A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

By prof. Christos Stremmenos

After several years of apparent inaction, the theme of cold fusion has been recently revitalized thanks to, among others, the work and the scientific publications of Focardi and Rossi, which has been conducted in silence, amidst ironical disinterest, without any funding or support.  In fact, recently, practical and reliable results have been achieved based on a very promising apparatus invented by Andrea Rossi.  Therefore I want to examine the possibility of further development of this technology, which I deem really important for our planet.

Introduction
I will start with patent no./2009/125444, registered by Dr. Ing. Andrea Rossi. This invention and its performance have been tested and verified in collaboration with Prof. Sergio Focardi, as reported in their paper, published in February 2010 in the Journal of Nuclear Physics [1]. In that scientific paper they have reported on the performance of an apparatus, which has produced for two years substantial amounts of energy in a reliable and repeatable mode and they have also offered a theoretical analysis for the interpretation of the underlying physical mechanism.

In the history of Science, it is not the first time that a practical and reliable apparatus is working before its theoretical foundation has been completely understood! The photoelectric effect is the classic example in which the application has anticipated its full theoretical interpretation, developed by Einstein. Afterwards Einstein, Plank, Heisenberg, De Broglie, Schrödinger and others formulated the principles of Quantum Mechanics.  For the interactive Nickel/Hydrogen system it would be now opportune to compile, in a way easily understood by the non expert the relevant principles and concepts for the qualitative understanding of the phenomenon. Starting with the behavior of electrically charged particles in vacuum, it is known that particles with opposite electric charge attract themselves and “fuse” producing an electrically neutral particle, even though this does not always happen, as for instance in the case of a hydrogen atom, where a proton and a electron although attract each other they do not “fuse”, for reasons that will be explained later.   On the contrary, particles charged with electric charge of the same sign always repel each other, and their repulsion tends to infinity when their distance tends to zero, which implies that in this case fusion is not possible (classical physics).

On the contrary, according to Quantum mechanics, for a system with a great number of  particles of the same electric charge (polarity) it is possible that a few of them will fuse, as for instance, according to Focardi-Rossi, in the case of  Nickel nuclei in crystal structure and hydrogen nuclei (protons) diffused within it, Although of the same polarity,  a very small percentage of these nuclei manage to come so close to each other, at a distance of 10-14 m, where strong nuclear forces emerge and take over the Coulomb forces  and thus form the nucleus of a new element, either stable or unstable.

This mechanism, which is possible only in the atomic microcosm, is predictable by a quantum-mechanics model of a particle put in a closed box.  According to classical physics no one would expect to find a particle out of the box, but in quantum mechanics the probability of a particle to be found out of the box is not zero! This is the so called “tunneling effect”, which for systems with a very large number of particles, predicts that a small percentage of them lie outside the box, having penetrated the “impenetrable” walls and any other present barrier through the “tunnel”! In our case, the barrier is nothing else but the electrostatic repulsion, to which the couples of hydrogen and nickel nuclei (of the same polarity) are subjected and is called Coulomb barrier.

Diffusion mechanism of hydrogen in nickel: Nickel as a catalyst first decomposes the biatomic molecules of hydrogen to hydrogen atoms in contact with the nickel surface. Then these hydrogen atoms deposit their electrons to the conductivity band of the metal (Fermi band) and due to their greatly reduced volume, compared to that of their atom, the hydrogen nuclei readily diffuse into the crystalline structure of the nickel, including its defects. At this point, in order to understand the phenomenon it is necessary to briefly describe the structure both of the nickel atom and the nickel crystal lattice.

It is well known that the nickel atom is not so simple as the hydrogen atom, as its nucleus consists of dozens of protons and neutrons, thus it is much heavier and exerts a proportionally higher electrostatic repulsion than the nucleus of hydrogen, which consists of only one proton. In this case, the electrons, numerically equal to the protons, are ordered in various energy levels and cannot be easily removed from the atom to which they belong. Exception to this rule is the case of electrons of the chemical bonds, which along with the electrons of the hydrogen atoms form the metal conductivity band (electronic cloud), which moves quasi freely throughout the metal mass.

As in all transition metals, the nickel atoms in the solid state, and more specifically their nuclei, are located at the vertices and at the centre of the six faces of the cubic cell of the metal, leaving a free internal octahedral space within the cell, which, on account of the quasi negligible volume of the nuclei, is practically filled with electrons of the nickel atoms, as well as with conductivity electrons.

It would be really interesting to know the electrons’ specific density (number of electrons per unit volume) and its spatial distribution inside this octahedral space of the crystal lattice as a function of temperature.

