A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

By prof. Christos Stremmenos

After several years of apparent inaction, the theme of cold fusion has been recently revitalized thanks to, among others, the work and the scientific publications of Focardi and Rossi, which has been conducted in silence, amidst ironical disinterest, without any funding or support.  In fact, recently, practical and reliable results have been achieved based on a very promising apparatus invented by Andrea Rossi.  Therefore I want to examine the possibility of further development of this technology, which I deem really important for our planet.

Introduction
I will start with patent no./2009/125444, registered by Dr. Ing. Andrea Rossi. This invention and its performance have been tested and verified in collaboration with Prof. Sergio Focardi, as reported in their paper, published in February 2010 in the Journal of Nuclear Physics [1]. In that scientific paper they have reported on the performance of an apparatus, which has produced for two years substantial amounts of energy in a reliable and repeatable mode and they have also offered a theoretical analysis for the interpretation of the underlying physical mechanism.

In the history of Science, it is not the first time that a practical and reliable apparatus is working before its theoretical foundation has been completely understood! The photoelectric effect is the classic example in which the application has anticipated its full theoretical interpretation, developed by Einstein. Afterwards Einstein, Plank, Heisenberg, De Broglie, Schrödinger and others formulated the principles of Quantum Mechanics.  For the interactive Nickel/Hydrogen system it would be now opportune to compile, in a way easily understood by the non expert the relevant principles and concepts for the qualitative understanding of the phenomenon. Starting with the behavior of electrically charged particles in vacuum, it is known that particles with opposite electric charge attract themselves and “fuse” producing an electrically neutral particle, even though this does not always happen, as for instance in the case of a hydrogen atom, where a proton and a electron although attract each other they do not “fuse”, for reasons that will be explained later.   On the contrary, particles charged with electric charge of the same sign always repel each other, and their repulsion tends to infinity when their distance tends to zero, which implies that in this case fusion is not possible (classical physics).

On the contrary, according to Quantum mechanics, for a system with a great number of  particles of the same electric charge (polarity) it is possible that a few of them will fuse, as for instance, according to Focardi-Rossi, in the case of  Nickel nuclei in crystal structure and hydrogen nuclei (protons) diffused within it, Although of the same polarity,  a very small percentage of these nuclei manage to come so close to each other, at a distance of 10-14 m, where strong nuclear forces emerge and take over the Coulomb forces  and thus form the nucleus of a new element, either stable or unstable.

This mechanism, which is possible only in the atomic microcosm, is predictable by a quantum-mechanics model of a particle put in a closed box.  According to classical physics no one would expect to find a particle out of the box, but in quantum mechanics the probability of a particle to be found out of the box is not zero! This is the so called “tunneling effect”, which for systems with a very large number of particles, predicts that a small percentage of them lie outside the box, having penetrated the “impenetrable” walls and any other present barrier through the “tunnel”! In our case, the barrier is nothing else but the electrostatic repulsion, to which the couples of hydrogen and nickel nuclei (of the same polarity) are subjected and is called Coulomb barrier.

Diffusion mechanism of hydrogen in nickel: Nickel as a catalyst first decomposes the biatomic molecules of hydrogen to hydrogen atoms in contact with the nickel surface. Then these hydrogen atoms deposit their electrons to the conductivity band of the metal (Fermi band) and due to their greatly reduced volume, compared to that of their atom, the hydrogen nuclei readily diffuse into the crystalline structure of the nickel, including its defects. At this point, in order to understand the phenomenon it is necessary to briefly describe the structure both of the nickel atom and the nickel crystal lattice.

It is well known that the nickel atom is not so simple as the hydrogen atom, as its nucleus consists of dozens of protons and neutrons, thus it is much heavier and exerts a proportionally higher electrostatic repulsion than the nucleus of hydrogen, which consists of only one proton. In this case, the electrons, numerically equal to the protons, are ordered in various energy levels and cannot be easily removed from the atom to which they belong. Exception to this rule is the case of electrons of the chemical bonds, which along with the electrons of the hydrogen atoms form the metal conductivity band (electronic cloud), which moves quasi freely throughout the metal mass.

