A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

By prof. Christos Stremmenos

After several years of apparent inaction, the theme of cold fusion has been recently revitalized thanks to, among others, the work and the scientific publications of Focardi and Rossi, which has been conducted in silence, amidst ironical disinterest, without any funding or support.  In fact, recently, practical and reliable results have been achieved based on a very promising apparatus invented by Andrea Rossi.  Therefore I want to examine the possibility of further development of this technology, which I deem really important for our planet.

I will start with patent no./2009/125444, registered by Dr. Ing. Andrea Rossi. This invention and its performance have been tested and verified in collaboration with Prof. Sergio Focardi, as reported in their paper, published in February 2010 in the Journal of Nuclear Physics [1]. In that scientific paper they have reported on the performance of an apparatus, which has produced for two years substantial amounts of energy in a reliable and repeatable mode and they have also offered a theoretical analysis for the interpretation of the underlying physical mechanism.

In the history of Science, it is not the first time that a practical and reliable apparatus is working before its theoretical foundation has been completely understood! The photoelectric effect is the classic example in which the application has anticipated its full theoretical interpretation, developed by Einstein. Afterwards Einstein, Plank, Heisenberg, De Broglie, Schrödinger and others formulated the principles of Quantum Mechanics.  For the interactive Nickel/Hydrogen system it would be now opportune to compile, in a way easily understood by the non expert the relevant principles and concepts for the qualitative understanding of the phenomenon. Starting with the behavior of electrically charged particles in vacuum, it is known that particles with opposite electric charge attract themselves and “fuse” producing an electrically neutral particle, even though this does not always happen, as for instance in the case of a hydrogen atom, where a proton and a electron although attract each other they do not “fuse”, for reasons that will be explained later.   On the contrary, particles charged with electric charge of the same sign always repel each other, and their repulsion tends to infinity when their distance tends to zero, which implies that in this case fusion is not possible (classical physics).

On the contrary, according to Quantum mechanics, for a system with a great number of  particles of the same electric charge (polarity) it is possible that a few of them will fuse, as for instance, according to Focardi-Rossi, in the case of  Nickel nuclei in crystal structure and hydrogen nuclei (protons) diffused within it, Although of the same polarity,  a very small percentage of these nuclei manage to come so close to each other, at a distance of 10-14 m, where strong nuclear forces emerge and take over the Coulomb forces  and thus form the nucleus of a new element, either stable or unstable.

This mechanism, which is possible only in the atomic microcosm, is predictable by a quantum-mechanics model of a particle put in a closed box.  According to classical physics no one would expect to find a particle out of the box, but in quantum mechanics the probability of a particle to be found out of the box is not zero! This is the so called “tunneling effect”, which for systems with a very large number of particles, predicts that a small percentage of them lie outside the box, having penetrated the “impenetrable” walls and any other present barrier through the “tunnel”! In our case, the barrier is nothing else but the electrostatic repulsion, to which the couples of hydrogen and nickel nuclei (of the same polarity) are subjected and is called Coulomb barrier.

Diffusion mechanism of hydrogen in nickel: Nickel as a catalyst first decomposes the biatomic molecules of hydrogen to hydrogen atoms in contact with the nickel surface. Then these hydrogen atoms deposit their electrons to the conductivity band of the metal (Fermi band) and due to their greatly reduced volume, compared to that of their atom, the hydrogen nuclei readily diffuse into the crystalline structure of the nickel, including its defects. At this point, in order to understand the phenomenon it is necessary to briefly describe the structure both of the nickel atom and the nickel crystal lattice.

It is well known that the nickel atom is not so simple as the hydrogen atom, as its nucleus consists of dozens of protons and neutrons, thus it is much heavier and exerts a proportionally higher electrostatic repulsion than the nucleus of hydrogen, which consists of only one proton. In this case, the electrons, numerically equal to the protons, are ordered in various energy levels and cannot be easily removed from the atom to which they belong. Exception to this rule is the case of electrons of the chemical bonds, which along with the electrons of the hydrogen atoms form the metal conductivity band (electronic cloud), which moves quasi freely throughout the metal mass.

As in all transition metals, the nickel atoms in the solid state, and more specifically their nuclei, are located at the vertices and at the centre of the six faces of the cubic cell of the metal, leaving a free internal octahedral space within the cell, which, on account of the quasi negligible volume of the nuclei, is practically filled with electrons of the nickel atoms, as well as with conductivity electrons.

It would be really interesting to know the electrons’ specific density (number of electrons per unit volume) and its spatial distribution inside this octahedral space of the crystal lattice as a function of temperature.

