, pensando al mio figlioletto di pochi anni a cui attribuivo un futuro di guerra per le risorse mi sta dando un grande speranza per il futuro.
    Se esiste un modo per contraccambiare non esiti a pubblicarlo (aspetto il nome della s.p.a. da cui comprare un po di azione per fare in modo che si possano avere i soldini per lo sviluppo)
    Nel frattempo sperando di fare un cosa lieta continuo a diffondere “underground” la notizia perchè penso che più gente è informata meglio è per il nostro futuro.
    Sentiti Ringraziamenti


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear “HRG”:
    You are perfectly right, I agree totally with your comment, as for concerns the incompatibility and the unacceptability of entities which work and get financing from Oil Companies, Nuclear Companies, Hot Fusion Research centers as “indipendent third parties”,as well as of competitors, who since years try to make useful LENR apparatuses and are not able to: they cannot present themselves or their consultants as “indipendent third parties”. This is why, after the tests we made with the University of Bologna and with Prof. Kullander and Prof Hanno from Sweden ( they are considered worldwide as scientists of the maximum level in the field) we will not make further tests. We will, of course, continue our R&D with the University of Bologna. We will give to the University of Uppsala and to the University of Stockolm our devices to allow them to use the same devices 24 hours per day, to get data regarding the energy production. We trust them, and we know they are really neutral, without binds with competitors of any kind. I personally knew them and I have in them total trust. The same is not for “indipendent parties” that have been proposed to me, regarding which I discovered they have got a bunch of millions to make research for the hot fusion (producing nothing so far), or “indipendent parties” made by consultants which are paid money by the shovels to sustain nuclear power plants, fossil fuels and the forth, or consultants of our competitors in the LENR field.
    This is why we continue to repeat that the market, only the market will be the final judge: if our E-CATS WILL RESPECT THE GUARANTEES OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY, WE WILL BE PAID. This is the sole validation that counts really, at the end.
    Warm Regards,
    By the way: in our factories there are reactors in operation 24 hours per day, just to test their safety reliability.
    Warm regards,

  • HRG

    Dr. Rossi:
    During the early days of cold fusion there were, I believe, some unfortunate incidents where positive results were suppressed during verification trials. There is a conflict of interest, in my view, between those who do “hot” fusion research and those who do cold fusion. But what is wrong with the idea of setting up a “Cat” at one location (Bolognia?) and let it run continuously, allowing anyone to inspect it (without taking apart the proprietary components)?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr V. Godbole:
    Of course our patent pending covers also Greece.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Alessandro:
    My opinion is that my invention has nothing to do with the evolution presently in course in the nuclear energy policy.
    I am not so important.
    Warm regards,

  • Alessandro

    Gentile Sig.Rossi,

    la ringrazio per tutto quello che sta facendo. Se questa macchina entrera’ in commercio (e lo spero col cuore) segnera’ una rivoluzione nel nostro modo di vivere, ovviamente positiva.
    Un suo parere: crede che la “rincorsa” che si è avuta negli ultimi mesi in Italia sull’argomento nucleare sia in parte dovuta anche alla sua scoperta?

    Un saluto,

  • V. Godbole

    Dear A. Rossi
    Why do you not apply for a patent in Greece? If Greece is ready to officially fund your research and development in future then they have surely interest in getting it patented quickly (within 10 days) in their land. Your greek marketier will surely help.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Frank:
    I receive every day requests from all the world of Universities, Associations, Laboratories from any Country, of any kind which want to make an “indipendent” test to offer us the only possible real validation of the technology. Should I accept, 24 hours per day, 365days per year would not be enough to be so much validated. I respect all the wannavalidate of the Planet, but I want to remember that:
    1- In October we will start deliver to our Customers our plants, so that the validation will be made by the Customers: they will use our plants 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. That is the sole real validation that counts for us, also because if the plants work, Customers will pay us, if not, they will not pay us. The plants have to respect precise guarantees we gave about their efficiency and their safety. We are not searching any validation. We never did. We just wanted to make a good product.We have already made our public presentations, no more of them will be made. With the University of Bologna we will continue the R&D program, but not to “validate”: the validation must arrive from the market. The aim of the R&D program with the University of Bologna, financed by us, and therefore made with our money, is to develope our future, not to “validate”. Not to mention the fact that the real target of the wannabe validators, in 99 cases out of 100, is to get information and make industrial espionage, as already occurred to me with another “validator” with whom we severed any collaboration after getting evidence of the fact that data obtained from us have been utilized for a competition.
    2- I thank anyway Prof. Peter Hagelstein for his attention. If the MIT is interested to our product, they can buy a plant, and make all the validations they want, for themselves, and get from it good heating too, during the hard Bostonian winters ( I lived there for some year, mamma mia, che freddo!)
    Warm regards,

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I wonder if you are aware that Professor Peter Hagelstein of MIT remarked today that he would love the opportunity to test the E-cat. I found his comments in this article that was posted on April 15th. I thought you might be interested in this if you were not already aware.

    Best regards,


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear “HRG”:
    Yes , you are perfectly right. And for this utilization we are ready. In november, after the start of the first MW, we will start the commercialization.
    Warm regards,

  • Dear Mr Rossi,
    Thank you for being as open as you can with us. I am very happy with your modular approach and hope that, in future, power generation will be much less centralized than it is today. Power should be generated wherever thermal energy is needed, as combined heat and power. With properly-sized small power plants the waste heat that exits the turbines can be immediately put to use locally. Todays massive power plants do environmental damage by throwing away valuable thermal energy.
    I wish you the very best success in this bold endeavor.