As in all transition metals, the nickel atoms in the solid state, and more specifically their nuclei, are located at the vertices and at the centre of the six faces of the cubic cell of the metal, leaving a free internal octahedral space within the cell, which, on account of the quasi negligible volume of the nuclei, is practically filled with electrons of the nickel atoms, as well as with conductivity electrons.

It would be really interesting to know the electrons’ specific density (number of electrons per unit volume) and its spatial distribution inside this octahedral space of the crystal lattice as a function of temperature.

Dynamics of the lattice vibration states
Another important aspect to take into consideration in this system is the dynamics of the lattice vibration states, in other words, the periodic three dimensional normal oscillations of the crystal lattice (phonons) of the nickel, which hosts hydrogen nuclei or nuclei of hydrogen isotopes (deuterium or tritium) that have entered into the above mentioned free space of the crystal cell.

It could be argued that the electrons’ specific density and its spatial distribution in the internal space of the crystal structure should be coherent with the natural frequencies of the lattice oscillations. This means that the periodicity of the electronic cloud within the octahedral space of the elementary crystal cell of Nickel generates an oscillating strengthening of shielding of the diffused nuclei of hydrogen or deuterium which also populate this space.

I believe that these considerations can form the basis for a qualitative analysis of this “NEW SOURCE OF ENERGY” and the phenomenology related to cold fusion, including energy production in much smaller quantities and various reaction products.

Shielding of protons by electrons
In the Focardi-Rossi paper the shielding of protons provided by electrons is suspected to be one of the main reasons of the effect, helping the capture of protons by the Ni nucleus, therefore  generating energy by fusion of protons in Nickel and a series of exothermic nuclear reactions, leaving as by-product isotopes different from the original Ni (transmutations). Such shielding is one of the elements contributing to the energetic efficiency of the system.  From this derives the opportunity, I think, to focus upon this shielding, both to increase its efficiency and to verify the hypothesis contained in the paper of Focardi-Rossi.  Of course, what we are talking of here is a theoretical verification, because the practical verification is made by monitoring the performance of the apparatus invented and patented by Andrea Rossi, presently under rigorous verification by many independent university researchers.

In my opinion, the characteristics of the shielding of the proton from the electrons should be defined, as well as the “radiometric” behavior of the system.

In other words, the following two questions should be answered:

  1. Which is the supposed mechanism that overcomes the powerful electrostatic repulse (Coulomb barrier) between the “shielded proton” and the Nickel nucleus?
  2. For what reason there is almost no radiation of any kind (experimental observation), while according to the Focardi and Rossi’s hypothesis there should have been some γ radiation (511 KeV) produced by the predicted annihilation of the β+ and β- particles that are being created during the Fusion?

I believe that some thoughts based on general and elementary structures, data and principles of universal scientific acceptance, might shed some light to this exciting phenomenon.  More specific, I refer to Bohr’s hydrogen atom, the speed of nuclear reactions (10-20 sec) and the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg.

I will take Bohr’s hydrogen atom as a starting point (figure 1a), which stays at its fundamental state forever in the absence of external perturbations, due to De Broglie’s wave, accompanying the sole electron.

As stated before, in contact with the metal, these atoms lose their fundamental state, as their electrons are being transmitted to the conductivity band.  These electrons, together with the “naked nuclei” of hydrogen (protons), form a freely moving cloud of charges (plasma at a degenerate state) inside the crystalline lattice. That cloud is being defused through the surface to the polycrystallic mass of the metal, covering empty spaces of the non-canonical structure of the crystalline lattice, as well as the tetrahedral and octahedral spaces between the molecules. As a consequence, the crystalline structure is covered by “delocalized plasma” (degenerate state), which is consisted by protons, electrons produced by the “absorbed atoms” of hydrogen, as well as by the electrons of the chemical valence of Nickel of the lattice, at different energy states (Fermi’s band). (Fig. 2)

