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Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

by Yeong E. Kim Department of Physics, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

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ABSTRACT
Generalized theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recent experimental results of Rossi et al. for hydrogen-nickel system.  Based on incomplete experimental information currently available, preliminary theoretical explanations of the experimental results are presented in terms of the generalized BECNF theory. Additional accurate experimental data are needed for obtaining more complete theoretical descriptions and predictions, which can be tested by further experiments.

I.  Introduction
Over the last two decades, there have been many publications reporting experimental observations of excess heat generation and anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in metals at ultra-low energies, now known as „low-energy nuclear reactions‟ (LENR).  Theoretical explanations of the LENR phenomena have been described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) in micro/nano-scale metal particles [1-3].  The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation.  While the BECNF theory is able to make general qualitative predictions concerning LENR phenomena it is also a quantitative predictive physical theory.  Some of the theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments reported recently.  The BECNF theory was generalized for the case of two species of Bosons [4].

Recently, there were two positive demonstrations (January and March, 2011) of a heat generating device called “Energy Catalyzer” [5]. The Energy Catalyzer is an apparatus built by inventor Andrea Rossi, Italy. The patent application [5] states that the device transforms energy stored in its fuel (hydrogen and nickel) into heat by means of nuclear reaction of the two fuel components, with a consequent observed production of copper [5,6]. According to Rossi‟s patent application [5], heating of the sample is accomplished by an electric resistance heater.  Details of March 2011 demonstration were reported by Essen and Kullander [7]. The report [7] also contains references to January 2011 demonstration. In the following, we describe hydrogen-nickel reactions in section II. Other possible reactions are discussed in section III.  Conclusions are given in section IV.

II.  Hydrogen-Nickel Reactions
The generalized BECNF theory [4] can be applied to the case of hydrogen-nickel fusion reactions observed in Rossi‟s device (the energy catalyzer) [5] under the following two conditions: (1) additives used (not disclosed in the patent application) form Ni alloy and/or Ni metal/alloy oxide in the surface regions of nickel nano-scale particles, so that Ni atoms/nuclei become mobile with a sufficiently large diffusion coefficient and (2) local magnetic field is very weak in the surface regions, providing a suitable environment in which two neighboring protons can couple their spins anti-parallel to form spin-zero singlet state (S=0).  Relatively low Curie temperature (nickel has the Curie temperature of 631 oK (~358 oC)) is expected to help to maintain the weak magnetic field in the surface regions. If Rossi‟s device is operated at temperatures greater than the Curie temperature ~358 oC and with hydrogen pressures of up to ~22 bars, the conditions (1) and (2) may have been achieved in Rossi‟s device. The mobility of Ni atoms/nuclei (condition (1)) is enhanced by the use of an electric resistance heater to maintain higher temperatures. This may provide a suitable environment in which more of both Ni atoms/nuclei and protons become mobile, thus creating a favorable environment for the case of two species of Bosons (Ni nuclei and composite Bosons of paired two protons). If the velocities of mobile Ni atoms/nuclei under the condition (1) are sufficiently slow, their de-Broglie wavelengths become sufficiently large and may overlap with neighboring two-proton composite Bosons which are also mobile, thus creating Bose-Einstein condensation of two species of Bosons. The generalized BECNF theory can now be applied to these two-species of Bosons and provides a mechanism for the suppression/cancellation of the Coulomb barrier, as shown in [4]. Once the Coulomb barrier is overcome in the entrance reaction channel, many possible allowed exit reaction channels may become open such as reactions (i) ANi(2p(S=0), p)ˆA+1 Cu, with even A=58, 60, 62 and 64. These reactions will produce radioactive isotopes 59Cu and 61Cu with A = 58 and 60, respectively. 59Cu has a half-life of 81.5 seconds and decays by the electron capture to the 59Ni ground state (58.1%) which has a half-life of 7.6 x 10ˆ4 years and to the 59Ni excited states (41.9%) which in turn decay to the 59Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 310.9 keV to 2682.0 keV [8]. 61Cu has a half-life of 3.333 hours and decays by the electron capture to the stable 61Ni ground state (67%) and to the 61Ni excited states (33%) which in turn decay to the 61Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 67.412 keV to 2123.93 keV [8]. Gamma-rays (and neutrons) have not been observed outside the reactor chamber during the experiment [6]. These gamma-rays may have been present inside the reaction chamber. If no radiations are observed, reactions (i) are ruled out. Focardi and Rossi [6] reported that the experimental results of Rossi et al. indicate the production of  stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu with an isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu ~ 1.6 (natural abundance is 63Cu/ 65Cu = 2.24). This production of Cu may be due to reactions (i). The production of 63Cu and 65Cu with isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu different from the natural isotopic ratio is expected and can be explained by estimating the reaction rates for 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu.  Reaction rates estimates based on transmission probability calculated from a barrier tunneling model similar to the alpha-decay theory indicate that the reaction rates for stable Cu productions, 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu, are expected to be much larger than the reaction rates for production of radioactive Cu, 58Ni(2p(S=0), p)59Cu and 60Ni(2p(S=0), p)61Cu. This leads to the prediction that intensities of the gamma-rays from the decays of 59Cu and 61Cu are expected to be weak and do not commensurate with the observed heat production, which is mostly from stable Cu production  reactions 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu. There are other exit reaction channels which are (nearly) radiation-less, such as reactions (ii) ANi(2p(S=0), α)ˆA-2Ni, (even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) [9]. For this case, we expect that the natural isotopic ratio of Ni isotopes will be changed in a particular way, which can be checked from the  sample after each experiment.  Even though reactions (ii) produce radioactive isotope 56Ni, it can be shown using the alpha-decay theory that its reaction rate is much slower (by many order of magnitudes) than those of other reactions. Other exit reaction channels, ANi(2p(S=0), d)ACu, ANi(2p(S=0), 3HeA-1Ni, and ANi(2p(S=0), t)ˆA-1Cu (all with even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) are ruled out since these reactions all have negative Q-values.  There are possibilities of neutron-emission exit reaction channels, such as reactions (iii) ANi(2p(S=0), n)ˆA+1Zn, (even A= 62, and 64; Q is negative for A = 58 and 60).  However, reaction rates for reactions (iii) are expected be substantially smaller than those for reaction (i).  Reactions (iii) involve emission of a tightly bound neutron (62Ni -> 61Ni + n, Q = -10.597MeV or  64Ni -> 63Ni + n, Q = -9.657MeV) while reactions (i) involve emission of a loosely bound proton from an excited compound nuclear state consisting of ANi (even A) and 2p(S=0). Therefore, the transmission probability of a neutron tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (iii) is expected to be substantially smaller than that of a proton tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (i). The branching ratios of reactions (i) and (ii) need to be determined by measurements of gamma-ray energies and changes in isotopic ratios from future Ross-type experiments.  Theoretically, the branching ratios can be estimated by calculating transmission probability of an emitted charged particle tunneling through both Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in the exit reaction channel, as done in the alpha-decay theory.