Dynamics of the lattice vibration states
Another important aspect to take into consideration in this system is the dynamics of the lattice vibration states, in other words, the periodic three dimensional normal oscillations of the crystal lattice (phonons) of the nickel, which hosts hydrogen nuclei or nuclei of hydrogen isotopes (deuterium or tritium) that have entered into the above mentioned free space of the crystal cell.

It could be argued that the electrons’ specific density and its spatial distribution in the internal space of the crystal structure should be coherent with the natural frequencies of the lattice oscillations. This means that the periodicity of the electronic cloud within the octahedral space of the elementary crystal cell of Nickel generates an oscillating strengthening of shielding of the diffused nuclei of hydrogen or deuterium which also populate this space.

I believe that these considerations can form the basis for a qualitative analysis of this “NEW SOURCE OF ENERGY” and the phenomenology related to cold fusion, including energy production in much smaller quantities and various reaction products.

Shielding of protons by electrons
In the Focardi-Rossi paper the shielding of protons provided by electrons is suspected to be one of the main reasons of the effect, helping the capture of protons by the Ni nucleus, therefore  generating energy by fusion of protons in Nickel and a series of exothermic nuclear reactions, leaving as by-product isotopes different from the original Ni (transmutations). Such shielding is one of the elements contributing to the energetic efficiency of the system.  From this derives the opportunity, I think, to focus upon this shielding, both to increase its efficiency and to verify the hypothesis contained in the paper of Focardi-Rossi.  Of course, what we are talking of here is a theoretical verification, because the practical verification is made by monitoring the performance of the apparatus invented and patented by Andrea Rossi, presently under rigorous verification by many independent university researchers.

In my opinion, the characteristics of the shielding of the proton from the electrons should be defined, as well as the “radiometric” behavior of the system.

In other words, the following two questions should be answered:

  1. Which is the supposed mechanism that overcomes the powerful electrostatic repulse (Coulomb barrier) between the “shielded proton” and the Nickel nucleus?
  2. For what reason there is almost no radiation of any kind (experimental observation), while according to the Focardi and Rossi’s hypothesis there should have been some γ radiation (511 KeV) produced by the predicted annihilation of the β+ and β- particles that are being created during the Fusion?

I believe that some thoughts based on general and elementary structures, data and principles of universal scientific acceptance, might shed some light to this exciting phenomenon.  More specific, I refer to Bohr’s hydrogen atom, the speed of nuclear reactions (10-20 sec) and the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg.

I will take Bohr’s hydrogen atom as a starting point (figure 1a), which stays at its fundamental state forever in the absence of external perturbations, due to De Broglie’s wave, accompanying the sole electron.

As stated before, in contact with the metal, these atoms lose their fundamental state, as their electrons are being transmitted to the conductivity band.  These electrons, together with the “naked nuclei” of hydrogen (protons), form a freely moving cloud of charges (plasma at a degenerate state) inside the crystalline lattice. That cloud is being defused through the surface to the polycrystallic mass of the metal, covering empty spaces of the non-canonical structure of the crystalline lattice, as well as the tetrahedral and octahedral spaces between the molecules. As a consequence, the crystalline structure is covered by “delocalized plasma” (degenerate state), which is consisted by protons, electrons produced by the “absorbed atoms” of hydrogen, as well as by the electrons of the chemical valence of Nickel of the lattice, at different energy states (Fermi’s band). (Fig. 2)

Fig.1b

In this system, if one considers the probability of the creation inside the crystalline lattice of temporary (not at the fundamental state) “pseudo-atoms” of hydrogen with neutral charge, for example at a time of the order of 10ˆ-17 sec, then that possibility is not completely ill-founded. (Fig 1b)

Fig.2

According to the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg, the temporary atoms of hydrogen will cover during that small time interval Δt, a wide range of energies ΔΕ, which means also a wide range of atomic diameters of temporary atoms, satisfying the De Broglie’s condition.  A percentage of them (at fist a very small one) might have diameters smaller than 10ˆ-14 m, which is the maximum active radius of nuclear reactions. In that case, the chargeless temporary atoms, or mini-atoms, of hydrogen together with high energy but short lived electrons, are being statistically trapped by the Nickel nuclei at a time of 10ˆ-20 sec. In other words, the high speed of nuclear reactions permits the fusion of short lived but neutral mini-atoms of hydrogen with the Nickel nuclei of the crystalline lattice, as during that short time interval the Coulomb barrier (of the specific hydrogen mini-atom) does not exist.