Fig.1b

In this system, if one considers the probability of the creation inside the crystalline lattice of temporary (not at the fundamental state) “pseudo-atoms” of hydrogen with neutral charge, for example at a time of the order of 10ˆ-17 sec, then that possibility is not completely ill-founded. (Fig 1b)

Fig.2

According to the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg, the temporary atoms of hydrogen will cover during that small time interval Δt, a wide range of energies ΔΕ, which means also a wide range of atomic diameters of temporary atoms, satisfying the De Broglie’s condition.  A percentage of them (at fist a very small one) might have diameters smaller than 10ˆ-14 m, which is the maximum active radius of nuclear reactions. In that case, the chargeless temporary atoms, or mini-atoms, of hydrogen together with high energy but short lived electrons, are being statistically trapped by the Nickel nuclei at a time of 10ˆ-20 sec. In other words, the high speed of nuclear reactions permits the fusion of short lived but neutral mini-atoms of hydrogen with the Nickel nuclei of the crystalline lattice, as during that short time interval the Coulomb barrier (of the specific hydrogen mini-atom) does not exist.

Afterwards, it follows a procedure similar to the one described by Focardi and Rossi, but instead of considering the capture of a shielded proton by the Ni58 nucleus, we adopt the hypothesis of trapping a neutral temporary atom, or a mini atom, of hydrogen (with a diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m) which transforms the Ni58 nucleus into Cu59 (copper/59, short lived isotope*).

It follows the predicted “β decay” of the nuclei of the short lived isotope of copper, accompanied by the emission of β+ (positrons) and β- (perhaps the electrons of the mini atoms trapped inside that nucleus during the fusion). These particles are being annihilated with an emission of γ radiation (two photons of γ of energy 511 KeV each, for every couple of β+ and β-).

In other words, whoever has experimented with this system should have suffered the not-so-harmless influence of those radiations, but that never happened.  The radioactivity measured at the experiments is almost zero and easily shielded.

In any case, a rigorous, in my opinion, theoretical approach for the interpretation of that phenomenon with quantum mechanical terms, would give clear quantitative answers to the above stated models. With my Colleges of theoretical chemistry, we are already planning to face the problem using the time-depended quantum mechanical perturbation theory, bearing in mind the following:

  1. The total wave function (of the nucleus and the electrons) of temporarily, non-stable states.
  2. The total time-depended Hamiltonian, for temporarily states.
  3. Searching for the resonance conditions at that system.

Such an approach had a successful outcome at a similar problem of theoretical chemistry and we hope that it will be valid in this case as well.

Let’s go back to the intuitive, with ideal models, approach, in order to give a qualitative explanation for the (almost) absent radiations of the system, by using:

  • First of all the Boltzmann’s distribution (especially at the asymptotic area of high energies).
  • The photoelectric effect
  • The Compton effect
  • The Mössbauer effect

We have already mentioned that from the temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, the ones with diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m, have a larger probability of fusion. But, in order for them to be created, high energy bond electrons should exist at the “delocalized plasma” of the crystalline lattice.

1. Boltzmann’s statistics:
There are reasons to believe that the H/Ni system, at first at temperatures of about 400-500oC, contains a very small percentage of electrons in the “delocalized plasma” with enough energy to create (together with the diffused protons), according to the wave-particle duality principle, the first temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, that will trigger the fusion with the nickel nuclei and the production of high energy γ photons (511 KeV).

2. Photoelectric Effect:
It is not possible, the HUGE amount of energy (in kW/h), that the Rossi/Focardi reactor produces, as measured by unrelated scientists in repeated demonstrations (at one of them by the writer and his colleagues, Fig 3), to be created due to the thermalization of the insignificant number of  γ photons at the beginning of the reaction.

Fig.3

I believe that, as stated above, these photons are the trigger of fusion at a multiplicative series, based on the photoelectric effect inside the crystalline structure.

