A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

By prof. Christos Stremmenos

After several years of apparent inaction, the theme of cold fusion has been recently revitalized thanks to, among others, the work and the scientific publications of Focardi and Rossi, which has been conducted in silence, amidst ironical disinterest, without any funding or support.  In fact, recently, practical and reliable results have been achieved based on a very promising apparatus invented by Andrea Rossi.  Therefore I want to examine the possibility of further development of this technology, which I deem really important for our planet.

Introduction
I will start with patent no./2009/125444, registered by Dr. Ing. Andrea Rossi. This invention and its performance have been tested and verified in collaboration with Prof. Sergio Focardi, as reported in their paper, published in February 2010 in the Journal of Nuclear Physics [1]. In that scientific paper they have reported on the performance of an apparatus, which has produced for two years substantial amounts of energy in a reliable and repeatable mode and they have also offered a theoretical analysis for the interpretation of the underlying physical mechanism.

In the history of Science, it is not the first time that a practical and reliable apparatus is working before its theoretical foundation has been completely understood! The photoelectric effect is the classic example in which the application has anticipated its full theoretical interpretation, developed by Einstein. Afterwards Einstein, Plank, Heisenberg, De Broglie, Schrödinger and others formulated the principles of Quantum Mechanics.  For the interactive Nickel/Hydrogen system it would be now opportune to compile, in a way easily understood by the non expert the relevant principles and concepts for the qualitative understanding of the phenomenon. Starting with the behavior of electrically charged particles in vacuum, it is known that particles with opposite electric charge attract themselves and “fuse” producing an electrically neutral particle, even though this does not always happen, as for instance in the case of a hydrogen atom, where a proton and a electron although attract each other they do not “fuse”, for reasons that will be explained later.   On the contrary, particles charged with electric charge of the same sign always repel each other, and their repulsion tends to infinity when their distance tends to zero, which implies that in this case fusion is not possible (classical physics).

On the contrary, according to Quantum mechanics, for a system with a great number of  particles of the same electric charge (polarity) it is possible that a few of them will fuse, as for instance, according to Focardi-Rossi, in the case of  Nickel nuclei in crystal structure and hydrogen nuclei (protons) diffused within it, Although of the same polarity,  a very small percentage of these nuclei manage to come so close to each other, at a distance of 10-14 m, where strong nuclear forces emerge and take over the Coulomb forces  and thus form the nucleus of a new element, either stable or unstable.

This mechanism, which is possible only in the atomic microcosm, is predictable by a quantum-mechanics model of a particle put in a closed box.  According to classical physics no one would expect to find a particle out of the box, but in quantum mechanics the probability of a particle to be found out of the box is not zero! This is the so called “tunneling effect”, which for systems with a very large number of particles, predicts that a small percentage of them lie outside the box, having penetrated the “impenetrable” walls and any other present barrier through the “tunnel”! In our case, the barrier is nothing else but the electrostatic repulsion, to which the couples of hydrogen and nickel nuclei (of the same polarity) are subjected and is called Coulomb barrier.

Diffusion mechanism of hydrogen in nickel: Nickel as a catalyst first decomposes the biatomic molecules of hydrogen to hydrogen atoms in contact with the nickel surface. Then these hydrogen atoms deposit their electrons to the conductivity band of the metal (Fermi band) and due to their greatly reduced volume, compared to that of their atom, the hydrogen nuclei readily diffuse into the crystalline structure of the nickel, including its defects. At this point, in order to understand the phenomenon it is necessary to briefly describe the structure both of the nickel atom and the nickel crystal lattice.

It is well known that the nickel atom is not so simple as the hydrogen atom, as its nucleus consists of dozens of protons and neutrons, thus it is much heavier and exerts a proportionally higher electrostatic repulsion than the nucleus of hydrogen, which consists of only one proton. In this case, the electrons, numerically equal to the protons, are ordered in various energy levels and cannot be easily removed from the atom to which they belong. Exception to this rule is the case of electrons of the chemical bonds, which along with the electrons of the hydrogen atoms form the metal conductivity band (electronic cloud), which moves quasi freely throughout the metal mass.

