How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

by Dott. Giuliano Bettini
Retired. Earlier: Selenia SpA, Rome and IDS SpA, Pisa
Also Adjunct Professor at the University of Pisa
Adjunct Professor at Naval Academy, Leghorn (Italian Navy)

Abstract
In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper? “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.

Introduction
The interest on Andrea Rossi’s Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating [1]. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski [2]. says that “this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni”. But how it works?

How it works
Following Focardi Rossi [3]. a Ni58 nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the reaction

Ni58 + p → Cu59

Copper nucleus Cu59 decays with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni59 nucleus according to

Cu59 → Ni59 + ν + e+

Then (e+) annichilates with (e-) in two gamma-rays

e- + e+ → γ + γ

Starting [3] from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62, is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62 (i.e. Cu63). Each process means some MeV.

Of course how can a proton p gets captured by the Ni58 nucleus? (and subsequent Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62). Following Stremmenos [4]. a neutron-like particle, an electron proton pair, a mini-atom, a proton masked as a neutron, gets captured by the Ni58.

If the masked proton becomes a neutron the result is Ni59.
In order to have Cu59 (increase of atomic number from 28 to 29) the electron (of the masked proton) gets ejected from the nucleus. The masked proton becomes a proton.

The same process holds for all the subsequent transformations, until Cu63.
It remains to be understood the issue of the gamma radiation in the MeV range.

Numbers
I am an electronic engineer, so I need easy numbers in order to understand.
However “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. Maybe I am too simple here.
Let’s calculate.
 
MeV for each Ni transformation
I read that starting from Ni58 we can obtain Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, and Ni62. The chain stops at Cu63 stable.
For simplicity I assume all the Nickel in the reactor in the form Ni58.
For simplicity I suppose for each Ni58 the whole sequence of events from Ni58 to Cu63 and as a rough estimate I calculate the mass defect between (Ni58 plus 5 nucleons) and the final state Cu63.
Ni58 mass is calculated to be 57.95380± 15 amu
The actual mass of a copper-Cu63 nucleus is 62.91367 amu
Mass of Ni58 plus 5 nucleons is  57.95380+5=62.95380 amu
Mass defect is 62.95380-62.91367=0.04013 amu
1 amu = 931 MeV is used as a standard conversion
0.04013×931 MeV=37.36 MeV
So each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
 
 
Nickel consumption
According to many blogs in the Internet “One hundred grams of nickel powder can power a 10 kW unit for a minimum of six months”.
How much of Ni58 should be transformed, in six months of continuous operation, in order to generate 10 kW?
I follow a procedure outlined in [2].
10 kW is thermal or electrical (?) power. The nuclear power must be larger. Assume a nuclear power twice:
20 kW = 20,000 J/s = 1.25 x 10**17 MeV/s.
Each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
The number of Ni58 transformations should thus be equal to (1.25 x 10**17)/37.36 = 3.346 x 10**15 per second.
Multiplying by the number of seconds in six months (1.55 x 10**7) the total number of transformed Ni58 nuclei is 5.186 x 10**22.
This means 5 grams.
The order of magnitude is not exactly the same but seems to be plausible. This means also 5 grams of Nickel in Rossi’s reactor transmuted into (stable) Copper after six months of continuous operation at the rate of 10 kW.
 
Conclusions
Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions.
 
References

 

900 comments to How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr David G.:
    Thank you.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • David G

    Mr Rossi,

    I’ve been thinking about how a future E-Cat model could work that would eliminate the need to remove an entire reactor system to replace the spent fuel.

    Perhaps the reactor could be setup in a configuration similar to the way a water filter works. Just unscrew, remove, and screw in the new reactor core. The thermal insulation, lead gamma shielding and all other internal components could be located inside the sealed self-contained removable core.

    Replacing a spent core could be done by anyone in a few seconds while still maintaining safety. This would be perfect for home and industrial applications.

    Water Filter Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9V9Gx15qSkw

    Regards,
    David G.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Daniel De Francia:
    Thank you: very interesting.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Daniel de França MTd2

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I am sorry, but there was a misunderstanding. I did not say your website is not interesting for us, it is very interesting for me, at least! But, the problem is, we can speculate, like I do, all the time, but will all that speculation be useful for you? It is nearly impossible to make good guesses if we don’t know the experimental set up! So, I think it is not likely to be interesting for you, because we will likely not find the correct result because of the lack of experimental data.