The two γ photons can export symmetrically (180°) two electrons from the nearest Nickel atoms. The stimulation, due to the high energy of γ, concerns electrons of internal bands of two different atoms of the lattice and has as a prerequisite the absorption of all the energy of the photon.  A small part of that energy is being consumed for the export of the electron from the atom and the rest is being transformed into kinetic energy of the electron (thermal energy).

The result of that procedure is to enrich the “delocalized plasma” with high energy electrons that will contribute multiplicatively (by a factor of two) at the progress of the cold fusion nuclear reactions of hydrogen and nickel and at the same time transform the hazardous γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

3. The Compton Scattering:
It gives the additional possibility of multiplication, this time due to secondary photons γ, in a wide range of frequencies, as a function of the angular deviation from the direction of the initial photon of 511 keV. That has as a result the increase of the export of electrons, due to the photoelectric phenomenon at the crystalline mass, in many energy/kinetic levels, which gives an additional possibility of converting the γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

4. The Mössbauer effect:
It gives another possible way of absorbing the γ radiation and transforming it into thermal energy. It is based on the principle of conservation of momentum at the regression of the new Cu59 nucleus/ from the emission of a γ photon. Relative calculations (Dufour) showed that this mechanism has an insignificant (1%) contribution.

It follows that, according to given data, the Photoelectric phenomenon and the Compton Effect, could explain the absence of radiations in the Focardi-Rossi system, which, from the amount of producing energy versus the consumption of Ni and H2, as well as from the experimental observation of element transformations,  lead undoubtedly to the acceptance of hydrogen cold fusion.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The author wishes to acknowledge Aris Chatzichristos for the contribution in formulating this paper in English

References:
(1)www. journal-of-nuclear-physics.com /Focardi Rossi/  (A new energy source from nuclear fusion)

* I believe that the phasmatometric tracing of copper is the most definitive sign of nuclear fusion: From the relative bibliography (HANDBOOK OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 66TH edition), it follows that the stable non radioactive isotopes of nickel are the following five:

58, 60, 61, 62 and 64. These, when fused with a hydrogen nucleus, are being transmuted relatively to Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-63 and Cu-65. From these isotopes of copper only the last two (Cu-63 and Cu-65) are not radioactive, i.e. they are stable. The other three Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, are being transmuted again to Nickel, with an average life expectancy of some hours and the most unstable Cu-59 in 18 seconds.

By prof. Christos Stremmenos


840 comments to A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michail:
    Sorry, I do not know the work of Frank Znidarsic.
    If you send as a comment a resume of it, we will be glad to publish.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Michail

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I am a strong believer in your device and have done quite some web research.
    One question; Did you at any point in time consider Frank Znidarsic’s theories? Do they apply to your device?

    thanks a lot in advance

    warm regards
    Michail

  • Julian Brown

    Mr Rossi,

    Since Ni 62 is the most tightly bound nucleus of all,

    e.g. see http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/imgnuk/bcurv.gif

    – Nickel seems a most unlikely candidate for generating energy by either fusion or fission processes.

    Has anyone else on this blog made this observation or is equally puzzled by this fact ?

    The more I look at your device, the more it looks like either

    A) the energy is coming from the solar fusion process:

    p+p -> d + (anti)fermions + energy

    – which is essentially similar to what Fleischmann and his followers observed in deuterated palladium:

    d+d -> He4 + energy

    – and can be explained by standard solid-state theory, subject to a single correction of a small error in accepted models of transition metal hydrides (details on request).

    or

    B) the energy is coming from

    Ni + p -> Cu

    – and the Standard Model of physics must be amended in some way, possibly as expounded by Prof. Stremmenos or Mills.

    N.B. Widom’s attempt to explain p + e -> n
    processes in terms of textbook physics completely fails to convince, because he merely replaces one problem (the Coulomb barrier) with another one (coherent E-fields of huge intensity that have never been observed and which he can not explain, only invoke as a deus ex machina).

    Mr Rossi, since you have certainly used a mass spectrometer to look at the hydrogen after a long period of energy production, must know whether deuterium is being produced as a reaction product.

    You have left us with a puzzle to solve.