As in all transition metals, the nickel atoms in the solid state, and more specifically their nuclei, are located at the vertices and at the centre of the six faces of the cubic cell of the metal, leaving a free internal octahedral space within the cell, which, on account of the quasi negligible volume of the nuclei, is practically filled with electrons of the nickel atoms, as well as with conductivity electrons.

It would be really interesting to know the electrons’ specific density (number of electrons per unit volume) and its spatial distribution inside this octahedral space of the crystal lattice as a function of temperature.

Dynamics of the lattice vibration states
Another important aspect to take into consideration in this system is the dynamics of the lattice vibration states, in other words, the periodic three dimensional normal oscillations of the crystal lattice (phonons) of the nickel, which hosts hydrogen nuclei or nuclei of hydrogen isotopes (deuterium or tritium) that have entered into the above mentioned free space of the crystal cell.

It could be argued that the electrons’ specific density and its spatial distribution in the internal space of the crystal structure should be coherent with the natural frequencies of the lattice oscillations. This means that the periodicity of the electronic cloud within the octahedral space of the elementary crystal cell of Nickel generates an oscillating strengthening of shielding of the diffused nuclei of hydrogen or deuterium which also populate this space.

I believe that these considerations can form the basis for a qualitative analysis of this “NEW SOURCE OF ENERGY” and the phenomenology related to cold fusion, including energy production in much smaller quantities and various reaction products.

Shielding of protons by electrons
In the Focardi-Rossi paper the shielding of protons provided by electrons is suspected to be one of the main reasons of the effect, helping the capture of protons by the Ni nucleus, therefore  generating energy by fusion of protons in Nickel and a series of exothermic nuclear reactions, leaving as by-product isotopes different from the original Ni (transmutations). Such shielding is one of the elements contributing to the energetic efficiency of the system.  From this derives the opportunity, I think, to focus upon this shielding, both to increase its efficiency and to verify the hypothesis contained in the paper of Focardi-Rossi.  Of course, what we are talking of here is a theoretical verification, because the practical verification is made by monitoring the performance of the apparatus invented and patented by Andrea Rossi, presently under rigorous verification by many independent university researchers.

In my opinion, the characteristics of the shielding of the proton from the electrons should be defined, as well as the “radiometric” behavior of the system.

In other words, the following two questions should be answered:

  1. Which is the supposed mechanism that overcomes the powerful electrostatic repulse (Coulomb barrier) between the “shielded proton” and the Nickel nucleus?
  2. For what reason there is almost no radiation of any kind (experimental observation), while according to the Focardi and Rossi’s hypothesis there should have been some γ radiation (511 KeV) produced by the predicted annihilation of the β+ and β- particles that are being created during the Fusion?

I believe that some thoughts based on general and elementary structures, data and principles of universal scientific acceptance, might shed some light to this exciting phenomenon.  More specific, I refer to Bohr’s hydrogen atom, the speed of nuclear reactions (10-20 sec) and the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg.

I will take Bohr’s hydrogen atom as a starting point (figure 1a), which stays at its fundamental state forever in the absence of external perturbations, due to De Broglie’s wave, accompanying the sole electron.

As stated before, in contact with the metal, these atoms lose their fundamental state, as their electrons are being transmitted to the conductivity band.  These electrons, together with the “naked nuclei” of hydrogen (protons), form a freely moving cloud of charges (plasma at a degenerate state) inside the crystalline lattice. That cloud is being defused through the surface to the polycrystallic mass of the metal, covering empty spaces of the non-canonical structure of the crystalline lattice, as well as the tetrahedral and octahedral spaces between the molecules. As a consequence, the crystalline structure is covered by “delocalized plasma” (degenerate state), which is consisted by protons, electrons produced by the “absorbed atoms” of hydrogen, as well as by the electrons of the chemical valence of Nickel of the lattice, at different energy states (Fermi’s band). (Fig. 2)

Fig.1b

In this system, if one considers the probability of the creation inside the crystalline lattice of temporary (not at the fundamental state) “pseudo-atoms” of hydrogen with neutral charge, for example at a time of the order of 10ˆ-17 sec, then that possibility is not completely ill-founded. (Fig 1b)