Dynamics of the lattice vibration states
Another important aspect to take into consideration in this system is the dynamics of the lattice vibration states, in other words, the periodic three dimensional normal oscillations of the crystal lattice (phonons) of the nickel, which hosts hydrogen nuclei or nuclei of hydrogen isotopes (deuterium or tritium) that have entered into the above mentioned free space of the crystal cell.

It could be argued that the electrons’ specific density and its spatial distribution in the internal space of the crystal structure should be coherent with the natural frequencies of the lattice oscillations. This means that the periodicity of the electronic cloud within the octahedral space of the elementary crystal cell of Nickel generates an oscillating strengthening of shielding of the diffused nuclei of hydrogen or deuterium which also populate this space.

I believe that these considerations can form the basis for a qualitative analysis of this “NEW SOURCE OF ENERGY” and the phenomenology related to cold fusion, including energy production in much smaller quantities and various reaction products.

Shielding of protons by electrons
In the Focardi-Rossi paper the shielding of protons provided by electrons is suspected to be one of the main reasons of the effect, helping the capture of protons by the Ni nucleus, therefore  generating energy by fusion of protons in Nickel and a series of exothermic nuclear reactions, leaving as by-product isotopes different from the original Ni (transmutations). Such shielding is one of the elements contributing to the energetic efficiency of the system.  From this derives the opportunity, I think, to focus upon this shielding, both to increase its efficiency and to verify the hypothesis contained in the paper of Focardi-Rossi.  Of course, what we are talking of here is a theoretical verification, because the practical verification is made by monitoring the performance of the apparatus invented and patented by Andrea Rossi, presently under rigorous verification by many independent university researchers.

In my opinion, the characteristics of the shielding of the proton from the electrons should be defined, as well as the “radiometric” behavior of the system.

In other words, the following two questions should be answered:

  1. Which is the supposed mechanism that overcomes the powerful electrostatic repulse (Coulomb barrier) between the “shielded proton” and the Nickel nucleus?
  2. For what reason there is almost no radiation of any kind (experimental observation), while according to the Focardi and Rossi’s hypothesis there should have been some γ radiation (511 KeV) produced by the predicted annihilation of the β+ and β- particles that are being created during the Fusion?

I believe that some thoughts based on general and elementary structures, data and principles of universal scientific acceptance, might shed some light to this exciting phenomenon.  More specific, I refer to Bohr’s hydrogen atom, the speed of nuclear reactions (10-20 sec) and the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg.

I will take Bohr’s hydrogen atom as a starting point (figure 1a), which stays at its fundamental state forever in the absence of external perturbations, due to De Broglie’s wave, accompanying the sole electron.

As stated before, in contact with the metal, these atoms lose their fundamental state, as their electrons are being transmitted to the conductivity band.  These electrons, together with the “naked nuclei” of hydrogen (protons), form a freely moving cloud of charges (plasma at a degenerate state) inside the crystalline lattice. That cloud is being defused through the surface to the polycrystallic mass of the metal, covering empty spaces of the non-canonical structure of the crystalline lattice, as well as the tetrahedral and octahedral spaces between the molecules. As a consequence, the crystalline structure is covered by “delocalized plasma” (degenerate state), which is consisted by protons, electrons produced by the “absorbed atoms” of hydrogen, as well as by the electrons of the chemical valence of Nickel of the lattice, at different energy states (Fermi’s band). (Fig. 2)


In this system, if one considers the probability of the creation inside the crystalline lattice of temporary (not at the fundamental state) “pseudo-atoms” of hydrogen with neutral charge, for example at a time of the order of 10ˆ-17 sec, then that possibility is not completely ill-founded. (Fig 1b)


According to the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg, the temporary atoms of hydrogen will cover during that small time interval Δt, a wide range of energies ΔΕ, which means also a wide range of atomic diameters of temporary atoms, satisfying the De Broglie’s condition.  A percentage of them (at fist a very small one) might have diameters smaller than 10ˆ-14 m, which is the maximum active radius of nuclear reactions. In that case, the chargeless temporary atoms, or mini-atoms, of hydrogen together with high energy but short lived electrons, are being statistically trapped by the Nickel nuclei at a time of 10ˆ-20 sec. In other words, the high speed of nuclear reactions permits the fusion of short lived but neutral mini-atoms of hydrogen with the Nickel nuclei of the crystalline lattice, as during that short time interval the Coulomb barrier (of the specific hydrogen mini-atom) does not exist.