    Well, as for the ultrasound, the reason concerns about what heats the water. I a paper of 2010 or 2009, according to an electronic microscope, the powder used has grains with an average diameter of 5 micrometers, at least it is the impression I have. If there is cavitation, the presence of a 3bar pressure causes the formed bubbles, I suppose, to be mostly made of hydrogen, which as 60 celsius have a speed of sound of ~2000m/s. That means the fundamental frequency of the bubble will on the order of 5GHz. This close to the microwave oven frequency. Considering that hydrogen is ionized, it will produce microwaves that will heat the water inside the bubble.

    Best,

    Daniel.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Rémi Andrè:
    1- the 97 E-Cats ( today are 105) are just the modules of the 1 MW plant we will start up in October, and that we are testing separately.
    2- It is our first plant, and the lines to make a serial production are not yet ready. I make them one by one and I have to be very careful: have you an idea of what will happen to me if the 1 MW plant will not work?
    3- No, the patent has nothing to do with the production. Patent or not patent, we will produce our E-Cats. Of course, if the patent will not be granted we will maintain the industrial secret.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Dan Michelson:
    I cannot answer to questions regarding what happens inside the reactor. But gravitational, of course, not.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Dan Michelson:
    Thank you, please contact me in November, when we will start the industrial production.
    Maybe we can help each other.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dan Michelson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I noticed that you plan to use some of the profits from your discovery for providing medical help for those in need. I am not skilled in the medical area, but I do have 35+ years of experience in industrial analog/digital embedded control hardware/software design. As such, I would like to offer you any help you may need in the area of embedded electrical analog/digital hardware/software design. I have designed many control and instrumentation systems over the years, some of which monitor/control things like gas pipelines. I have a variety of tools and test equipment for designing and debugging. If you need help in this area, I am at your service and would be happy to provide any assistance you need at no cost to you.

    Best Regards,

    Dan Michelson

  • Dan Michelson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Have any localized gravitational or magnetic effects been observed during the reaction?

    Best Regards,

    Dan Michelson

  • Rémi André

    Dear M.Rossi
    Recently you said,on this blog, that 97 E-cats were already built in 4 different locations. Each one of them would be able to produce 4,4 kW (if the model correspond to the one which was used during the test with the swedish physcicists). So, today all existing E-cats would be able to produce 97*4,4 = 426,8 kW = 0,427 MW. If I choose to take a consumption of 6 kW per house (that’s what we have here in France), you should be able to give enough electric power to supply approximatly 70 houses (a little village). In fact, I’d like to ask you few questions :
    1/ Why are you focusing on a 1 MW plant ? You almost reached the half of this power… what will it change to just double it ?
    2/ Why does it take so much time to build those devices ? Is it a problem of enrichment ?
    3/ Is it more a problem linked with the patent you are looking for ?
    Despite the fact that surfing on your blog is my daily vitamin C dose, I must admit that it becomes difficult to wait a so long time…

    Thank you very much for your attention
    RA

  • Andrea Rossi

    DEAR DOUG HULSTEDT, MD:
    YOU CAN HELP ME IN THE CORE PART OF MY PHILOSOPHY, WHICH BROUGHT ME TO THIS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY.
    AS I SAID, THE PROFITS FROM THIS WORK WILL BE DEDICATED TO HEAL CHILDREN AFFECTED BY DEVASTATING ILLNESS, IN PARTICULAR, OF COURSE, CHILDREN WHOSE PARENTS ARE NOT ABLE TO PAY FOR THE BEST HEALTHCARE. I WANT NOT TO FINANCE THE SO CALLED NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS DEDICATED TO THIS, FOR MANY REASONS. I WANT TO PAY DIRECTLY THE HOSPITALS TO SUPPLY DIRECTLY AND PERSONALLY THE HEALTHCARE TO THE INDIVIDUALS WE ARE INFORMED OF. OBVIOUSLY THE RESEARCH OF INDIVIDUALS MUST BE DONE WITHOUT GEOGRAPHIC, POLITICAL OR RELIGIOUS BOUNDARIES.
    I NEED HELP FOR THE SPECIFIC ORGANIZATION TO GIVE SPECIFIC CARE, NOT GENERIC.
    CAN YOU GIVE SPECIFIC SUGGESTION AND INFORMATION ABOUT THIS ISSUE? I NEED HELP TO GIVE REAL HELP. IT IS TIME TO BEGIN TO THINK HOW TO ORGANIZE THIS.
    WARM REGARDS,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Michelson:
    Done.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr David G:
    You are right, we are doind what you suggest.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Daniel De Francia:
    1- I use aeroplanes and have very good collaborators
    2- Prof. Focardo is a consultant of us for issues not related to the internal reactor and charge
    3- If you think this blog is not interesting, you can choose to spend your time otherwise. I am pretty sure I am not wasting my time.
    4- No, but you made me curious: I will.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Shane Owl-Greason