Fig.2

According to the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg, the temporary atoms of hydrogen will cover during that small time interval Δt, a wide range of energies ΔΕ, which means also a wide range of atomic diameters of temporary atoms, satisfying the De Broglie’s condition.  A percentage of them (at fist a very small one) might have diameters smaller than 10ˆ-14 m, which is the maximum active radius of nuclear reactions. In that case, the chargeless temporary atoms, or mini-atoms, of hydrogen together with high energy but short lived electrons, are being statistically trapped by the Nickel nuclei at a time of 10ˆ-20 sec. In other words, the high speed of nuclear reactions permits the fusion of short lived but neutral mini-atoms of hydrogen with the Nickel nuclei of the crystalline lattice, as during that short time interval the Coulomb barrier (of the specific hydrogen mini-atom) does not exist.

Afterwards, it follows a procedure similar to the one described by Focardi and Rossi, but instead of considering the capture of a shielded proton by the Ni58 nucleus, we adopt the hypothesis of trapping a neutral temporary atom, or a mini atom, of hydrogen (with a diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m) which transforms the Ni58 nucleus into Cu59 (copper/59, short lived isotope*).

It follows the predicted “β decay” of the nuclei of the short lived isotope of copper, accompanied by the emission of β+ (positrons) and β- (perhaps the electrons of the mini atoms trapped inside that nucleus during the fusion). These particles are being annihilated with an emission of γ radiation (two photons of γ of energy 511 KeV each, for every couple of β+ and β-).

In other words, whoever has experimented with this system should have suffered the not-so-harmless influence of those radiations, but that never happened.  The radioactivity measured at the experiments is almost zero and easily shielded.

In any case, a rigorous, in my opinion, theoretical approach for the interpretation of that phenomenon with quantum mechanical terms, would give clear quantitative answers to the above stated models. With my Colleges of theoretical chemistry, we are already planning to face the problem using the time-depended quantum mechanical perturbation theory, bearing in mind the following:

  1. The total wave function (of the nucleus and the electrons) of temporarily, non-stable states.
  2. The total time-depended Hamiltonian, for temporarily states.
  3. Searching for the resonance conditions at that system.

Such an approach had a successful outcome at a similar problem of theoretical chemistry and we hope that it will be valid in this case as well.

Let’s go back to the intuitive, with ideal models, approach, in order to give a qualitative explanation for the (almost) absent radiations of the system, by using:

  • First of all the Boltzmann’s distribution (especially at the asymptotic area of high energies).
  • The photoelectric effect
  • The Compton effect
  • The Mössbauer effect

We have already mentioned that from the temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, the ones with diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m, have a larger probability of fusion. But, in order for them to be created, high energy bond electrons should exist at the “delocalized plasma” of the crystalline lattice.

1. Boltzmann’s statistics:
There are reasons to believe that the H/Ni system, at first at temperatures of about 400-500oC, contains a very small percentage of electrons in the “delocalized plasma” with enough energy to create (together with the diffused protons), according to the wave-particle duality principle, the first temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, that will trigger the fusion with the nickel nuclei and the production of high energy γ photons (511 KeV).

2. Photoelectric Effect:
It is not possible, the HUGE amount of energy (in kW/h), that the Rossi/Focardi reactor produces, as measured by unrelated scientists in repeated demonstrations (at one of them by the writer and his colleagues, Fig 3), to be created due to the thermalization of the insignificant number of  γ photons at the beginning of the reaction.

Fig.3

I believe that, as stated above, these photons are the trigger of fusion at a multiplicative series, based on the photoelectric effect inside the crystalline structure.

The two γ photons can export symmetrically (180°) two electrons from the nearest Nickel atoms. The stimulation, due to the high energy of γ, concerns electrons of internal bands of two different atoms of the lattice and has as a prerequisite the absorption of all the energy of the photon.  A small part of that energy is being consumed for the export of the electron from the atom and the rest is being transformed into kinetic energy of the electron (thermal energy).