Afterwards, it follows a procedure similar to the one described by Focardi and Rossi, but instead of considering the capture of a shielded proton by the Ni58 nucleus, we adopt the hypothesis of trapping a neutral temporary atom, or a mini atom, of hydrogen (with a diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m) which transforms the Ni58 nucleus into Cu59 (copper/59, short lived isotope*).

It follows the predicted “β decay” of the nuclei of the short lived isotope of copper, accompanied by the emission of β+ (positrons) and β- (perhaps the electrons of the mini atoms trapped inside that nucleus during the fusion). These particles are being annihilated with an emission of γ radiation (two photons of γ of energy 511 KeV each, for every couple of β+ and β-).

In other words, whoever has experimented with this system should have suffered the not-so-harmless influence of those radiations, but that never happened.  The radioactivity measured at the experiments is almost zero and easily shielded.

In any case, a rigorous, in my opinion, theoretical approach for the interpretation of that phenomenon with quantum mechanical terms, would give clear quantitative answers to the above stated models. With my Colleges of theoretical chemistry, we are already planning to face the problem using the time-depended quantum mechanical perturbation theory, bearing in mind the following:

  1. The total wave function (of the nucleus and the electrons) of temporarily, non-stable states.
  2. The total time-depended Hamiltonian, for temporarily states.
  3. Searching for the resonance conditions at that system.

Such an approach had a successful outcome at a similar problem of theoretical chemistry and we hope that it will be valid in this case as well.

Let’s go back to the intuitive, with ideal models, approach, in order to give a qualitative explanation for the (almost) absent radiations of the system, by using:

  • First of all the Boltzmann’s distribution (especially at the asymptotic area of high energies).
  • The photoelectric effect
  • The Compton effect
  • The Mössbauer effect

We have already mentioned that from the temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, the ones with diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m, have a larger probability of fusion. But, in order for them to be created, high energy bond electrons should exist at the “delocalized plasma” of the crystalline lattice.

1. Boltzmann’s statistics:
There are reasons to believe that the H/Ni system, at first at temperatures of about 400-500oC, contains a very small percentage of electrons in the “delocalized plasma” with enough energy to create (together with the diffused protons), according to the wave-particle duality principle, the first temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, that will trigger the fusion with the nickel nuclei and the production of high energy γ photons (511 KeV).

2. Photoelectric Effect:
It is not possible, the HUGE amount of energy (in kW/h), that the Rossi/Focardi reactor produces, as measured by unrelated scientists in repeated demonstrations (at one of them by the writer and his colleagues, Fig 3), to be created due to the thermalization of the insignificant number of  γ photons at the beginning of the reaction.


I believe that, as stated above, these photons are the trigger of fusion at a multiplicative series, based on the photoelectric effect inside the crystalline structure.

The two γ photons can export symmetrically (180°) two electrons from the nearest Nickel atoms. The stimulation, due to the high energy of γ, concerns electrons of internal bands of two different atoms of the lattice and has as a prerequisite the absorption of all the energy of the photon.  A small part of that energy is being consumed for the export of the electron from the atom and the rest is being transformed into kinetic energy of the electron (thermal energy).

The result of that procedure is to enrich the “delocalized plasma” with high energy electrons that will contribute multiplicatively (by a factor of two) at the progress of the cold fusion nuclear reactions of hydrogen and nickel and at the same time transform the hazardous γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

3. The Compton Scattering:
It gives the additional possibility of multiplication, this time due to secondary photons γ, in a wide range of frequencies, as a function of the angular deviation from the direction of the initial photon of 511 keV. That has as a result the increase of the export of electrons, due to the photoelectric phenomenon at the crystalline mass, in many energy/kinetic levels, which gives an additional possibility of converting the γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

4. The Mössbauer effect:
It gives another possible way of absorbing the γ radiation and transforming it into thermal energy. It is based on the principle of conservation of momentum at the regression of the new Cu59 nucleus/ from the emission of a γ photon. Relative calculations (Dufour) showed that this mechanism has an insignificant (1%) contribution.