    Warm wishes,

    Thomas Blakeslee President
    The Clearlight Foundation

    My article link:

  • HRG

    Dr. Rossi:
    Will the 1MW reactor at Defkalion be used for cooling in addition to heating? It seems that your invention may be particularly well suited to thermal air conditioning and cooling, for large installations (hotels, apartment buildings, shopping malls, cold storage warehouses, etc.). Thermal cooling is more efficient than electrically operated (compressor based) cooling systems, and it generally requires input temperatures of less than 100 C.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Cupo Meridio:
    Thyank you very much: I will analyse your suggestion, as I always do with suggestions of friends.
    Warm regards,

  • Cupo Meridio

    Ing. Rossi, mi scusi se non scrivo in inglese. Sono soltanto una persona comune, desideravo esprimerle tutto il mio apprezzamento per tutto quello che sta facendo. Spero vivamente che i suoi studi e i suoi sforzi giungano a buon fine e che la sua fonte di energia possa diffondersi rapidamente in tutto il mondo, prima che questi pazzi irresponsabili che ci governano rendano il nostro pianeta inabitabile per i prossimi millenni. Inutile descrivere l’angoscia che si prova in questi giorni per ciò che è avvenuto a Fukushima, segno tangibile di quanto la tecnologia nucleare attuale sia pericolosa e piena di rischi terribili e imprevedibili. Le auguro ogni bene e tanto successo, e la prego di non trascurare, quando ne avrà la possibilità, di formare una buona squadra di giovani allievi/discepoli che possa continuare gli studi su questa nuova forma di energia anche in futuro dopo di lei. Che Dio la illumini, la saluto caramente.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Malcom Lear:
    Thank you for your understanding:
    Warm regards,

  • Malcolm Lear

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    It was never my intention to press you for more details and respect your right to withhold this sort of information. I certainly would 🙂
    Best wishes to you and good luck in the development of the 1MW reactor.


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Teemu:
    Yes, it is true, in 2000 I made a patent application for Seebeck Effect devices to indrease their efficiency and to make possible to use them at high temperature for applications on engines. I sold all the technology and know how of this, as well as I sold all my other activities, to finance the LENR job on which I decided to focus totally my energies. Without this absolute focus no results could have been possible. The experience I have of myself taught me that when I focus exclusively on one thinf I have an efficiency that decreases on logarythmic scale if I make other things in the same time. I do not know the further evolution of my Seebeck Effect research, also if I know that they have been applied to Diesel Engines. Their real improvement in the field was not so much bound to the efficiency, but to the possibility to apply them in the high temperature ranges (up to 800 Celsius degrees). Again, I do not know what happened then. It is true also that a fire destroyed all the material I had: Firemen forced, rightly, to escape immediately while I was trying to save computer, papers etc. It happened in Manchester, N.H. (USA).
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Patrick Kotal:
    Right question, but, again, I cannot give information about the reactor.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Malcom Lear:
    I can publish these kind of comments, but I am sorry to repeat I can’t give information about the reactor.
    Warm regards,

  • Malcolm Lear

    Thinking about it a little more there may be sufficient thermal conduction from the copper pipe to the nickel containment without internal bridging. Certainly having an external heater would produce a more reliable and easier to service reactor unit.

  • Malcolm Lear

    The heater is a standard 230V 300W band heater usually used in heating nozzles for extruded plastic production. Possibly there is a internal bridge between the external copper pipe and the nickel containment housing. Although I still have problems understanding how the reaction can be modulated using a heater. Maybe the heater is only used to initiate the reaction and hydrogen pressure is used to modulate.

  • p.kotal

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    there should be a mistake in following answer:

    “Andrea Rossi
    April 14th, 2011 at 4:22 PM
    Dear Mr Bjorn Genborg:
    1- no, because we stop tha valve that gives hydrogen, so that the reaction is cut in few minutes. It has been tested. ”

    I thought the great advantage of your E-Cat Reactor is that it does not need hydrogen flow, but only a onte-time-pressured atmosphere of 25bars of hydrogen gas in the reactor, leading to 0,11grams H2 to create 24kWh within about 6 hours.
    Therefore the pressure should sink during test. Are there several output power-curves relating to pressure or time?


  • Teemu

    Army Corps of Engineers report from 2004 says that your previous breakthrough, thermoelectric device that had 20% efficiency instead of the 2-4% efficiency of traditional ones.

    You had demonstration of 100 watt device at University of New Hampshire. Then fire destroyed your Manchester (NH) factory and after that you managed to produce only devices giving out 1 watt. Have you taken this time more backup procedures to conserve the knowledge, so that an accident wont decrease your product’s efficiency permanently by 99%?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr “HRG”
    I cannot give information on this issue,
    Warm regards,

  • HRG

    Perhaps they are heating the fuel inductively, rather than by thermal conduction?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ing. Ombello: Thank you. About your proposal for a platform, I thank you for the suggestion, but we have decided to go ahead like it is now.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Thomas Blakeslee:
    To answer to your question I should give you information regarding the design of the reactor. I can’t.
    Warm regards,

  • I’m confused about the caption on the closeup picture on the NyTeknik article on the 4.5 KW demo. It says “Close view of the main resistor surrounding the copper tube, which in turn surrounds the steel reactor.” How can the resistor heat the nickel up to 500C through the water?

  • “In few minutes the Cat falls asleep.”

    Typical cat behaviour! I love cats… and the E-Cat even more. Quite a catchy name you’ve given it, Ing. Rossi. 🙂

    Ing. Carlo Ombello

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