How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

by Dott. Giuliano Bettini
Retired. Earlier: Selenia SpA, Rome and IDS SpA, Pisa
Also Adjunct Professor at the University of Pisa
Adjunct Professor at Naval Academy, Leghorn (Italian Navy)

In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper? “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.

The interest on Andrea Rossi’s Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating [1]. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski [2]. says that “this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni”. But how it works?

How it works
Following Focardi Rossi [3]. a Ni58 nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the reaction

Ni58 + p → Cu59

Copper nucleus Cu59 decays with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni59 nucleus according to

Cu59 → Ni59 + ν + e+

Then (e+) annichilates with (e-) in two gamma-rays

e- + e+ → γ + γ

Starting [3] from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62, is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62 (i.e. Cu63). Each process means some MeV.

Of course how can a proton p gets captured by the Ni58 nucleus? (and subsequent Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62). Following Stremmenos [4]. a neutron-like particle, an electron proton pair, a mini-atom, a proton masked as a neutron, gets captured by the Ni58.

If the masked proton becomes a neutron the result is Ni59.
In order to have Cu59 (increase of atomic number from 28 to 29) the electron (of the masked proton) gets ejected from the nucleus. The masked proton becomes a proton.

The same process holds for all the subsequent transformations, until Cu63.
It remains to be understood the issue of the gamma radiation in the MeV range.

I am an electronic engineer, so I need easy numbers in order to understand.
However “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. Maybe I am too simple here.
Let’s calculate.
MeV for each Ni transformation
I read that starting from Ni58 we can obtain Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, and Ni62. The chain stops at Cu63 stable.
For simplicity I assume all the Nickel in the reactor in the form Ni58.
For simplicity I suppose for each Ni58 the whole sequence of events from Ni58 to Cu63 and as a rough estimate I calculate the mass defect between (Ni58 plus 5 nucleons) and the final state Cu63.
Ni58 mass is calculated to be 57.95380± 15 amu
The actual mass of a copper-Cu63 nucleus is 62.91367 amu
Mass of Ni58 plus 5 nucleons is  57.95380+5=62.95380 amu
Mass defect is 62.95380-62.91367=0.04013 amu
1 amu = 931 MeV is used as a standard conversion
0.04013×931 MeV=37.36 MeV
So each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
Nickel consumption
According to many blogs in the Internet “One hundred grams of nickel powder can power a 10 kW unit for a minimum of six months”.
How much of Ni58 should be transformed, in six months of continuous operation, in order to generate 10 kW?
I follow a procedure outlined in [2].
10 kW is thermal or electrical (?) power. The nuclear power must be larger. Assume a nuclear power twice:
20 kW = 20,000 J/s = 1.25 x 10**17 MeV/s.
Each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
The number of Ni58 transformations should thus be equal to (1.25 x 10**17)/37.36 = 3.346 x 10**15 per second.
Multiplying by the number of seconds in six months (1.55 x 10**7) the total number of transformed Ni58 nuclei is 5.186 x 10**22.
This means 5 grams.
The order of magnitude is not exactly the same but seems to be plausible. This means also 5 grams of Nickel in Rossi’s reactor transmuted into (stable) Copper after six months of continuous operation at the rate of 10 kW.
Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions.


1,014 comments to How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Fine:
    I must confess you that the idea of this nice definition has been given to me from a Friend of mine of San Francisco, a Friend who is working with our organization.
    Warm regards,

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. R

    New Fire! A very good name. Please copyright or get a trademark for that name.

    (And we hope and pray you and your team do not become the new Prometheus. )


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Luke Mortensen:
    1- no bottlenecks, the work is testing, testing, testing, mainly to sum up experience for all the possible misfunctioning
    2-R&D will continue for ever: I am not supposed to make a plant and go, we will develope for ever this new fire
    3- yes
    4- We will focus on business after the start up of the 1 MW plant we will install in Greece in October
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brian Cullen,
    I am honoured to answer you.
    As for commercial agreements in the USA, please contact,
    Vice President of Leonardo Technology Inc.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Brian Cullen

    Pps – make that future grandchildren.