It follows that, according to given data, the Photoelectric phenomenon and the Compton Effect, could explain the absence of radiations in the Focardi-Rossi system, which, from the amount of producing energy versus the consumption of Ni and H2, as well as from the experimental observation of element transformations,  lead undoubtedly to the acceptance of hydrogen cold fusion.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The author wishes to acknowledge Aris Chatzichristos for the contribution in formulating this paper in English

(1)www. journal-of-nuclear-physics.com /Focardi Rossi/  (A new energy source from nuclear fusion)

* I believe that the phasmatometric tracing of copper is the most definitive sign of nuclear fusion: From the relative bibliography (HANDBOOK OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 66TH edition), it follows that the stable non radioactive isotopes of nickel are the following five:

58, 60, 61, 62 and 64. These, when fused with a hydrogen nucleus, are being transmuted relatively to Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-63 and Cu-65. From these isotopes of copper only the last two (Cu-63 and Cu-65) are not radioactive, i.e. they are stable. The other three Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, are being transmuted again to Nickel, with an average life expectancy of some hours and the most unstable Cu-59 in 18 seconds.

By prof. Christos Stremmenos

840 comments to A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

  • Greg

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    congratulations to you fantastic discovery! The silence of the mass media is deafening about this invention because they don’t know what to say. They are too busy maintaining the status quo which is about to change – because of you!

    I have several questions:

    1. Is it possible to scale up the E-Cat to a much bigger reactor(power plant) with GW output, in your opinion?
    2. After the initiation of the 1 MW plant in Greece I am sure European and other countries will come to you wanting to license your technology. Are you willing to license it to European states?
    3. Do you think that the E-Cat technology will help many countries in paying off their debt because the states will have to pay much less for their energy consumption? In this case E-Cat will help in solving the financial crisis.
    4. I am sure you are interested in the speedy spreading of this technology but you also have to keep the interest of the investors in mind. How are you planning to balance these two factors?

    Thanks a lot and God Bless you!


  • Wade

    Charles Langston…

    OMG, I can’t believe you said that…

    The whole point of cheap energy is to destroy the existing concepts of abusive monopolistic and capitalistic energy economics and energy usage, bringing about a modern revolution in world economic culture.

    Hopefully, this technology will NOT be used to create just another system of maintaining status quo through the “supply and demand” BS they feed you in economics 101…after all, the amount of Oil is not at all what drives supply shortages, companies and governments could drill oil twice as fast if they wanted to. They keep supply “short” and in perpetual crisis as an excuse to highjack prices,a nd governments WANT this.

    No, I hope Rossi sells this as close to “at cost” as possible.

    Sure, he deserves a healthy income for this, as does anyone on his team, but hopefully this never gets used as just another “control mechanism” in civilization.

  • Sebastian

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Concerning use of the E-Cat with cars, safe storage of the hydrogen supplies is certainly mandatory. So far this could not be achieved.
    But according to this Spiegel article: http://www.spiegel.de/auto/aktuell/0,1518,771516,00.html (in German, use Google Translate) a scientist has just found a method to store hydrogen in cars in a safe way. They use a carrier fluid in which hydrogen is no longer explosive!
    It could be refilled using normal gas stations and pipelines, but for the E-Cat, I think, this won’t even be necessary as one load should last a long time.

    Best regards

  • Manik Sahai

    Dear Andrea,
    Do you have any plans of launching e-cat for the indian market? When can India adopt your invention? (the power situation is so bad in most cities and towns, the e-cat is bound to be massively adopted)
    What will be the basic criteria for becoming the distributor for e-cat technology?
    has e-cat been tested with elements other than nickel and hydrogen? Has it produced energy using other combinations (even if in lesser amounts)
    When you will release the theory, does it radically depart from the current understanding of physics? Is there any scope for more research and development – or is it now a solved problem from your perspective (heat being produced – now only electrical conversion and efficiency the main focus). How will e-cat integrate into existing power plants which are of multi gigawatt scale?
    Can e-cat be used in transportation industry?

    I am really excited about this “new fire” and hope i could attend the historic 1 MW plant inauguration in greece. Congrats and a big thank you for saving the fate of the world.
    Yours faithfully,
    Manik Sahai.

  • Sebastian

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I would like to know how much water is being consumed in let’s say an hour of full operation with a 2.5kW E-Cat?
    By which amount would the water consumption of an industrial establishment increase? Would this be an issue at all?

    My colleagues and I would love to visit your 1MW plant in November (renowned research institution in the energy sector, Germany).
    I wish you all the best for you and your work.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charles M:
    Yes, it is the same system also for the E-Cat.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Svein Utne:
    Our technology will integrate perfectly with all the existing sources, at the service of the mankind.
    We will add jobs.
    Warm Regards,

  • CharlesM

    In domestic water heating applications (oil, gas or electric heater) these are thermostatically controlled. When the water is at the required temperature the heater switches off. It switches on again when temperature goes below a set temperature. So typically a boiler will switch on / off hundreds of time per day to mainatain a given temperature.