    Mr. Rossi,

    I am in a unique situation here in Georgia, USA. I am currently working on large-scale site with the State that is allocated to have 20MW of clean energy production and also seeking manufacturers of clean energy products with University connections and have serious discussions forthcoming over the next few months and I want to reach out to you to contact me at your earliest convenience.

    Thank you in advance. I’m available at your convenience.

  • Daniel de França MTd2

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    1.If you are the only to know what happens inside the E-Cats, how come so many of them can be produced at different places?

    2.How can Focardi work with you without knowing what happens inside the machine he works with?

    3.If you are willing to understand the physics behind the E-Cats, why did open a website without disclosing how it works? You may be wasting your time by moderating and maintaining a website in which people cannot have data to make a meaningful analysis.

    4.Did you try to measure any source of ultrasound from the machine?

    Best,

    DAniel.

  • David G

    Mr. Rossi,

    You recently stated that your 1 MW plant will have the dimensions of 3m x 2m x 2m and weighs 2 tons.

    If that is the case, I think you should look into implementing your power plants in the form of Shipping Containers. Each container will have it’s own reactors, control system and power output panel.

    Having the power plants in the form of Shipping Containers will allow for them to be very portable and easily deployed to any location very quickly. They could be easily dropped off, quickly turned on and then connected to the local grid.

  • Dan Michelson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I do not wish to offend you or seem morbid in my question, but I must ask you if you have made plans to preserve your work in the event that something might happen to you.
    No offense of any kind is intended by this question, but I think you can understand that there people and industries that have a great deal to lose if your discovery is brought to full commercial use.

    Best Regards,

    Dan Michelson

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Enrico:
    1- our modular E-Cats are already produced with a definite design
    2- we will soon be able to produce tens of thousands of modules per year
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Enrico

    Non so se le informazioni seguenti sono già state date da qualche parte. Eventualmente mi scuso se ripeto le domande. Mi chiedevo quale fosse la percentuale di successo nella realizzazione del’e-cat, in altre parole quanti dispositivi vengono prodotti prima di averne uno funzionante e quindi quanto è pronto il processo di serializzazione della produzione del dispositivo. Inoltre mi chiedevo se avete già definito un protocollo sistematico di verifica funzionamento a valle della produzione ed inoltre quanto tempo richiede ad oggi l’intero ciclo produttivo di un singolo e-cat. Approfitto per fare le mie congratulazioni a lei ed a Focardi. Sul vostro lavoro si concentrano le speranze di molti. Saluti, Enrico.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Malcom Lear:
    I cannot give this information.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Mirco Bianco:
    The whole will be contained in a box m. 3 x 2 x 2; weight tonn 2. Of course the container has much more space than necessary for the modules; it contains control panels, room for operator, etc.
    The energy density of the modules is totally another thing and is about 2 kW x 1000 cc^-1
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Mirco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    First of all congratulations for your work.
    I would like to know few details about the 1MW termal unit that you are going to deliver in Greece. Could you please provide me an estimation of the size and of the weight of the thermal part ?

    Thank you.

    Cordiali saluti,

    Mirco

  • Malcolm Lear

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Could you tell me the average nano nickel particle size used in most of your experiments, particularly the latest demonstation on January 15th. I know this information may well be available elsewhere, but can not locate it.

    Thank you for your patience.
    Malcolm

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Carlo Ombello:
    You can reproduce all what is published on this blog and on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics absolutely free.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Daniel De Francia:
    I cannot add more info to this issue,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Daniel de França MTd2

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Tell me if this is more or less accurate, please?