The result of that procedure is to enrich the “delocalized plasma” with high energy electrons that will contribute multiplicatively (by a factor of two) at the progress of the cold fusion nuclear reactions of hydrogen and nickel and at the same time transform the hazardous γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

3. The Compton Scattering:
It gives the additional possibility of multiplication, this time due to secondary photons γ, in a wide range of frequencies, as a function of the angular deviation from the direction of the initial photon of 511 keV. That has as a result the increase of the export of electrons, due to the photoelectric phenomenon at the crystalline mass, in many energy/kinetic levels, which gives an additional possibility of converting the γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

4. The Mössbauer effect:
It gives another possible way of absorbing the γ radiation and transforming it into thermal energy. It is based on the principle of conservation of momentum at the regression of the new Cu59 nucleus/ from the emission of a γ photon. Relative calculations (Dufour) showed that this mechanism has an insignificant (1%) contribution.

It follows that, according to given data, the Photoelectric phenomenon and the Compton Effect, could explain the absence of radiations in the Focardi-Rossi system, which, from the amount of producing energy versus the consumption of Ni and H2, as well as from the experimental observation of element transformations,  lead undoubtedly to the acceptance of hydrogen cold fusion.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The author wishes to acknowledge Aris Chatzichristos for the contribution in formulating this paper in English

References:
(1)www. journal-of-nuclear-physics.com /Focardi Rossi/  (A new energy source from nuclear fusion)

* I believe that the phasmatometric tracing of copper is the most definitive sign of nuclear fusion: From the relative bibliography (HANDBOOK OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 66TH edition), it follows that the stable non radioactive isotopes of nickel are the following five:

58, 60, 61, 62 and 64. These, when fused with a hydrogen nucleus, are being transmuted relatively to Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-63 and Cu-65. From these isotopes of copper only the last two (Cu-63 and Cu-65) are not radioactive, i.e. they are stable. The other three Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, are being transmuted again to Nickel, with an average life expectancy of some hours and the most unstable Cu-59 in 18 seconds.

By prof. Christos Stremmenos


840 comments to A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charles Richer:
    1- About 1 hour
    2- yes
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Charles Richer

    To move beyond superficial conclusions additional information is required.
    How many hours of operation does it take to prepare the substrate for full power.
    Once the substrate is formed for a specific energy output, temperature profile and amplification can it be reformed for other levels.
    Thanks you for your patience in this matter.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charles Richer:
    If you read throughly the Journal of Nuclear Physics and the thousands of comments of this blog, with all the suggested links, you will find an enormous amount of information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Eernie:
    I really hope that this technology will create new jobs for young People.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • eernie1

    Dear ing. Rossi;
    I have a suggestion for some enterprising person. Your device is relatively simple in its design and can be supplied in modular form. External heater, reaction module, external heat exchanger, electronic controls and boiler compartment.If you place quick connects on the water input and output ports and hydrogen inlet a user can easily attach various devices such as small turbine generators,radiators,water condenser for purifing and other uses as needed and with a battery pack can easily make it portable.If I were younger I would ask you for a license to start a company called Kitcat that would supply a disasembled kit of various parts to people who would then assemble whatever form they are interested in using. As you know there are many people who love to assemble machinery from kits as complicated as cars, airplanes,computers,and tools.Insurance and disclaimer statements should make accidental harm tolerable.Support services would also be provided.

  • Charles Richer

    What is required to get detailed technical and historical information?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Phillip Newell:
    Got it, thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    Thank yopu,
    got it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Will Hurley:
    I studied from all the sites suggested from our Readers the Feedwater Heaters. I used to call them “Pre-Heaters”, probably wrongly.
    This is exactly the application I deem opportune in existing power plants, and this is exactly the application which very likely will be made in the USA by a very important Customer .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Nichols:
    Correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bill Nichols

    Mr Rossi…

    I’ll contact you in November per your response.

    Understand your e-mail contact is info@leonardocorp1996.com.

    If this is not correct, please let me know.

    Good Luck in October!