    Does the e-cat or Defkalion Hyperion module have this ability to work via thermostat?

    How quick can it turn on or off?

    Thanks, keep up the good work and ignore the nutters.

  • I live in Norway, and our project work comes mostly from oil companies. First I was afraid the E-Cat world make me loose my job, but now I think differently. If the oil price would go up beyond $150 a barrel, the world economic would halt and send us all into recession. The E-Cat will need 3-5 years to get into high volume production, and the need for oil will not go away quickly. So I think the E-Cat will only help us all make a smooth transition from oil till nuclear power, and after 2015 the price of energy might even start to go down because of the E-Cat.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tim Harrell:
    All I ask you now is to contact me in November to visit our 1 MW plant.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- Contact us in November, I will invite you to visit our 1 MW plant, as well as all the People who has given to us a contribution of suggestions, considerations, encouragements, as well as we will invite all the scientific journalists ( I mean: the real ones).
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charles Langston:
    Yes, we are designong a system that will allow us to sell small Cats, avoiding to give away the technology for nothing. We are very close. The difficulty is that the E-Cat must destroy itself without putting in peril the safety of the curious Customer.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Johnson:
    Thank you very much,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Al:
    Your comment is the paradigmatic example of what good-sense People is thinking about this issue. Thank you indeed. Actually, we are just ignoring all the fauna of snakes and clowns. As I already said, they will be swept away from operating plants. Most of them are frustrated competitors, other are pseudo-journalists in search of a scandal to earn easy money by means of blackmails ( the snake is a master of blackmails), some are arrogant wannabe scientists. The right way to deal with them is: just ignore them. This is what we do.
    By the way: the last persons to get information from to know about us are they, because they will be forbidden to visit our operating plants and to get information of any kind from us. Therefore, who needs false information has to ask them.
    Warm regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lars Baudot:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3-depends on the duration of the operation: if it is more that 1 hour, yes
    6- yes
    7- no, just a different configuration
    8- not true: we made many tests heating water, not making syeam, see the literature
    9- no
    10- the Customer will make what he will want, hot water or steam. He will get instructions to.
    Warm Regards,

  • LarsBaudot


    I am thinking of several applications for the E-Cat

    In the machine-industry (frying machine for food), it is required to heat an oil-bath of 500 to 1000 liters to 180 degrees Celsius and then keep it at this temperature. At the beginning the oil must be heated as fast as possible from room temperature to 180 degrees, so a lot of energy is required. Later, the job is only to keep the temperature at this level, the amount of heat energy required is low.

    For swimming pool-heating, the flow rate will be very high, maybe 5000 to 10000 liters per hour, which results in only very little heating of the water throughput, maybe only 1-2 degrees. This is sufficient to increase the pool-temperature enough. If the pool is warm enough, the heating will be switched off

    Normal radiator-heaters like most private apartments and houses have, require a water-temperature of 50 to 60 degrees. Depending on the amount of radiators the flow rate will be around 500 liter per hour or up to 1000 liters per hour. The room-temperature-controllers will close the valve at the radiators when the desired temperature has been reached. If, for example, only 1 or 2 out of 10 radiators has an open valve, the supplied heat-amount must be reduced, so that this one radiator does not get hotter than the 50-60 degrees.

    Floor heating systems run with a water temperature of 30 to 40 degrees. The flow rate depends on the living-area to be heated. Room-Temperature controllers will open or close valves like they do on radiator heaters

    Is the E-Cat controllable in it’s amount of heat to produce or is the reaction inside always On or Off, which means Full heat or No heat?
    Have you tested if the E-Cat can be switched on/off many hundreds or thousands of times without troubles? As the ignition consumes a lot of input power, would it still make sense for applications that switch the E-Cat on/off regularly?
    Is the E-Cat able to work with high flow-rates or is there a limitation?
    Does anything speak against heating oil instead of water?
    Can it be used in the food industry to heat oil or would you better not recommend to do so?

    In all previous reports the tests are always shown by heating a relatively small flow of water to the level of steam (100.1 or 100.5 degrees). Is there a special reason why it was chosen to produce steam instead of just hot water? Does it have any technical, physical, functional reasons why all tests were made by producing steam?
    I have read that Levi increased the flow-rate of the water in the past, but could not find a report if this results in the same efficiency of the E-Cat. Does the E-Cat work less efficient if the flow-rate is modified?
    For the 1MW reactor, what is the customer planning to do with the steam? Or is he producing hot water instead of steam?