    The use of ultracentrifuges is very expensive, so I assume that in order to make the process simpler and cheaper, you make a one pass and just collect the top of the sediments after the processing, and throw the rest away. In this way, you collect a reasonable amount of Nickel, without having to worry about Ni 58, which might convert to the deadly Ni 59.

    Given that the proportion of Copper formed is close to the natural one, and supposing that the cross section for the isotopes are not very different, I’d say you collect the top 3-5% of the sediments of the centrifuge, right?

    Best,

    Daniel.

  • Dear Ing. Rossi,

    I truly hope you’re joking and that your death won’t stop your invention from spreading further! surely you already are in the agenda of many in the energy and financial establishment. Mechanisms must be in place for worst case scenario events. But I’m sure that with your life experience you must have quite a few good plans in place, right?

    PS: can I quote contents from your blog when I will write articles on your device? are photos free to publish?

    Cari saluti
    Ing. Carlo Ombello

  • Doug Hulstedt MD

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    Wow! you must be having fun putting this together. I have read everything I could get my hands on. Yours seems to be the only working model out.GREAT!! My sense has been That the naysayers of the world of LENR thought that quantum mechanics was reality as opposed to a mathematical construct of reality.
    Since every one else has been offering their hands in marriage to you and their specialties might vaguely fit into future avenues of pursuit let me offer mine! I am a pediatrician specializing in autism. So if you ever need anyone to deal with the Ecat from a pediatric or autistic standpoint I may be your Man!! There is a scripture Proverbs 25:2 that says something like “It is the pleasure of God to hide a thing and the treasure of kings to find out secrets” You have found one of Gods’ secrets and I must assume you are a king.
    You stated in a previous post that man is not evolved.
    I agree.
    However you also stated the maybe other animals evolved
    I disagree.
    The notion of evolution is at least 3 orders of magnitude sillier than the notion of LENR.
    Anyway reading these blogs makes me feel that Christmas will be coming in October.
    If you are free in October I would like to interview you on A Radio program in Monterey California.
    Congratulations on your discovery
    Blessings
    Doug Hulstedt MD

  • Malcolm Lear

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    It is very interesting you are not using electrolysis in the reactor. I worry sometimes that you are a little too generous in the information you provide.
    Best wishes to your future success.

    Malcolm

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Davison:
    The only and sole guy, so far, that knows what happens inside the reactor is me. We do not use electrolysis.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Bjorn Genborg:
    1- My death. Nothing else will stop this.
    2- Impossible to answer: we got a very complex system of integrals to answer you here, not numbers.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Eernie 1:
    Sorry, I cannot give information about what happens inside the reactor.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Daniel De Francia:
    Yes
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Daniel de França MTd2

    Dr Mr. Rossi,

    Concerning the Nickel input in the experiment, do you deplete it of Ni58?

    Best,

    Daniel.

  • eernie1

    Dr.Rossi; I call you doctor because the world has bestowed upon you the honorary degree of Doctor of Science.This degree is more impressive than any that can be given to you by any University no matter how prestigeous. I would like to propose a mechanism for your energy device that comes from many years of working in research and development.I think you have constructed a particle accelerator using a free radical as a particle and a Nickel nucleous as a target.The free radical is a Hydrogen atom containing an extra electron which has been formed by the secret catalyst in your device from the hydrogen gas you use.This has been accomplished many times before in other reactions.Adding additional velocity to the particle by using heat,the kinetic energy of the particle allows the particle to penetrate the electron cloud of any Nickel atom it will encounter.Inside the cloud,the repulsive forces of the cloud will further accelerate the particle directed towards the positive nucleous by its attractive charge until its velocity can allow it to penetrate the coulomb barrier and fuse with the nucleous.Some of the requirements for this scenario to be effective is the optimization of the reactive cross section for particle/Nickel interactions(maximum spherical surface form of the Nickel),precise control of hydrogen pressure and temperature to avoid quenching free radical formation,and removal of excess heat. One characteristic of free radical reactions is the tendency to cause an explosive environment by chain reacting with other materials in the environment.I would appreciate any comment.