    Highest Regards,

    Bill Nichols

  • Will Hurley

    Mr. Rossi,

    Thank you so much for taking time from you busy schedule to answer my questions.
    I know your experts have looked at the NRC Reg Guides as to the relevance of a shielded radiation source. I hope it does not fall under these regulations as the USA will be waiting a long time for your technology while the NRC approves it
    The feedwater heaters pre-heat the water before it enters a boiler with some of the steam energy from the boiler. The e-cats could perform this job as a first step in converting existing boilers.
    Thanks again and best wishes
    Will Hurley

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. Rossi, Will Hurley

    Feedwater Heater:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feedwater_heater

    An E-Kitten could be a feedwater heater to a larger E-Cat or an E-Cat could be feedwater heater to an E-Lion/Tiger (or E-Liger). The E-Lions etc. might be FW heaters to coal-fired or ?nuclear-powered? steam generators. Whatever operating efficiency and economics recommend.

    J.F.

  • Dear Dr. Rossi

    This link should take you to HEI web page on feedwater heaters

    http://www.heatexchange.org/pub/pdf/edu/Tech%20Sheet%20127.pdf

    Best Regards

    Eng Newell

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Will Hurley:
    You are right, my technology is based on an EFFECT, as I think.
    Answers:
    1- My experts are studying the issue. we do not use radioactive materials and do not produce radioactive wastes of any kind, and we do not have radiations outside the E-Cat
    2- Please, what do you mean by “feedwater” ? I do not know this word, sorry.
    Thank you very much .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jonatan,
    I think that all the energy sources must be integrated and developed. They must be a team, not a mess.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ing. Luca Neri:
    Many work has to be done, but I think that it is very difficult that compositions different from what we use now can repeat the effect.
    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ing. Luca Neri

    Dear mr. Rossi,
    as October is approaching the excitement for your revolutionary invention is more and more growing.
    I have a curiosity: based on your experience, do you feel that in future the exothermic process that transmutes nickel into copper might be extended to other elements, for instance Titanium to Vanadium?
    Thanks in advance and many compliments for your extraordinary development, that makes me feel proud to be Italian.

  • Jonatan

    Dear Mr Rossi
    Do you think that after October (when this technology will be implemente), all the hot fusion projects (like ITER) will disappear?

    Warm Regards
    Jonatan

  • Will Hurley

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I have followed you work and I think the process should be called “ROSSI EFFECT” insteas of LENR.
    I am a Mechical Enginner with work at 12 nuclear plants as well a refineries.
    1. Since gamma rays are emitted, would this fall under the USA NRC?
    2. Have you concidered feedwater heaters as an application?
    I believe in you 100% and aggree with your market proven approach.
    I believe also your life is very interesting.
    God speed
    Warm regards
    Will Hurley

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Riccardo T.:
    Prof. Giuseppe Levi is in strict contact with the Uppsala Professors, therefore there will be a full cooperation between the University of Bologna and the University of Uppsala and of Stockolm.
    Thank you for your question,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Nichols:
    1- Yes
    2- Yes
    Please contact me in November for two reasons:
    i- help me in this field
    ii- visit our plant
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bill Nichols

    Mr Rossi…

    Encouraged to hear your looking further into the potential of integrating the E Cat into steam powered vehicles.

    As I understand, as one of the first to ask you about this potential application, keep in mind if your getting steam at 400+C…the thermodynamic properties of water should allow for integration to use in steam powered engines. Your invention appears to have solved the hard part.

    The efficiency and simplicity of steam engines have come a long way…plus the water could be recycled. Then, further enhancements by those who specialize in this area could make. The durability, efficiency and performance potential of this type of set up should be pursued. As your an engineer, you can appreciate this.

    My 2 questions…

    1.) Have you, or contacts been looking into and are in contact with key folks with these skills and backgrounds in this area?

    2.) If so, do you agree this has high potential in transportation?

    Finally, keep in mind the role of steam power has made in the past and still does today. It is an efficient and effective fit (Rankine cycle) in the natural world.

    Many Thanks for your efforts.

    All the best and highest regards,

    Bill Nichols
    Atmospheric Physicist

  • Riccardo T.

    Dear Dott. Rossi,

    The work that Uppsala will do, is totally independet from the recently signed R&D research program of University of Bologna or there will be some interaction between the two?