    Best Regards,

  • Al

    Dear Ing. Rossi, some time ago I posted a comment as an encouragement to you. I referred to Ghandi’s quote:(During that time, the media was practically ignoring you and your invention.)
    “First they ignore you, then they try to ridicule you, then they fight you, then you win.”

    Fact is that you have already gone through the first pahse. Your enemies are now not ignoring you any more. Now they are trying to ridicule your achievement, maybe they are also fighting you. The next phase? YOU WIN and the whole world wins with you.

    I am an engineer with a degree in mech engineering. I have followed most of, if not all your communications on the ‘net and I can safely say that the physics between the exit of the catalyser core and the measured T rise (Delta T) makes perfect uncomplicated scientific sense. (Secondary school physics I would say). The secret is only in the e-Cat. The small volume of the ecat cannot produce all that energy by some chemical or electrical power input. This has been verified by various scientists.

    The 1 MW heating plant scheduled for Q4 of this year will render all negative comments irrelevant. Then you win.

  • Bob Johnson

    I do not think that getting electric power out of the 1MW plant is a problem. The problem is with the 2.5Kw -30KW plants. Steam engines or turbines for electricity in that range are not made on a large scale or made by enthusiasts.
    A quick internet search I found two companies for turbines:

  • Charles Langston

    Why not just make the unit dispoable where if open it self destructs no matter what…no charging, no upgrades…just a dead unit with no means to identify the tech. Thus you can sell units without worry of the tech discovery. You could offer customers a rebate for turning in dead units. Thus you may be able to salvage somthing of the unit and keep your clients coming back.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    the higher the core temperature, the higher the power of the e-cat ?
    Are you considering multi-core ?
    This thing is all the way different than most green and low-power tech. Real full replacement of combustion devices.
    You must have fun. I’m jealous.
    Kind regards

  • Dear Mr. Rossi:

    A big Thank You for all that your are doing with the “new fire”. Your invention may very well become the most important achievement in modern history. With the E-Cat, as the cost of energy is driven toward zero, just as the internet has driven the cost of information toward zero, whole new industries will spring up and flourish. This keeps me up at night.

    Please excuse me if you already familiar with direct conversion of heat to electricity using multiferroic alloys, but I just read about this yesterday and it appears to be a complementary technology.

    If there is anything that I can do to help you with this pursuit, in addition to telling everyone I know, please feel free to e-mail me.

    With kindest regards,
    -Tim Harrell

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Karl-Henrik Malmqvist:
    I am extremely interested. I will be in Stockolm from early morning on the 4th of July until late the 5th of July. If you want we to meet to help each other, please write me
    your telephone number: I will call you as soon as in Stockolm to arrange an appointment. I will have very full days, but maybe we can make together the trip from Central Station to Arlanda on the evening of the 5th.
    Warm Regards,

  • Karl-Henrik Malmqvist

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    This swedish company, Opcon, manufactures a Powerbox that converts heat to electricity. The input temperature is 50-95 C but can be extended. The output electrical power is in the range 400-800 kW.
    It has about the right size to be combined with your 1 MW reactor. Maybe this is interesting for the european market.
    Best Regards,
    Karl-Henrik Malmqvist

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Joseph Fine:
    I am very sorry, but for the first time I have to say to you that I cannot give this particular about the reactor.
    Warm Regards and thank you for the nice joke:”the only thing that doesn’t dissolve in water is a Fish…” he,he,he

  • Joseph Fine


    I think you said the heat transfer fluid in the “Cat” is not water. Is that to prevent corrosion and provide chemical compatibility or for physical reasons (temperature and pressure etc. )? I remember a professor saying that the only thing that doesn’t dissolve in water is a Fish. There may be excellent reasons for not using water as a coolant. I don’t think you are using liquid metal coolants (such as Lead Bismuth Eutectic). Can you hint at why you are not using water?

    Joseph Fine

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    Dear Andrea,
    the real harm that “snakes” do is to destroy your faith in real trustworthy and intelligent people which you could cooperate with to speed up and improve, which is what we all need for now.
    All of a sudden, one sees competitors and spies everywhere and no more friends.
    As I believe in Socrates’ (and other great people’s) ideas, wise man will not harm you but they will help you for the good of all.

    So the snake has slowed you down, even only by taking your precious time to respond. On the other hand, your responses are so clear and correct that even the ones that intially did not understand the “problem” now also can see truth. So a battle can be harmfull, but it makes a winner !