    I admire your reticence and wisdom in not revealing all your secrets at this stage !

  • raul heining

    Dear Koen,
    I cannot disagree more with you. Quantum mechanicas has had a lot o predictions now used in technology. Your idea that in real physics nothing is random is completely wrong. That was the idea
    of the physics of the nineteenth century. Even when people put tunneling as a hypotesis to what happens
    in LENR experiments, they are talking quantum mechanics. From classic physics, if deterministic as you call it, there should be no tunnel efect but we know that thare is. You are confusing average variables with
    random variables.
    Regards
    raul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    1/6 of the 1 MW.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    Dear Andrea,
    How many kW will be the (contractual) electrical input of your 1MW plant ?
    respectfully yours,
    Koen Vandewalle

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Mr Bob Johnson,
    I believe Mr. Rossi has a different, more developed, intuitive model of nuclear physics in his mind, wich is a little different of the mathematical models that are commonly used to EXPLAIN as much as possible of the so far known.

    Pls Mr Rossi, can you confirm this ?

    The QM-models are made to let mathematics fit on the known phenomenae. Which means that they cannot always be used beyond, nor to harness the phenomenae. Especially not for inventing.
    Wich has been overcome by Mr. Rossi.

    Only a certain elite can understand QM. I cannot, because of formula’s just do not fit in my brain, whatever I may try to do. Graphs, 3D models, dynamics, thermodyn, fluidummech, electro yes, but not formulas. Unfortunately there is not too much people that can criticize QM experts. It is not that they are wrong, but there is few competition. These experts are the privileged in our society to be paid for doing science and education on the subject. Since they teach and in a certain way choose their successors, there is few hope on revolution from that side. On top of the highest mountain, but unable to travel to the stars. I mean this with the biggest possible respect.

    An example: we have a good model of the flow in the world oceans. When you throw a bottle in it (model) on a certain place and time, the bottle may always end on the same place on the beach (or between the other scrap…). It is clear that this cannot be reality. So what do mathematicians do: add random variables to the model with statistical behaviour. Indeed, now the bottles will end in other places, as we see in reality. The problem is that we can do fit the statistics to make appear the bottles on the right places as seen in reality, and therefore we could begin to believe that our model IS almost reality.
    The big difference between the model and the reality is that in real physics nothing, NOTHING, is random. So all the models with statistics are some way of a shortcut or simplification. Reality is too complex for the models. Nothing and nobody will ever solve this. One should take into account the whole history of universe (matter and energy) to create an exact model. Humans cannot do that.

    So a model should never never never be used to explain a theory to apprentices because it confuses intuitive comprehension of reality. Observing reality is the way to learn.

    Mr Rossi, and the whole world should be grateful to him, eliminates at least one of the statistically defined variables to replace it with a more real system. If he ever explains us how he influences “quantumtunneling”, wich I really expect him to do once, this will open a gate to much greater knowledge and probably more endless energy and resources from which some can be quite incompatible with current human behaviour. So, just let us use the e-cat for now and do some more civilization. We need both. I’m even quite confident that some professors he works with, especially Prof. Stremmenos, do have good ideas what happens with the Ni and H. Only the fact of the quick decisions they made, tells me that they understand it, and were confident from the first moment.

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lars:
    Yes, but we are not yet ready.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lars

    Dear Mr Rossi
    Have you done any test to convert to electricity at all?

  • Nick Pourmi

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Professor Emeritus Sergio Focardi of the University of Bologna,
    Professor Christos E. Stremmenos,

    Believing 100% in your work, I would kindly indicate you take notice of the following theoretical and practical development:
    http://newenergyandfuel.com/http:/newenergyandfuel/com/2011/06/27/established-physics-has-another-new-fusion-problem/
    http://www.brillouinenergy.com/

    Best regards from Romania,
    Nick Pourmi

  • DEFKALION Green Technologies S.A.

    Defkalion Green Technologies s.a. looks forward to face product competition producing energy with similar characteristics to ours. We believe that any such competition will be in favour of the end users who deserve the best products available at the best prices.