  • Malcolm Lear

    Hi,

    I’m an electronics guy, so bear with me. I had an idea about what might be happening on the surface of the nickel powder and possibly explain the burst of radiation at start up and shutdown.
    http://www.mediafire.com/?d7zcuqs7wmurr22

  • Bjorn Genborg

    Dear Mr.Rossi;

    Question 1:

    What would you consider being the worst “showstopper” for you and your invention? I mean, what do you consider being the biggest risk/drawback that could happen? For example: Authorities not allowing the device? Oil companies trying to “kill” it? Proplems with up-scaling? Unknown environmental issues?

    Question 2:

    Hypothetically: If everything goes your way – how much energy (installed power) will be produced with your device within three years? What’s your guess?
    (I’m asking from the viewpoint that you probably have a sense on the feasibility; How complex it is to produce your devices, how feasible it is to implement these at existing power plants, how complex it is to prepare the fuel (Nickel), etc.)

    Good luck!

  • John Davison

    Mr. Rossi,

    You stated yesterday, in a response to Luke Mortensen, that you do not use electrolysis, however, in the following video
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TbmJPqDwQm0#t=18m10s

    at the 18:15 mark, and I quite from the English translation, Mr. Focardi states, “…the latest application has nickel inside it, then the hydrogen is supplied by electrolysis…”

    This interview was posted on Youtube on April 8th, which precedes your commentary. What is the reason for this incongruity? Have things changed since?

    Thanks and Congratulations on your work,

    ~John

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Webb:
    1- I am convinced that no laws have been broken, just some laws have to be better understood.
    2- After November contact me, before the start up of the 1 MW unit I deem not useful interviews.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • C. Webb

    Ing. Rossi,

    Much appreciation to you for devoting so much of your money and life to such a project, and also to Prof. Focardi for his important contributions, and to others on your team. Your time seems to have been very well spent.

    I am interested to know:
    1) You said in the NyTeknik discussion I believe that some of the known laws of classical physics are incomplete and/or being broken inside the E-cat? Can you say which law(s) and how it is (or they are) broken?
    2) I am involved with various media. How might we arrange an interview?

    Thank you for your time.

  • Joseph Fine

    Paolo Savaris, Andrea Rossi, Alan DeAngelis:

    Paolo,

    If you have time, please duplicate your earlier experiment when you used Nickel and Hydrogen and found Ytterbium, Hafnium and Tantalum. This time, DO NOT use any Zirconium! If you eliminate Zirconium, you will either find Yb, Hf and Ta again or you won’t. Also, when you originally tried this, you didn’t say if you found any Copper. I apologize for asking you this, but you probably would want to try this out yourself. I just want to know if Zirconium is a factor. It doesn’t seem possible, but production of Ytterbium also seems unlikely.

    Thank you,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Jan Ekmark:
    I cannot give information about these issues.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Luke Mortensen:
    1- 97
    2- 4
    3- yes
    4- less than if I was taxist
    5- I do not use electrolysis
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Luke Mortensen

    AR,
    Some good E-Cat trivia for the fans:

    1. How many e-cats are in continuous operation today?
    2. How many geographic locations are e-cats running today?
    3. Are there any e-cats running in the US with businesses you own or individuals you trust?
    4. Any estimate on how much fuel has been spent over the life of your research?
    5. Is there anything confidential about how you use electrolysis for the reactor is is that industry standard technology?

    Thanks,
    ~Luke Mortensen

  • Jag bara undrar?

    I have read many times that Rossi uses nanopartikels because it,s a “surfuce fenomen” Use a fluctuating electromagnetic field + a hard materials to “cut the edges” of the nano nickel partikel (inside the reactor) to create “single nickle atoms”. That can also explain the iron partikels in the rest material. You create single isolated atoms who react with D or H + heat and pressure

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Joseph Fine,
    My brain was off-line. Just before reading your comment I was thinking about an old article from Scientific American “Surface Diffusion” by Robert Gomer (the August 1982 cover story page 98). He observed a proton tunneling from one site to the next on tip of a tungsten needle of a field-emission microscope (interestingly deuterons don’t tunnel). I incorporated this though with the thoughts I had about Paolo Savaris comments (a little too much free association).

    Thanks,
    Alan DeAngelis

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Han:
    I have not demo units at Rowan University.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

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