  • Brian Cullen

    Any chance of a plant in Canada? Ontario is pretty open to clean energy products.
    All the best – Brian Cullen

    PS Please reply, so I can tell my future grandsons you replied.

  • Luke Mortensen


    Can you offer some insight into your current challenges? Details like this help shift the dialogue from science to practical application, which appears to be your goal.

    1. What are your current operational bottlenecks in producing 300 ecats?
    2. Have your efforts shifted from optimizing r&d to manufacturing ecats?
    3. Have you been ramping up your support staff?
    4. How has your business organization been changing since January?

    Thanks for engaging with your fans. Great engagement AR. Very consistent.

    Writing from Palm Spring, CA Infosys Consulting conference, cheers!
    -Luke Mortensen

  • Joseph Fine

    Koen Vandewalle, Dr. Rossi

    I like the name E-Cat because I have a cat – or he has me.

    There are now many sources of info or blogs on “Energy Catalyzers” such as: , and the Swedish NyTeknik (New Technology Journal) Other blogs are not as widely read but have some good ideas.

    The Nickel atoms which convert (to Copper) are probably at or near the surface of the powder grains rather than in the interior. As for the catalyst, I will wait for the patent.


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Koen Vandewalle:
    Thank you for your insight.
    The most important thing you said id that the really important issue is to make a real plant able to make real work in a real market. I agree with you, even if few have really understood this,but this is a kind of thing that people understand when it is happened. The milestone will be the start up of our 1 MW plant in Greece. You are right: I saw that few people understand the difference between an intuition upon a paper and a real plant working, most of them think that there is no difference .
    Perhaps because many have the sensation that we live in a virtual world, where the perception is that between reality and virtuality there is no big difference. But it is not so.
    Warm regards,

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I wonder why you named your coldfusion reactor an e-cat.

    Some people here refuse to give up the resistance but they should better think about the potential in this invention.

    In this journal, there is to read a lot of theory, and that is OK and also important, but there is a huge difference between drawing circles and formulas on a sheet of paper and really making a machine that works in practice.
    As I already posted somewhere else, your invention came at the right moment in time. It could not be different. There was some important invention with the products you use at the time you were a student I assume, and fifteen years later, Pons & Fleischmann did their discovery. I also remember the “news of the day” on my grandmothers TV. Cold fusion, an endless source of energy was discovered. I never understood why only a few days later, the news “that it was not true” was also on the TV-news. At that time I already found that very suspicious. Why telling everyone on TV that an invention is not true, unless someone with much power “wants” it to seem to be untrue ? At least, these guys were specialists, academics, and as you said also for yourself: why should a wise man make himself ridiculous by claiming untrue results ? Daily, we double-check our agendas to be sure that we do not fail appointments with other people. So why should the smartest people in the world do not check some hundred times the experiment before inviting the world-press ? So I never believed it was untrue. The “force of denial” was in fact more convincing me of the truth of their results. It just wasn’t the time for it.
    So, for a decade now, there is the fact that cold fusion seems to be re-invented, and in fact the world had to wait for one practical and intelligent man to put it all together in a practical application that is safe, cheap, simple and abundant. When you’re on the right path, all the good things come together and seem to enforce each other. Here, a multi-kW in a teacup-sized device is really huge, and fortunately it is not a multi-MW. That would be very unpractical and unsafe.

    I also wonder why the other 70% of Ni did not convert.

    There has been written that you sent the used powder to a lab ? They must have investigated every single grain to discover your secret. But not found a trace of the secret catalyst. I find that funny and amazing.

    Again, congratulations.