    We understand the challenges of industrialization of this new emerging technology and we are ready to support any and all effort towards the setup of an international independent industrial regulatory body for this new technology. Such an entity would be responsible to set up standards and test procedures for related products. We intend to support these efforts using funds created by sales from our products and not our investors’ money. We hope that others industrial players will decide to do the same in the future in order to support the sector’s standards.
    Since then, it will be very helpful for all to understand that measurements and tests protocols on kW or MW products do have some differences from protocols created when watts were the result of research efforts and performance ratio where very close to 1:1.

    It should be noted that Hyperion products (as briefly described in http://www.defkalion-energy.com/White%20Paper_DGT.pdf) do not use water as a coolant but another substance which does not change phase within the cooling circuit or the heat management system. Andrea Rossi’s lab prototypes (e-cats) where demonstrated both to academia as well as to the public with water as a coolant for test simplicity reasons. The results were presented and analyzed in http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com.

    Defkalion Green Technologies

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Johnson:
    After the start up of our 1 MW plant, I will release the theory I suppose to be at the base of the effect in our apparatus.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob Johnson

    Defkalion Green Techologies S.A says on the websit ” the E-Cat increases the probability of particles overcoming the electrostatic potential Coulomb barriers in order to penetrate the nucleus by the quantum mechanical tunneling effect”

    Is quantum mechanical tunneling effect the foundation of your theory ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Here is the new website of our Customer:
    http://www.defkalion-energy.com

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    I felt myself useful.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Martin

    Dear mr Rossi,

    Today is was thinking about your invention. I am very curious how it feels
    when someone realises he invented something that can change the world.
    What was your reaction at first time realising that?

    Best regards

    Martin

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nick Pourmi,
    Thanks for the information, I didn’t know.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Nick Pourmi

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Exactly a month ago, on May 26th, your page on Wikipedia was deleted. However, the article about the Energy Catalyzer is still in place, up to date and, to a partial extent, well documented.
    Have you been informed by the administrators of the site about the deletion?

    Buon lavoro e… in bocca al lupo!
    Cari Saluti,
    Nick Pourmi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Davide C.:
    1- No
    2- We always used normal water, but the water does not go in contact with the charge of the reactor. Of course we have limestone residuals, but this has been fixed the usual way. In case of water recirculation, is necessary the demineralization.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chuck:
    If they have a proposal to do, we are here.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chuck

    Mr. Rossi;

    It appears this company http://www.gmzenergy.com is manufacturing material that can convert heat energy to electricity. Perhaps it is worth consideration.

    Regards,

    Chuck

  • Davide C.

    Hi Dr. Rossi,
    in Bondeno you’ve used an e-cat prototype for many months.
    1) Did you use demineralized water?
    2) Have you ever try to use normal water? If you did so, at the end the e-cat was full of limestone?
    Thanks and congratulations for the Defkalion conference, surely it was a success.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    No, I can’t. This is, so far, our limit.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lars:
    For heat, so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Drear CGV:
    I studied this new alloy, it is very interesting, but still in a R&D phase. Of course I informed the inventors that we are interested to their product, as soon as it will be for sale.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • GCV

    From heat to electricity – Direct conversion – New alloy

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    I would like to draw you attention to a couple of points:

    – the head of this research has been Prof. Richard D. James. Contact: james@umn.edu / Phone: (612) 625-0706
    – the research team is looking into possible commercialization of the technology.

    I wish you the very best of luck.

    Best regards.

    P.S. Please kindly delete my previous comment. Thanks.

  • Lars

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    Is the 1 Mw for heat or electricity?

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. Rossi,

    Can you increase steam temperature above 500-550 degrees C without risking instability or melting the Nickel or the catalyst? There is a large temperature differential between 500 degrees C and 1400 or more degrees C. It seems that 600 degrees C steam should be attainable, but better is the enemy of good enough.