Afterwards, it follows a procedure similar to the one described by Focardi and Rossi, but instead of considering the capture of a shielded proton by the Ni58 nucleus, we adopt the hypothesis of trapping a neutral temporary atom, or a mini atom, of hydrogen (with a diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m) which transforms the Ni58 nucleus into Cu59 (copper/59, short lived isotope*).

It follows the predicted “β decay” of the nuclei of the short lived isotope of copper, accompanied by the emission of β+ (positrons) and β- (perhaps the electrons of the mini atoms trapped inside that nucleus during the fusion). These particles are being annihilated with an emission of γ radiation (two photons of γ of energy 511 KeV each, for every couple of β+ and β-).

In other words, whoever has experimented with this system should have suffered the not-so-harmless influence of those radiations, but that never happened.  The radioactivity measured at the experiments is almost zero and easily shielded.

In any case, a rigorous, in my opinion, theoretical approach for the interpretation of that phenomenon with quantum mechanical terms, would give clear quantitative answers to the above stated models. With my Colleges of theoretical chemistry, we are already planning to face the problem using the time-depended quantum mechanical perturbation theory, bearing in mind the following:

  1. The total wave function (of the nucleus and the electrons) of temporarily, non-stable states.
  2. The total time-depended Hamiltonian, for temporarily states.
  3. Searching for the resonance conditions at that system.

Such an approach had a successful outcome at a similar problem of theoretical chemistry and we hope that it will be valid in this case as well.

Let’s go back to the intuitive, with ideal models, approach, in order to give a qualitative explanation for the (almost) absent radiations of the system, by using:

  • First of all the Boltzmann’s distribution (especially at the asymptotic area of high energies).
  • The photoelectric effect
  • The Compton effect
  • The Mössbauer effect

We have already mentioned that from the temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, the ones with diameter less than 10ˆ-14 m, have a larger probability of fusion. But, in order for them to be created, high energy bond electrons should exist at the “delocalized plasma” of the crystalline lattice.

1. Boltzmann’s statistics:
There are reasons to believe that the H/Ni system, at first at temperatures of about 400-500oC, contains a very small percentage of electrons in the “delocalized plasma” with enough energy to create (together with the diffused protons), according to the wave-particle duality principle, the first temporary mini atoms of hydrogen, that will trigger the fusion with the nickel nuclei and the production of high energy γ photons (511 KeV).

2. Photoelectric Effect:
It is not possible, the HUGE amount of energy (in kW/h), that the Rossi/Focardi reactor produces, as measured by unrelated scientists in repeated demonstrations (at one of them by the writer and his colleagues, Fig 3), to be created due to the thermalization of the insignificant number of  γ photons at the beginning of the reaction.

Fig.3

I believe that, as stated above, these photons are the trigger of fusion at a multiplicative series, based on the photoelectric effect inside the crystalline structure.

The two γ photons can export symmetrically (180°) two electrons from the nearest Nickel atoms. The stimulation, due to the high energy of γ, concerns electrons of internal bands of two different atoms of the lattice and has as a prerequisite the absorption of all the energy of the photon.  A small part of that energy is being consumed for the export of the electron from the atom and the rest is being transformed into kinetic energy of the electron (thermal energy).

The result of that procedure is to enrich the “delocalized plasma” with high energy electrons that will contribute multiplicatively (by a factor of two) at the progress of the cold fusion nuclear reactions of hydrogen and nickel and at the same time transform the hazardous γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

3. The Compton Scattering:
It gives the additional possibility of multiplication, this time due to secondary photons γ, in a wide range of frequencies, as a function of the angular deviation from the direction of the initial photon of 511 keV. That has as a result the increase of the export of electrons, due to the photoelectric phenomenon at the crystalline mass, in many energy/kinetic levels, which gives an additional possibility of converting the γ radiation into useful thermal energy.

4. The Mössbauer effect:
It gives another possible way of absorbing the γ radiation and transforming it into thermal energy. It is based on the principle of conservation of momentum at the regression of the new Cu59 nucleus/ from the emission of a γ photon. Relative calculations (Dufour) showed that this mechanism has an insignificant (1%) contribution.