    Respectfully yours,

  • raul heining

    Dear Rossi,
    According to the reports of your previous demonstrations the temperature in the outlet is
    greater than 100,0ºC at 1 bar. That proves the steam is dry and even not saturated.
    Why are this people asking more. I think if you tell them temperature is above 100,0ºC
    they have just to stop arguing when they are supposed to know a little of basic thermodinamics.
    Even your “supposed” concurrent is now using the argument of dry steam, proving he does not know physics or is throwing sand in others eyes.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul:
    The snake works with a competitor, and writes false statements, as he did close to always in his bullshit paper. The only thing to do is ignore his stupidities. To know about my past, anybody can go to
    The fact that our competitors must hire this kind of clowns to take and falsificate my past to endanger my present means that they are afraid of my present, and the fact that they are afraid of my present is a pretty good reference of the validity of my work: should they think that my work is no good, they wouldn’t spend all this money to try to put me in a bad light. About the competitor that says his technology is the same of mine: good, so just make a plant and put it at work, what are you waiting for? The competition is in the market, not in the chatters.
    Thank you for your concern, but my problems are real, these are just clowns.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stephen T.:
    Thanks for the info, I will contact them.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jeff Smathers:
    You can be sure that the products derived from my effect will be in the global market: we will start from USA, Greece and Sweden, then we will distribute wherever the orders will come from.
    And do not worry: also when the commercial action will begin, I will always maintain this contact with the Readers of the Journal Of Nuclear Physics. I learn from this.
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,

  • Jeff Smathers

    Mr. Rossi,

    I know your personal time for us will be limited soon, and very few may ever be able to personally approach you again once your system is launched commercially.

    Will you if asked by those who hold our world in global financial bondage approach you and try to control your work for their own gain and corrupt ideologies, resist and fight them? Your technology will free us as a people or be another rope to bind us, as is the use of oil.

  • Stephen T.

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Regarding the need for an efficient turbine matched to the temperature and pressure requirements of the E-Cat perhaps you are familiar with the Green Machine manufactured by a U.S. company recently visited by President Obama. If not, you may wish to visit their website at http://www.electratherm.com. This is a commercially ready low temperature closed loop highly efficient twin screw turbine generator. I hope I do not waste your most valuable time with this reference. Perhaps it is optimized for too low a temperature range. I most sincerely wish you success. God speed.
    Stephen T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Conley:
    The poles of this tech will be:
    USA, Greece and Sweden.
    I reside in the USA and The 1 MW plant for Greece is manufactured in the USA. I confirm that a very important plant of 1 MW will be ready to be put in operation within the year in the USA: our men are working on the authorizations.
    USA,. Sweden Greece are the sole Countries where I am making real work and where I will mke real work for the next 2 years, apart Bologna (Italy), where we made a Research and development contract with the University.
    Thank you ,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luca M.:
    We have already organized the solution of this problem, in the due way, which is confidential. But the problem you posed is serious.
    Thanks for the attention,
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michael Cox:
    The “analysis” of Peter Ekstrom is wrong, based on wrong data. Days ago a clown made a similar “analysis” calculating difficult data from the television. I thought that this kind of thing were made only by clowns. Now I see that there are physics that do the same. I answered to the clown that I was impressed from his ability. To a physic I answer that I am very much impressed.
    The “movie professor” has forgot that the steam condensates, that when condensates it turns into very hot water and the heat lost goes to the surface of the pipe, heating it,therefore :
    1- the pipe gets very hot (80-90 °C) radiating up to 1 Wh/h (thermal) per square cm across a surface of thousands of square cm (5400 in this case). This heat has to be calculated. If not we forget that when we keep warm our house during the winter, radiators heat up at expense of the circulating hot water. 5400 sq. cm x 1 wh/h makes up to 5.4 thermal kW that can go that way.
    2- the hot water burns, so I emptied the condensed water from the pipe to avoid that a jet of hot water could burn my face (as once, unfortunately, happened): why did I make this? Because I am not masochist. And: shaking the pipe I made it free from the morse of the mouth of the sink. I did say “look, no water…”, but I referred to that moment, just to take a look to the steam, I surely did not want to say that there was not condensation in the pipe: this would have been a nonsense!
    3- the temperature of the fluid inside the vertical chimney was more than 100.1 °C, and the pressure measured was room pressure. Should the water have been liquid, at room pressure the temperature in a vertical chimney would have been 99 °C, because, for the gravity, the chimney would have been filled up by water, and water at 100.1 °C, at room P, cannot be liquid.
    I have not the time to correct the many other mistakes of our “movie-professor”, because I worked 16 hours, time is 2 a.m. and I must go to sleep, tomorrow other 16 hours of work: no more time for “movie-professors”
    Besides, clowneries apart, I answer with my plants. In October we will start up our first plant of 1 MW in Greece. I will send a movie of it to the clown and to Peter Ekstrom , maybe they will join together to find the way to explain to the persons that will utilize the plant that it does not work, because they saw it in the movie!
    By the way: we made as well tests heating water, without phase change, and the efficiency has been the same, as published. Anyway, let me set up a good operating plant, and all the snakes, clowns and movie-professors will be swept away; their arms are chatters (and movies too), my arms are working plants.
    …and I have a surprise…but it will come in October.
    Warm regards,