    Koen Vandewalle

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daniel De Francia:
    You did not understand what Tony said, and you did not read what has been written many times in this blog.
    I cannot repeat things many times, gotta work.
    Warm regards,

  • Joseph Fine

    Dott. Paolo Savaris, Dr. Rossi,

    I don’t know the principles of the E-Cat (or E-Tiger) operation. But here, in the JONP, I read that virtual neutrons, masked protons or mini-atoms form that combine with Nickel, producing heat and forming Copper. ( The E-cat transmutes a more expensive metal – Nickel – into a less expensive metal – Copper. )

    Dr. Savaris ran a series of experiments in which he started with Nickel and Hydrogen then produced other elements. He found an increase in Cobalt, Ytterbium, Hafnium and Tantalum. I don’t know how Paolo’s experiment works.

    I suggested that the Yb may result from a reaction of Nickel or Zinc and Zirconium. But that doesn’t work out in terms of atomic weight unless some mini-atoms become neutrons.

    As Dr. Savaris may have produced both miniatoms AND neutrons, he and all experimenters should be careful to use neutron detectors, be especially careful and ‘First do no harm!” – Primum non nocere.

    Everyone stay safe!

    Joseph Fine

  • Dave R

    Thanks so much for your efforts, Mr. Rossi. If all else fails, I am sure you can expect a Nobel prize!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Daniel De Francia:
    We are preparing the protocols.
    Warm regards,

  • Daniel de França MTd2

    Dear Mr. Andrea Rossi,

    Like Tony, I really did not understand you answer. But I take it you will somehow limit the examination of you E-Cat by the universities. What will you not allow them to see?



  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Tony:
    Please contact me in november, probably our Customer will organize visitor days. I will gove green light on your name.
    Warm regards,

  • Tony

    Mr Rossi, I should clarify that by “invite”, I do not ask for any travel to be paid for but instead I am indicating that I would love to be admitted at the big event should it be invite only access.

  • Tony


    I’m not sure if I understand Mr Rossi’s response to you but my impression is that this technology will spread and spread fast. I think you can be sure that Mr Rossi would not have to worry about money even if he did not sell a single module. People would donate to him, offer their complimentary hospitality and offer their services for free just to be able to take part or honour someone for what can only be the biggest benefit to all mankind. It seems silly to me to make this statement because how could someone like me, state something so monumental as this in advance of it happening. Did Edison, Ford and Einstein or their neighbours know in their time that these people would have such an impact on the world? I’m not a historian so I really don’t know but I would guess not. How could I state this about the E-Cat? I must be wrong in my monumental claim since I’m not even there which gives me that little doubt that I have. I however have no reason to believe that the claims are not true. Many other people here also believe the claims and I’m sure Mr Rossi appreciates that.

    Time will tell how this will all unfold and how many of my predictions this past month turn out to be true but I have a renewed hope in the future and I’m sure that the people who contribute to prosperity and humanity, in whatever way, will be rewarded in kind, especially now. I’ve been spreading the word but it is not easy, especially when you see the first expression on many peoples faces and I’m considered a smart guy (math and electrical engineering) that people turn to. I can only imagine the challenges that Mr Rossi has had to overcome, especially in the early days. To compensate, I wish him luck, success and my thanks.

    Why did I write this? I wanted to go on the record in my support for him and if I had the opportunity (invite) to be present at the unveiling, and shake his hand then I would definitely make that journey from Canada.


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Daniel De Francia:
    You can answer yourself to point 2 utilizing the point 1.
    Warm regards,

  • Daniel de França MTd2

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    1. An invention as important as the catalyzer is no Coca Cola formula. People will try to break it and no doubt they will accomplish it and make it better. How will your profit from a situation like this? For example, soon your E Cats will be analyzed in 2 universities, inside out. As soon as they are convinced that this is true, expect many governments and companies copying or stealing. They won’t even discuss in giving anything back because you don’t even have a patent on that part!

    2. Do you plan on imposing any restriction on the analysis by the universities? Can I go there and analyze it? Can you send me one?