It follows that, according to given data, the Photoelectric phenomenon and the Compton Effect, could explain the absence of radiations in the Focardi-Rossi system, which, from the amount of producing energy versus the consumption of Ni and H2, as well as from the experimental observation of element transformations,  lead undoubtedly to the acceptance of hydrogen cold fusion.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The author wishes to acknowledge Aris Chatzichristos for the contribution in formulating this paper in English

References:
(1)www. journal-of-nuclear-physics.com /Focardi Rossi/  (A new energy source from nuclear fusion)

* I believe that the phasmatometric tracing of copper is the most definitive sign of nuclear fusion: From the relative bibliography (HANDBOOK OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 66TH edition), it follows that the stable non radioactive isotopes of nickel are the following five:

58, 60, 61, 62 and 64. These, when fused with a hydrogen nucleus, are being transmuted relatively to Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-63 and Cu-65. From these isotopes of copper only the last two (Cu-63 and Cu-65) are not radioactive, i.e. they are stable. The other three Cu-59, Cu-61, Cu-62, are being transmuted again to Nickel, with an average life expectancy of some hours and the most unstable Cu-59 in 18 seconds.

By prof. Christos Stremmenos


840 comments to A detailed Qualitative Approach to the Cold Fusion Nuclear Reactions of H/Ni

  • maryyugo

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Thanks for your reply. I read with care the paper located here: http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Rossi-Focardi_paper.pdf . It has much good information.

    What I think would lay this issue to rest is if Dr. Levi, when he can find the time, would please provide some of the actual data from which calculations of energy balance (IN vs OUT)were made for the system. This would be of interest for the experiments summarized in Table 1 of the PDF report and it would be especially good to know if similar experiments, with the coolant remaining liquid (no steam), have been performed with a recent version of the E-Cat.

    Thanks again for helping to find the information or forwarding this request to Dr. Levi. I don’t know a better way than this to reach him.

    Best regards,

    M. Y.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sari (Patricia) Swensen:
    I agree, Brian Ahern and his team made a very good job.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    I suppose that there is a frenzy mode all around.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marcia Pires:
    4000 kW is a power we never reached. The speed in our hoses of course depends on their diameters and on the energy we produce. You can calculate yourself an example:
    take a 4 kW Cat, means you have about 6 m^3/h (cubic meters per hour), then you make v=q/s, where q is the flow in cubic meters per hour, v is the speed in m/h (= meters per hour), s is the area of the section in m^2 (square meters). The section of the hose is 0.0004 m^2.
    Your the calculation. (correct answer: 4.166 m/s= four point onehundred sixtysix meters per second, say four meters per second plus something). Of course must be added the expansion due to the Gay-Lussac Law (becomes around 6 m/s in total, depending on the delta T).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Olaf M.:
    The operating temperature inside the reactor reaches 1,600 Celsius. We are working hard to make also electric power, it is not far from now the moment we will able to.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Maryyugo,
    Yes, Levi made tests with high water flow. I will ask him to make a report. Anyway you can also find reports of many tests made heating water, not making steam, on the article Focardi-Rossi published on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Sari (Patricia) Swensen

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I thank you very much for responding to my comment. I have just had the unfortunate experience to read Steven Krivit’s Preliminary Report. It is very sad that you’ve afforded your time to someone so unscrupulous. This is how I commented:

    Sari Swensen says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    June 21, 2011 at 20:02

    Your preliminary report reeks of negativity and disrespect for a slew of distinguished professionals. After these men were gracious enough to afford you their time, you make “journalistic” comments before gathering the evidence. It seems to me that you completely rule out observations by prominent Swedish physicists, Hanno Essen, Associate Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and Former Chairman of the Swedish Skeptics Society and Sven Kullander, Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University and also Chairman of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ Energy Committee. I also feel it is a disgrace that you played upon their kindness & took “taxi money” from them. I am a highway construction business owner & know very little about LENR; but do know that Brian Ahern is replicating with success Rossi’s invention. I am attaching the link. You should be ashamed of yourself for not getting your facts straight. I a layperson, seem to know more with regards to what is going on with LENR. http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/06/brian-ahern-getting-8-watts-in-low.html

  • maryyugo

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I believe I read earlier that Dr. Levi has performed an experiment with the E-Cat in which the water was caused to flow at a rate high enough that it all remained liquid. I did not see any place where the actual data acquired during that experiment were provided. I did review the reports in the Journal as you suggested and did not find those details.

    Am I correct that such an experiment was done with an actual E-Cat or a very similar test device? If so, if you or Dr. Levi could be so kind as to post the data (flow rate of the water, how measured, delta-T across the E-cat, and, of course, the time information) it would be very useful. It would go a long way to correct some of the negative assertions a few people have made which you disagree with. I know you’re busy so thank you for considering this

    Best regards,

    M.Y.

  • Olaf M.

    Hello,
    it seems no one asked a basic question: what is the highest operating temperature of the reactor? Must the nickel and copper stay solid? That would mean about 1300 K, a very good value for Carnot efficiency. But what about catalyzers? Even if the thermal energy is fee, having a low working temperature would mean the need of big cooling systems to produce electrical energy.