  • michael cox

    Mr. Rossi,

    how do you respond to this analysis made by Peter Ekström (Lund University) ?

    Best Regards

  • Luca M

    Dear Mr. Rossi, just a question on the mass production of the E-Cat:
    Given that you are the only one in the world to know how the E-Cat works, I just can’t imagine how the factory producing the E-Cat could be autonomous in the production without your knowledge.
    Are you planning to prepare by yourself alone the most secret component of the E-Cat for all the E-Cats that will be mass produced ? How are you going to manage this problem ?

    My best wishes for all

  • Bill Conley

    With all the activity in Europe and Greece, we in the U.S. are feeling e little left out and frankly a bit jealous. A while back you said there was also a chance for a demonstration plant in the U.S. by the end of the year. Is that still true? Can you give us an update on the U.S. E-Cat activities?

    Thanks much.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alvaro Rodriguez:
    We have yet to find turbines fit for good efficiency with our pressures and temperatures.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    1- it is our quality control protocol so far
    2- I think so, but, as Heraclitus wrote, ” All things change, and the water of the river in a point is never the same”.
    Warm Regards,

  • Martin

    Dear mr Rossi,

    If I understand the different messages right every single e-cat is tested
    for the 1 MW powerplant in Greece. What is the reason for testing all this e-cats?
    Is this also necessary when production on a large scale is started up?

    Best regards,


  • Alvaro Rodriguez

    Dear Mr.Rossi,
    I read here and there that the first generation of E-Cats will be able to generate heat,but no electricity.
    How come the E-cat cannot be the heater of any classic thermodynamical cycle?
    Thank you,
    Best wishes from Spain.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Thomas Ashtree:
    No, it is not true that the Government of Greece will make public tests of the E-Cat, and it is not true that new public tests will be made anywhere. We already made all the public tests we had to make, and no more public tests will be made. Of course we are making since months many tests on the modules which will be part of the 1 MW plant that we will start up in Greece in October, but these tests are not public and are strictly confidential.
    As I already said, no more public tests of any kind will be made; in October we will start the industrial operation of our plants and we will work exclusively for our Customers.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Matteo:
    Thank you.
    Warm Regards,

  • Matteo

    Ing. Rossi, è fantastico da parte sua, con quello che ha creato e sta concretizzando, che dedichi tanto tempo a interloquire con molta gente che, come me, segue da mesi il suo progetto e ha grande interesse di saperne di più.
    Complimenti davvero, aspetto ottobre con ansia

  • Thomas Ashtree

    Mr. Rossi, is it true that the Greek government will make tests of the E-Cat in partnership with Defkalion Green Technologies in early July? Will the results of those governmental tests be made public or not?

    Thanks for your attention.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fabrizio P.:
    Please contact us in November for these information.
    Warm Regards,

  • Fabrizio P.

    Buongiorno Dott.Rossi,
    ho visto il nuovo look del sito http://www.defkalion-energy.com/ e ho letto della linea di prodotti Hyperion… dunque ci siamo!!
    Da qualche parte, non ricordo dove, ho letto di prezzi attorno ai 5000 euro per una unità. Vero? Potrebbe indicare anche orientativamente il costo e la modalità di manutenzione dell’oggetto (intendo il rifornimento di nickel ed eventuali altre attività necessarie a mantenere in funzione il tutto) se già stabiliti? So bene che almeno all’inizio non sarà possibile acquistarne uno per uso casalingo.. ma se davvero i costi sono quelli che immagino e l’inquinamento si riduce a zero non vedo l’ora.. :)
    Grazie e buon lavoro.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H.D.:
    1- In November
    2- 1 MWh/h
    Warm Regards,

  • h.d.

    Mr Rossi.
    When we get even a few pictures to see their 1MW reactor of?

    And how many watts will supply the reactor per hour?

    Yours faithfully, h.d.

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