    Thank You

    Riccardo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul Esteban,
    I cannot , because I have been told to maintain very confidential what happened this week in Uppsala.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivan: in November we will decide our commercial strategy. For sure we will be ready for the industrial installations, while for the small units probably we will need one more year, but I an not sure of this right now. Many factors are evolving rapidly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lars Baudot:
    If we stay in the range of 6 times output energy respect the input, and stay in the dimensions of the modular E-Cat the safety is total.
    This is why we maintain the modular concept also to make higher power plants. We maintain the 6 factor to have exceeding safety margins.
    We do not use radioactive materials and we do not leave radioactive wastes at all. In our stress tests we are doing right now with the Greek modules we are making also higher efficiencies, but there is a big difference between operation under our control and operation by Customers. In this last case we must have 100% of safety.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Lars Baudot

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    when you started development of the E-Cat, it for sure took you a long time until it was running smoothly. I remember reading something about the beginning of your work where it was said that the first few hundred E-Cats exploded. Please correct me if I am wrong here.

    Does this mean that the E-Cat-reactor went into some kind of self-repeating chain-reaction like it is used in the big nuclear reactors to generate steam and power?
    If this was the case, wouldn’t it be possible to use your Ni+H chain-reaction also in a very large-scale? I mean to use it in todays nuclear reactors, but just based on your Ni+H reaction instead of using the dangerous and toxic uranium/plutonium. I assume that the waste (copper) that is left after using the E-Cat is by far not as radioactive and toxic as plutonium. Is this waste after use in the E-Cat radioactive at all?

    In the testing of the E-Cat in january I see that 400 Watt input resulted in 12500 Watt output, which is a factor of 32.25. In February at University of Bologna it was said that the device was ignited with 1250 Watts, ran for some minutes and then the input power was reduced to 80 Watts only. They system ran stable for 18 hours. 80 Watt input, 20000 Watt output = factor 250
    Now I read that for safety reasons the efficiency-factor of the mass-produced E-Cats will be 6 or a little higher.

    What kind of problems/dangers did you see when the E-Cat is running with higher efficiencies like 10, 20 or 30? Is it more radiation or a danger of overheating until a possible explosion due to uncontrollable chain-reaction?

    Regards,
    Lars

  • Ivan

    Dr Rossi, I did not have the intention to anoy you. I apologize if I did.
    I belive you invention is so revolutionary, and extremely good for human race, that I will like all doubt to be erased. I belive you deserve all the credit and money you will achive for your invention.
    I am waiting with lots of exitement for your 1MW Reactor.
    But for my house I only need a 20 KW reactor. When do you think I will be able to buy one, if I could afford it.

    Kind Regards.
    Ivan.

  • Paul Esteban

    Dear Mr Rossi, could you tell us who are the top scientists?

    Warm Regards
    Paul Esteban

  • Hank Mills

    Hello Mr. Rossi,

    I thought you might like this video.

    Hitler Panics Over Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uX0vcU4iedQ

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter,
    Thank you for your attention. In Sweden I am working with top scientists from Sweden, USA and Japan from whom I am learning. A lot.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Amos:
    Please contact us in November for commercial issues,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Amos

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I’m an entrepreneur from South Africa who is interested in pursuing opportunities for distribution and manufacturing of E-Cats in Africa, Australia, & New Zealand, as per Defkalion license agreements. I would therefore like to attend the October unveiling of the 1MW plant and would really appreciate it if you could send me an invitation.

    Regards,
    C. T. Amos

  • Peter

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I am following your endeavors with great interest and I think that the near future will be very exciting!

    Do you have any news to share about your recent visit to Sweden? (It’s very exiting that we may be one of the first countries to start using your new technology)

    Best regards and lots of luck with your invention!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivan:
    I have a better idea:
    We deliver our E-Cats to our Customers, starting from October with the 1 MW plant, and our Customers will say if they are satisfied.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • All,

    Dr. Kim’s paper that Dr. Rossi is referencing is the second one down when you click on the link.