  • Marcia Pires

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I have seen some comments about the steam out of you E-Cat’s hose. But, I don’t trust those guys. They don’t know the geometry of the device. But, according to you, what is the usual flow rate in liters of the e-cat at 4000KW and 15KW? Have you measured the speed of the vapor?

    Best wishes,

    Marcia Pires.

  • Martin

    Dear mr Rossi,

    I beleive your invention is real and wait with confidence for Oktober.
    It is also very interesting that Dennis Bushnell, Chief Scientist of NASA Langley
    thinks this is a very promising invention.

    Do you know if there are other peoples or organisations who are working on the same
    (or almost the same) method to gain energy?

    Thanks for your attention.

    Best regards,

    Martin

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear LIONGALAHAD ( or whatever you are):
    About the Clown that has made the calculation for the Snake about ther pressure in the chimney: very interesting, they are able to calculate the pressure in the chimney without knowing the internal dimensions of the chimney… what a professionality ! I am impressed.
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paolo Boggio:
    The power will increase slowly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paolo Boggio

    Mr. Rossi
    (Scusi per il mio brutto inglese)
    I would like to ask by what procedure will activate the system 1 MW, ie, the power will gradually increase until maximum power, or will operate the reactor at full power when turned on?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    Interesting insight, Thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Georgehants:
    I agree, Thank you.
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lars:
    There is no reason to do this, as I explained in former comments.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lars

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I understand you use smaller E-cats and connect them for the need for absolute security and stable operation for when privatepersons will use the E-cat, but have you considerded a bigger E-cat for the plants for industry so you dont have to build so many and connect so many to have a 1 Mw plant?

  • georgehants

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    After much thought, you are guaranteed to win the Nobel prizes for both Physics and Chemistry, the world will allow nothing less.
    You must gain financial security for you and your family and to persevere with your researches, but if any delays occur with the free production of your E-Cats to poor people, or governments try to restrict or over tax your devices, do you agree that the “secret” of production must be given freely to the world to avoid any unwarranted delays caused by unscrupulous establishments.

    This is a gift for the world, enjoy your success with peace and happiness.

  • giovanni guerrini

    Considerazioni personali su cui riflettere.
    Parte fondamentale su cui si regge il sistema economico sono le materie prime.Quelle riciclabili,in quanto tali,poco costituiscono scettro di potere da parte dei loro detentori.Quelle non riciclabili,idrocarburi ed uranio,in quanto imprescindibili ed in mano ad un gruppo limitato di individui danno a questi un enorme potere,derivante anche da un costante ed inarrestabile flusso di danaro verso essi che uscendo dal circuito economico va a capitalizzarsi nella acquisizione di beni strutturali,in particolar modo nelle strutture di governo finanziario.Questo perchè,ovviamente,tali materie non sono riproducibili,ma vengono dal sottosuolo.Una tecnologia,invece ,è riproducibile prima o poi anche oltre i brevetti,specie quando apre la strada alla comprensione di un fenomeno nuovo che possa esser utilizzato per lo sviluppo di altre tecnologie simili.Questa,a mio parere,è la vera rivoluzione che muta il sistema alle sue basi rendendo gli uomini più liberi e con un maggior benessere che consenta di aver più tempo per pensare sviluppando ciò che è il vantaggio evolutivo più grande,l’intelligenza di un cuore ricco di umanità.In un mondo sempre più affollato e spremuto questa prerogativa è ciò che dà alle masse la possibilità di sopravvivere,selezionati dalle scelte riproduttive derivanti da obbiettivi più evoluti dell’aver per essere,oramai svantaggiosi globalmente,rivolgendosi sempre più alle capacità del nostro intelletto accordato con il nostro cuore.
    Questa invenzione è parte fondamentale e necessaria di questa rivoluzione che apre ad una nuova era mai vista prima.Per questo è così importante.
    Saluti.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lars:
    Our plants can be connected in by-pass to existing thermal plants.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Adam Novak:
    I think that all the energy sources of the planet must be integrated.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sari Swensen:
    I suppose that after the operation of the 1 MW plant the issue will be taken seriously. For now, understandably, there is skepticism, but I acept it. What I do not accept is the attempt to discredit us with corrupted “journalists”; the last of those , who arrived to blackmail a researcher who worked with us to force him to give negative info about me, has been assigned in an Italian Court for this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul Segers:
    The 1 MW plant will work 24 hours per day fro the Customer of Defkalion. It will not be a demo-plant, it will be a regular productive plant.
    In the USA we are manufacturing other 2 plants of 1 MW of power.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear ML:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- Find the numbers in the different reports (depending on the device, a module makes from 2 to 10 kWh/h
    4- Correct
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear LIONGALAHAD:
    1- The pressure in the chimney of the E-Cats is room pressure
    2- the percentage of water residue in the steam has been measured in weight
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Nichols:
    1- No; neither changes the definition of heat
    2- No
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Cures

    Egregio Ing Rossi

    mi scusi se la disturbo di nuovo, ma non lo faccio come tecnico bensì come persona che segue da anni l’andamento dei mercati finanziari.