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Dingman:
    Thank you for your comment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob Dingman

    Dear All,

    Has the time actually come for mankind to use nuclear technology for the benefit of all mankind? One can only hope. The silver lining to today’s Petrol controlled media is that right now we have a unique opportunity to witness and God willing take part in an energy revolution that is long overdue. Soon Signor Rossi will be so overwhelmed with solicitations, recommendations, and even inquiries that one person will be unable to keep pace with the sheer volume of individual requests.

    For an alternate viewpoint on today’s news, I find MHZ Worldview carries RT, IBA, NHK, France, and India news broadcasts to name a few. MHZ Worldview is carried by most PBS stations across the country (US) as a secondary channel to their main channel. Russian TV can be most interesting.

    Finally, If you haven’t read all the posts in the blog, Please do so before posting as your question may have already been asked. Signor Rossi is gracious enough to take the time to answer our questions. The least we can do is try to make them intelligent and non-redundant.

    Best Regards,

    Bob Dingman

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Neil Taylor:
    Thank you, I will search.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi
    June 23rd, 2011 at 4:46 PM
    Dear Neil Taylor,
    Thank you, very interesting. Can you send a proposal? I can buy one to test it immediately.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Dear Mr. Rossi, I can only tell you what I have read in the published article “Minnesota engineering researchers in the College of Science and Engineering have recently discovered a new alloy material that converts heat directly into electricity.”

    http://www1.umn.edu/news/news-releases/2011/UR_CONTENT_343439.html

    Their contact information is as follows: Rhonda Zurn, College of Science and Engineering, rzurn@umn.edu, (612) 626-7959 Preston Smith, University News Service, smith@umn.edu, (612) 625-0552

    I hope this helps and the best of luck to you and your associates,
    Neil Taylor

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Eernie:
    Thanks, re,e,mer to contact me in October.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear ing. Rossi;
    Thank you for your kind invitation. If I was as young as you,I would take the first flight I could to Greece to see your equipment However at my age I must devide my energy between following your fantastic invention on the internet and flying all over the US to visit my grandchildren.You have added years to my life by the interest that I have in your work.If you dont mind I would like to discuss an issue outside the area of technology because of your impact on it.
    When I began my professional career in 1952,the net worth of the US,(real estate,farms,stocks,bonds,factories,possessions and cash)owned by its citizens was approximately 2 trillion dollars.Today, according to the internet, the net worth is approximately 130 trillion dollars.This was accomplished by the labors of people like you and me who started companies that created jobs and products for public consumption.Your new companies will surely add a great deal to this total increasing the net worth of all our citizens.When people tell me that the government will spend our country into bancruptcy I tell them we are creating wealth faster than they can spend.In my case, I am worth twice as much now as when I retired 16 years ago and have no debt even though I have no earned income.Believe me,I have spent a great deal of money since then.My income was obtained by the increase in value of my assets.As long as there are people like you and me willing to shed blood sweat and tears to accomplish our goals, this country cannot decrease its value and will continue to prosper. I have been well rewarded for my efforts and know that you also will be.Good luck, I will be with you all the way.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gent.ma Fulvia:
    Sorry, also this is confidential.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nick Pourmi:
    Thank you for your help.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fulvia

    caro ing. Rossi,
    Leggendo nel suo blog le varie questioni tecniche inerenti la sua invenzione vedo che si parla spesso di un additivo segreto che sarebbe il vero cuore della sua invenzione, permettendo all’energia di moltiplicarsi (altrimenti sarebbe solo poco più del doppio, mi pare…). noto, giustamente (io farei lo stesso), che lei non vuol parlarne sino all’omologa del brevetto, ma una cosa si potrebbe dirla: trattasi di ulteriori materiali o prodotti (tipo ni e h, sale… per capirci) oppure é un apparecchio (tipo un compressore, uno ionizzatore…) ? Grazie e auguri ancora. Buon lavoro. Fulvia

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michel M
    Thank you, very interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Nick Pourmi

    Dear Neil Taylor,

    I already suggested our esteemed engineer Mr. Andrea Rossi that link, in a post on this forum just a few clicks before… (http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=497&cpage=10#comment-47916). I believe it is useful for “Mr. Rossi’s cause” that many people share recent information that could, eventually, point his attention towards an effective, workable solution.