  • David G

    Mr. Rossi,

    Yes… I was there in Rome two years ago on vacation. Everywhere you go, every small back ally, there is something amazing to see.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear David:
    Recently I visited in Rome the Sistine Chapel, in the Vatican, and observed Raphael’s paint of the Academy of Athens, with Platon, with the index toward the Universe, Aristotheles, looking toward the matter, Pitagoras, Euclides…all the brains who gave light to the human knowledge…the Destiny wanted that here the first real industrial plant of this new fire see the light. Wonderful Greece: every person should visit this Country, root of every person’s culture, at least once in the life.
    Warm regards,

  • David G

    Mr. Rossi,

    I found this news report about the €200 million plant in Greece (I used Google Translate to read in English):

    I noticed that the article says:”the company (Defkalion Green Technologies) has purchased an old factory in which is already transformed into a new unit which will be energy independent by using the same product that we produce for the market”

    When I am debunking “free or cheap energy” claims, one of the first questions I ask is: “Is this company still paying an electric bill or are they making their own cheap energy?”

    Once your plant is 100% “energy independent” and no longer paying any energy bills to utility companies, you will see a deafening silence fall across all of your critics.

    Best Regards,
    David G

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Guidi:
    1- not yet
    2- with your kind attention
    Warm regards,

  • Senior Rossi,
    Two questions for you:
    1) have you connected the E-Cat’s output to any kind of a turbine drive system to directly power an electrical generator?

    2) how can one help your endeavor?

    Thank you,
    F. Guidi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Fred:
    Consider a rough density of 1 kW/l of volume of the apparatus.
    Warm regards,

  • Fred

    What is roughly the size and weight of your 15kw unit?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Roman Radionov:
    1- total
    2- max 1/6 of the output
    Warm regards,

  • Roman Rodionov

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I have some questions about 1MW reactor (sorry if I miss something in your blog):
    1. Is 1MW the total output heat power (including heat from input E-Cats power) or this is the net output power (excluding E-Cats input)?
    2. What is the input electricity power for 1MW reactor.

    Regards and wish you success
    Roman Rodionov

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Daniel De Francia:
    1- Not impossible
    2- Yes: University of Bologna, University of Uppsala
    3- I do not give information regarding the catalyzers
    Warm regards,

  • Daniel de França MTd2

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. Will there be two 1MW stations in november, 1 in greece and other in USA?
    2. By this date, will you give full e-cats for certain universities to test them in any way they want?
    3. Have you ever tried Superplasticizers to enhance the catalyzer? I mean, nickel is a solid, but it would be good to improve its area of contact to water and keep the grains of powder separated.


  • Steve C

    Hello Mr Rossi, I’m a new technology enthusiast, and I’ve personally communicated with two people in the new technogy field who have claimed to have made breakthrough technology. Both of whom have disappeared right at the time of meeting their new “backers”. It would lead me to think that maybe you ought to make abosolutely sure that your device gets into the public domain in the event of your demise, a “dead mans handle” as it were. I personally wish you well, I don’t understand exactly how your device works, but if it works as advertised, you might just make the world a safer and happier place. And you can’t buy THAT with money.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Bill Conley:
    I due time we will make a press conference, when the 1 MW plant in the concern of our USA Customer will be in operation. To avoid useless chattering I decided, from now on, to make public only the facts of my Customers’ plants in operation . Too much talking has been done already.
    Warm regards,

  • Bill Conley

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I continue to follow your E-Cat progress with interest and admiration.

    A while back you mentioned that you had signed an agreement with a major U.S. firm and thought that a joint press release would be made soon. Being anxious for the E-Cat to get some mainstream attention in the U.S., I wondered if you can give us any further news/information on the major firm, the nature of the contract, or when we might see the press release.

    Thanks and God’s speed on your exciting journey.