    La situazione attuale dell’area Euro è esplosiva, perché un possibile e probabile default della Grecia innescherebbe un effetto a catena coinvolgendo sia i Paesi noti come PIIGS (fra cui l’Italia) che le economie delle Nazioni più “resistenti” (Germania, Francia, ecc) a causa della pesantissima esposizione delle loro banche verso i PIIGS

    So che non ha tempo di interessarsi di queste cose, ma in questo quadro converrebbe che nella conferenza stampa della Defkalion si tentasse di trasmettere il più possibile al mondo intero la convinzione di aver trovato la soluzione a gran parte dei problemi energetici prospettando anche gli effetti economici sul mercato dell’energia, con particolare riferimento ai combustibili fossili di qualunque genere ed alla bilancia dei pagamenti di vari Paesi.

    Occorre un discorso che sia di profilo molto alto, ma che sia anche reso molto convincente da una dichiarata volontà di trarre il maggior utile possibile dalla sua scoperta per non ridurlo a una delle solite poco credibili dichiarazioni di principio di una impresa in fase di avviamento.

    Il profilo alto verrebbe rafforzato se alla conferenza partecipassero anche esponenti del governo greco e, aggiungerei, anche l’ambasciatore Italiano (e della Germania se possibile) Non nuocerebbe anche tenere conto dell’aspetto fisico del relatore. Per fare un esempio il Prof Stremmenos appare come una persona abituata al discorso pubblico, rassicurante, competente e perciò convincente

    Senza dubbio le mie osservazioni suonano naives, ma qualunque scossa positiva al mondo dell’economia in questo momento è la benvenuta e può generare un certo ottimismo in grado di contrastare la speculazione finanziaria che sta mettendo sotto scacco l’Europa

  • Doug Hulstedt MD

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Hello again and thanks for answering and talking about the e-cat. I am thinking as a homeowner. I have hot water needs and heating needs here in Monterey. I am hardly big, hardly industrial.Will November bring a modular unit to take care of heating needs or will we be able to buy only a steam engine to watch but not particularly utilitarian in its usage? Maybe an arm of a copper pipe and a pluumber for installation. Will I have to hire engineers to install functional E-cats for our home? Also what ought I to invest in for November to convert my house besides an engineering degree?
    I want to get this link in to you while you are still talking as I imagine you will be inundated in November.
    A parents organization providing scholarships for children with autism is https://ssl.charityweb.net/genrescue/
    Generation rescue is quite worthy as a scholarship for autistic children.
    Blessings
    Doug Hulstedt MD

  • Bill Nichols

    As an Atmospheric Scientist, deal in thermodynamics. Since the essence of your apparent discovery is heat…could you try to address the 3 questions below. Not having access to the specifics of your setup and phenomena, hence the broadness to the questions below.

    1.) What is Heat? Does this impact your view of our traditional definition?

    2.) Does this reaction in any way influence your understanding of Internal Energy, Entropy, Enthalpy and the First Law Of Thermodynamics?

    3.) If yes in some manner to questions 1 and 2…will you attempt to discuss this in October?

    Thank You and all the best.

    Bill Nichols

  • ML

    Ciao Andrea,

    Time moves quickly, and I have one or perhaps two additional questions.

    If I have read correctly, one of your e-Cat demonstrations was commenced with the hydrogen gas bottle disconnected from the e-Cat device. That is, the bottle was hooked up, used to pressurize the reaction vessel, and then disconnected for the remainder of the demonstration.

    Firstly, can you confirm that this is correct – that the e-Cat can continue to produce for a significant period after the hydrogen supply is disconnected?

    And if this is correct, secondly, may I ask how long the e-Cat device can remain in full production with only this initial hydrogen charge? Even better, can you please tell me how many kW-h (or better, how many joules) can be extracted before the reactor stops producing?

    I realize that you have probably built many different versions of the e-Cat – but in this case, my questions pertain to the smaller demonstration models that were shown to Swedish scientists Essen and Kulander, and I believe were quoted at 2.6kW continuous/average over the course of a run.