    Regards

    Eng. Newell

  • ivan

    Dr Rossi, I have 2 ideas to improve the credibility of your experiments.
    1.- the source of energy should be a bank of batteries (so the reading of Amp are in DC and the voltage as well), you could connect them to an invertor(small loss that could be ok due the high gain of the process) so your electronic will work at AC 220v. this will stop speculation about inductive or capacitive load that could change the phase of current against voltage in measures of power in alternate current.
    2. connect the vapor of the hose to a condenser, so you could recover water, the condenser should be of glass, this instruments should exist in the chemistry dep of any university. also any radioactivity could be tested and prove the processed water is safe.

    Besides this questions I have strong interest in distributing your invention in Australia where I live. What sort of conditions you need to fulfill to be able to distribute your invention?

    Kind Regards.
    Ivan.

  • Martin

    Dear Sebastian,

    This link will bring you to the paper.

    http://www.physics.purdue.edu/people/faculty/yekim/Kim_BECNF.pdf

    Best regards

    Martin

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sebastian:
    I published the title exactly as it is in the paper I got today in Uppsala. Maybe prof. Kim will read these comments and send a link: we will appreciate this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    p.s. Try Google, searching the title I got associated to the Author’s name.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michail: welcome!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Michail

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Frank Znidarsics Papers can be found on this site using the following link:
    http://www.scribd.com/opensearch?language=1&limit=10&num_pages=&page=1&query=frank+znidarsic

    The main ones being his theory
    http://www.scribd.com/doc/42057333/The-Transitional-Quantum-State-of-Matter

    For the ones that want to spent time watching a video about this, I recommend the videos of
    http://www.youtube.com/user/seattle4truth
    and a bit more organized on
    http://www.peswiki.com/index.php/Review:_Anti-Gravity_/_Cold_Fusion_Explained_In_Detail:_A_New_Era_in_Physics

    he proposes an easy mathematics to derive planks constant. I like his new approach to comparing speed of sound to speed of light in the nucleus. Nevtheless I am not capable enough to think of experiments prooving his theories but some people around you or reading here may be.

    Thanks a lot for publishing in advance.

    I wish you every success that you need.
    Be assured I will be among the first ones heating my house with a Rossi Reactor :).

    kind regards
    Michail

  • Sebastian

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    thank for announcing the paper by professor Kim. Unfortunately, there is no paper called exactly like the title you have given. Would you mind sharing a link to the paper or the exact title of the paper?
    Thank you.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Svein Utne:
    I agree with you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    WARNING TO OUR READERS:
    TODAY IN STOCKOLM I RECEIVED A VERY INTERESTING PAPER:
    “GENERALIZED THEORY OF BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION NUCLEAR FUSION FOR HYDROGEN-METAL SYSTEM”
    THE AUTHOR IS YEONG E. KIM, OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, PURDUE UNIVERSITY, WEST LAFAYETTE, INDIANA 47907, USA.
    THE PAPER HAS BEEN ISSUED ON JUNE 18TH 2011.
    VERY INTERESTING, GOOD JOB, PROF. KIM ( WHOM I DO NOT KNOW PERSONALLY).
    SEE ON http://WWW.PHYSICS.PURDUE.EDU/PEOPLE/FACULTY/YEKIM.SHTML
    WARM REGARDS TO ALL,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivan,
    My invention is safe, also if I die. I already thought about this. Nevertheless, let me knock wood…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear kgb27r
    Thank you for the information, but this device has a very low efficiency, as all this kind of devices. As well as the Seebeck Effect, they are good to make something with waste heat, but are not useful in power primary generation.
    I received many of these kind of proposals, and studied them all, but their problem is the efficiency.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Svein Utne

    I do not think if there should be a delay of the 1 MW power plants should make much different. What is important is that energy is produced at a very low cost by Rossi’s invention, and it could save mankind from lack of energy. What has given us such a high standard of living is the access to low cost energy. With the oil prices going up over $150 we will go into recession if we do not find other low price alternatives. That is way it is so important that Rossi will be able to prove beyond doughty that this is for real, and that the whole world start building factories that can crank out huge amounts of this units. They should of course pay the royalties an all this, but the important thing is to get high production rate as soon as possible.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin,
    So far we are in perfect time.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herald Patterson:
    No, we never got evidence of this emission. We checked, for other reasons, e.m.p., but found nothing relevant.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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