    Respectfully,
    Nick Pourmi

  • Dear Dr Rossi,

    Here are some pictures I took during my visit to the ITER site.
    I wondered how many “E-cat” could be put into the excavation :)

    Again, congratulations for your work !

    https://picasaweb.google.com/soleil1338/ITER2011?feat=directlink

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Artioli Cesarino:
    No, I did not, I have not the power of this, but I am happy that Enrico Fermi’s work has been proposed as a theme in the High School examinations. Our teen agers need real models of life.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Artioli Cesarino

    Buon Giorno Signor Rossi

    Aspettando con pazienza che in rete compaiano le prime riprese video della Conferenza della Defkalion ( Tradotte ) e porgendo il più sentito in bocca al Lupo per il Futuro commerciale e Non della sua creazione, sempre più mi rammarico di come gli organi di informazione italiani siano ciechi e muti riguardo alla sua epocale invenzione.
    Quindi non solo un applauso da parte mia a lei, ma anche a quei giornalisti che la seguono nella sua avventura, come Maurizio Melis, e ai Blog come 22Passi che informano con entusiasmo sempre crescente.
    Sono anche felice di constatare che l’idea di Chiamare commercialmente E-Cat “Promethèus” non era così campata in aria…. In fin dei conti sempre un Titano era come Imperione
    Spero, in tutta sincerità, un giorno,magari in qualche conferenza, di sentirla parlare di persona e magari stringerle la mano (abito molto vicino a Bondeno) .
    P.S. E’ stato lei a suggerire la traccia del tema di maturità su Fermi ? :)

    Ancora Congratulazioni
    Cordiali saluti Artioli Cesarino

  • Andrea Rossi

    Our Customer DEFKALION has made a new site:
    http://www.defkalion-energy.com
    and an annexed blog. We kindly suggest to our Readers to take a look, for an insight in the industrial development of the E-Cats .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    dear twmemphis:
    We change the modulations. If you observe also the reports of Prof. Kullander and Prof. Hanno and the reports of Mats Lewan, you will see that they are close. The problem is that sometime we make tests for us, stressing the reactor, sometimes we work to find the maximum safety point, for the products we have to manufacture for our Customers. There is a big difference, like between a F1 racing car and a car for the urban traffic.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandevalle:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    Good points,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Brian Josephson, Nobel Prize:
    You continue to honour our Journal with your attention.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco De Leonardis:
    Surely you are not a Physic: gamma rays are the fingerprints of their source.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco De Leonardis

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Why the gamma rays (behind the shield) are not measured in the public experiments?
    A simply energy measure (not the spectrum) will not release any confidential information, allowing the most skeptical to change idea.
    This is the easiest way to monitor what is happening inside the e-cat.
    Thanks
    Marco De Leonardis

  • Brian Josephson

    Our ‘video FAQ’ on the Rossi reactor is now available on our media server at
    http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1150242, as well as at the original youtube location
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAJnZZi41YA (where the video has already had more than two thousand views in less than 3 days). The version at sms.cam.ac.uk is recommended as it has been improved somewhat (videos cannot be updated on youtube, unfortunately), and also includes a transcript (embedding code is also available, included at the end of the transcript).

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Indeed, there is a difference in producing a flow of dry steam and a coffee-machine that uses steam-bubbles to push the water out. The latter will transport more water with less kWh.
    It is to blame on the non-believers that they even dare to suggest this, just in order to try to focus away from the message that in a range between 2 and 15 kW (who cares ?), excess heat is produced with a basic assembly.

    Is it feasible to heat air instead of water as the carrier of heat to use the higher temperature range and for turbine applications ? Perhaps with thick copper reactor housing instead of steel as a buffer for the oscillations in power output. Or is it just that wat is going to be tried in Bologna ?

    Respectfully yours,
    Koen Vandewalle

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>