    Thank you again for your prompt and candid replies.

    Sincerely,
    ML

  • Paul Segers

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I was wondering if you could please clarify a couple of statements you made earlier today.

    “June 20th, 2011 at 9:38 AM
    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    Because they are preparing their manufacturing lines, which are not ready yet; the 1 MW plant is for a Customer of them and must be delivered by October.”

    And most recently you said the following in a response:

    “…my attorneys are making their work with the patents and I am working on my 1 MW plant.”

    and then later

    “My 1 MW plant is the sole serious thing I have to do. All the rest is useless chattering. And also I have to make my 1 MW plant for Greece…”

    Does this mean that the 1MW plant is not intended for ACTUAL use for the plant in Greece? Or do you mean that you are building a 1MW plant for a customer of Defkalion (as the plant is not yet ready) and are ALSO building a plant so supply Defkalion with their heating needs? To take my question a step further, how many 1MW plants are currently build/are in the process of being built?

    Thank you in advance for your response, I am looking forward to October!

    Sincerely,

    Paul

  • Sari (Patricia) Swensen

    I’m a disgusted American. I still can not believe that our media isn’t covering this!!! I’ve made a video that I’ve sent through friends on Facebook & am getting a large response. My friends are sharing this with friends also. I have gotten plenty of negative comments from those who think they “know all”. Although I am not an “Engineer”, I own a very successful highway construction company. I’ve done millions of dollars in work in the NYC bridge system. My passion of researching Tesla’s work, led me to you. I wish the absolute best for you & your invention!!!
    My best of wishes & dreams to you !!!!!

  • Sari (Patricia) Swensen

    I’m a disgusted American. I still can not believe that our media isn’t covering this!!! I’ve made a video that I’ve sent through friends on Facebook & am getting a large response. My friends are sharing this with friends also. I have gotten plenty of negative comments from those who think they “know all”. Although I am not an “Engineer”, I own a very successful highway construction company. I’ve done millions of dollars in work in the NYC bridge system. My passion of researching Tesla’s work, led me to you. I wish the absolute best for you & your invention!!! If you may have a chance, this is the link to my video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpE-zYwz3wM&feature=player_embedded
    My best of wishes & dreams to you !

  • Adam Novak

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    do you see your invention as a “silver bullet” that will make all other energy sources obsolete? Perhaps if you will produce bigger E-cats (with better energy density), there will be no point to continue the research of “hot” fusion like ITER which costs so much money and the outcome is uncertain. What do you think? Are there any disadvantages of your discovery that will not make it possible to replace all other energy sources?

    Regards,
    Adam Novak

  • Lars

    Drar Mr Rossi
    How will a normal user use the E-cat?
    Will it stand alone for it self or will it be connected to a system already used in the house?

  • ML

    Ciao Andrea,

    Yes, I see.

    You no doubt understand that I receive your limited answers with a certain skepticism, which I’m sure you can appreciate in light of your truly fantastic claims. And in kind, I realize that it is of little concern who says what, or believes this or that – only the facts, as they are discovered, will reveal the truth of the matter.

    Thank you for your time, and I hope you do not mind if I should post additional questions as they arise.

    Sincerely,
    ML

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear ML:
    I am sorry, but I confirm that to answer in satisfactory measure to your question, I would have to explain how the reactor works. I tried to answer few seconds ago, but I understood that from the answer critical information was popping out.
    Really sorry,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • ML

    Ciao Andrea,

    Thank you for your response, “To answer you I’d have to explain how the reactor works. Sorry, so far it is impossible.”

    I can appreciate the need for secrecy, as concerns the operation of the e-Cat. But can you at least answer the second half of my original question – regarding what is meant by “safety”, as provided by the second heater?

    Who or what is being kept safe, from what potential harm? Are we talking about physical safety of operators, equipment, installations, or something else?

    It would seem that you could answer this, without divulging any of your trade secrets, yes?