    Bill Conley

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Paul Calvo:
    Thank you: everybody who knows me knows how much I owe to the USA, the place of my rebirth and the place where I have chosen to reside and make the manufacturing of our products. I am fighting, as all of you, to give my energies to this Great Country to overcome the crisis. We are just doing it.
    Warm Regards, “Paisà”:
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr “MEDIC”:
    1- all what is necessary
    2- we got all the opportune transmission of information, just in case…
    Warm regards,

  • Medic

    Dr. Rossi, of course I will remain sceptical until I see this device working for my self. If you have what you say you have, I can’t even tell you how much good you will do for this world. That being said, November is a long time to wait. I have a bunch of questions(assuming your technology works):

    1. What are you doing to prevent sabotage to your plant?
    2. What counter measures are in place in case(G-d forbid) you become incapacitated or are killed(again G-d forbid)? What will happen to the technology? Are you literally the only one who knows the secrets? I respect your desire to make this technology a reality, and you do have a good point about commercialization of it, however; the last thing we need is a bunch of rich psychopaths knocking you out of the picture. Are there any protection procedures you have in place to make sure that the correct design schematics of this product will end up in public hands if commercialization fails? Remember you can’t rely on your models for people to replicate. You need backup thorough documentation that will be released in case of emergency. I know these are brutal questions, but if your technology works I’m deeply concerned of the time frame you have laid out. A lot can happen in less than twenty four hours. Everything can crash rapidly, and people with high finances can disable you so quickly. I hope you bare these things in mind. I pray for your safety, I really want you to succeed if you have this invention.

    Again, IF you got what you say you got, you’re about to kick every arms dealer, tyrannical government, energy company, motor company and pretty much every scum bag on the planet RIGHT IN THE NUTS. I hope you’re taking safety precautions.

  • Paul Calvo

    America Supports you Dr Rossi ! There are many here that support all your valiant efforts
    win or draw Andrea you have the heart of a lion and we are with you!
    make sure to put a eCat on the Acropolis she still sits in wonderment
    thousands of years latter, see you in Miami! – Paul

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. Rossi,

    Astatine is NOT used in the E-Cat. (And no one ever said it was.)

    But if Carbon, Astatine and Phosphorous were added to the Nickel, the resulting mixture would be “C-At-Ni-P”. And Cats, if not E-Cats, love Catnip.


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Andrei:
    Yes: much work, few words.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Hector B.:
    For commercial issues please contact us in November, when we will start our commercial operations, after the start up of the 1 MW plant in Athens.
    Warm regards,

  • Hector B.

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    First of all, congratulations to have gone foward with this tecnology, when it has been dismissed for a lot of physicians in the last year. Human being is starting to think that we know all the physical laws in the universe, but when we talk about quantum phisycs I think we are, like in XVII century with newton physics, only starting.
    I am aware that the comercial rights of your machine are property of Defkalion Green Technologies for Europe. Do you know if Defkalion Green Tech. is interested in looking for comercial partners in europe outside Greece for comercialization and manteniance?
    And there is any possibility of going to a demostration of your machine as audience?
    Thanks in advance,

  • Andrei

    Dear Rossi,

    If you are success, governments in the world will use an army of scientists to reveal your secrets. Do you have any plans to defend?


  • Alessandro Casali

    Thank you mr. Rossi for your quick reply.

    I undestand that it’s too early to answer my specific questions, however could you tell me if you think heating an average household using an e-cat (or more e-cats) will be cheaper (considering all the running/charging costs) than usig traditional systems like gas or electric boilers?

    Best Regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Alessandro Casali:
    All the commercial issues will be set in November, after the start up of the Grecian 1 MW plant.
    Of course the E-Cat can be turned off at any moment.
    The 6 months duration is based on 24 hours/day operation.
    Warm regards,

  • Alessandro Casali

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    you just said an e-cat recharge will cost 100$, is that all your clients will need to pay for using an e-cat for 6 month or are there any additional rental fee or purchase cost?

    How much thermal power will this (100$) unit produce?

    How much input energy will it require?

    Will the end user be allowed to turn off the e-cat?

    Will the charge last longer than 6 months if the e-cat doesn’t operate 24h a day?

    Thanks a lot for your precious time.


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Luis Vaccaro:
    1- no
    2- no
    3- 100 $
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Adriano:
    Please contact us in november for commercial issues.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Perez:
    Thank you, I will work never enough to merit what you say.
    Warm Regards,

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