    Sincerely,
    ML

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    I am tired, very tired of these patent stuffs.
    Now I need to work only on my 1 MW plant.
    My Attorneys are working on the patents pending.
    I want to work in peace. There are armys of spyes and corrupt “journalists” who are trying to create an impossible environment around, I need to work in peace. I am not interested to what the hell is going on with the patents, my attorneys are making their work with the patents and I am working on my 1 MW plant. I am totally not interested to all the other issues. I will conserve the industrial secret until it will be possible and opportune. Then we will see.
    My 1 MW plant is the sole serious thing I have to do. All the rest is useless chattering. And also I have to make my 1 MW plant for Greece, that will be leader in this technology and now has a tremendous need of my work. From Greece will start the world diffusion of the light of the New Fire.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear ML:
    To answer you I’d have to explain how the reactor works. Sorry, so far it is impossible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefano Cicchiello:
    We are working with many materials, in the R&D branch. It is impossible, so far, to answer to your good question.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • stefano.cicchiello

    Egregio Dott. Rossi , mi scuso se ho usato un linguaggio di non mia competenza , azzardando un ipotesi che ha più del ciarlatanesco che di scientifico . Colgo l’occasione per farle ancora i miei più sentiti complimenti e attestazioni di stima e , se permette , cordiale affetto in misura in cui il suo genio permetterà grandissimi sviluppi per tutti quanti .
    Se mi è concesso vorrei farle una domanda . Ritiene di escludere un possibile utilizzo di altri elementi come combustubile per la sua invenzione ? O per lo meno , che altri materiali siano in grado di sviluppare il fenomeno che lei ha evidenziato e perfezionato così meravigliosamente ?
    Cordiali saluti

  • ML

    Ciao Andrea,

    There is a question about the e-Cat which has been plaguing my mind, and I hope that you can help me answer it.

    If I’m to understand correctly, an internal resistive heater is used to bring the e-Cat up to working temperature, and likewise, to control the reaction once the e-Cat is operating. Furthermore, you’ve stated that a second heater – a “safety” – is also present in the device. This apparent use of added heat to *control* a heat-producing reaction seems counter-intuitive, at least.

    Can you please explain how a heater can be used to control the strong exothermic reaction in the e-Cat, and how this first heater, or the second “safety” heater can act as a safety? Would not introducing more heat into the reaction only speed up the rate of the reaction? You can see my confusion, here.. it doesn’t seem to make any sense.

    And finally, what is meant by “safety” in this context? What are you trying to keep safe – the devices, the fuel charge, the control mechanisms, nearby personnel, or something else?

    Sincerely,
    ML

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    So you’re just already “running production” on the available scale with available means ?

    Is it because you do not trust the patent-agency guys that you do not disclose the core functionality of the e-cat ?
    Or do you just want to optimise the life-time of the patent in real production times ?
    Aren’t you afraid someone else publishes the operation of the e-cat and so spoils your patent ?
    Isn’t there a US law that says that if you sell your product for more than one year, a patent cannot be granted anymore ?

    I believe full disclosure, and good paperwork (and thus some level of patent!) will be the best protection anyway. This is too big for little secrets. The most important people and genius of history didn’t have secrets nor patents. Some of them died poor, but were kept in the minds and hearts of the people for thousands of years.
    There are no great examples of people who tried with partial patents combined with secrets. These half-patents just work when granted to big companies to attack equal-sized competitors.
    A man does not need billions. Big companies need them in order not to collapse.
    Does a man create from nothing ? No, he learns from others, from his teachers and guides, and combines things that were not combined before or just thinks a few steps further.
    In the hands of big companies, a patent is just a sick, (virtual)money-related inhibitor of (r)evolution.

    Yes, the investors demand it, but in that case I’d just go for the patent with full disclosure. If they don’t grant it to you now, they will never grant it. So What ? Life is not forever. A patent with a secret is just nonsense, don’t you think? Patents are created to guarantee a living on a mans creative work, and to inhibit the inventions to disappear with the death of the inventor. No honest man should abuse this principle.
    The world does not have decades to waste anymore. The grains have to be seeded, not hidden.

    Kind regards,
    Koen Vandewalle

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brad:
    1- if a unit overheats inside the reactor Nickel melts and the reactions are stopped: it is intrinsecally safe
    2- Hydrogen cannot explode because we have not oxygen inside the reactor. Antway, the amount of hydrogen is so small ( 1 gram) that there is not any explosion risk.
    Good questions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Randy:
    Interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Dingman:
    He,he,he…maybe you are right…we’ll see.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Brad

    Mr. Rossi,

    I am very excited about your discovery. All the best wishes to you.

    I understand you’re working hard to keep your commercial units safe.

    Can you say what the risk is if a unit overheats? Is it just a hot H2 explosion, or is the gas also poisonous?

    Sincerely,
    Brad

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Maryyugo:
    You can find very easily the reports, just going not to this blog, but to the Journal:
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com
    and go to the index (the column on the right of the forst page. There you will find the reports; also, same index, find the Focardi-Rossi Paper; to find the Report of the Swedish Professors, go to Google and search “Kullander-Essen report of the E-Cat on Nyteknik”.
    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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