III.  Other Possible Reactions
In addition to the above reactions described in II, there are possibilities of reactions involving additives used (not disclosed so far). For an example, if lithium is added as an additive, reaction (iv) 6Li(2p(S=0), p 3He)4He may be possible. As in cases of reactions (i) and (ii), Ni nano-particles would be still playing an important role of providing two-proton singlet composite Bosons for reaction (iv). Reaction (iv) would not change the isotopic ratios of Ni.

VI.  Conclusions
In order to explore validity and to test predictions of the generalized BECNF theory for the hydrogen-metal system, it is very important to carry out Rossi-type experiments independently in order to establish what are exact inputs and outputs of each experiment.  If the entrance and exit reaction channels are established experimentally, we can investigate selection rules as well as estimates of the reaction rates for different exit reaction channels, based on the generalized BECNF theory [1-4]. Once these experimental results are established, further application of the generalized BECNF theory can be made for the purpose of confirming the theoretical mechanism and making theoretical predictions, which can then be tested experimentally. Basic description of the above theoretical concepts for BECNF in the hydrogen-metal system will be included in an invited talk at a forthcoming nuclear physics conference [10], and will be published in the conference proceedings [10].

References

  1. Y. E. Kim, “Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Deuteron-Induced Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles”, Naturwissenschaften 96, 803 (2009) and references therein.
  2. Y. E. Kim, “Bose-Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, 188 (2010), Proceedings of Symposium on New Energy Technologies, the 239th National Meeting of American Chemical Society, San Francisco, March 21-26, 2010.
  3. Y. E. Kim, “Theoretical interpretation of anomalous tritium and neutron productions during  Pd/D co-deposition experiments”, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.  52, 31101 (2010).
  4. Y. E. Kim and A. L. Zubarev, “Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter”, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Cold Fusion, Marseilles, France, 31 October – 5 November, 2006, World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 711-717.
  5. Andrea Rossi, “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTION”, United States Patent Application Publication (Pub. No.: US 2011/0005506 A1, Pub. Date: Jan. 13, 2011); http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/ja/WO2009125444.
  6. S. Focardi and A. Rossi, “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”, March 22, 2010. http://www.nyteknik.se/incoming/article3080659.ece/BINARY/Rossi-Forcardi_paper.pdf
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=66 ,  February 2010
  7. H. Essen and S. Kullander, “Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna, 29 March 2011”, a travel report, April 3, 2011; http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3144827.ece
  8. Table of Isotopes, 8th Edition, Volume I: A = 1-150, edited by R. B. Firestone et al., published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1999), pages 270 and 284.
  9. Reactions (ii) were suggested by T.  E. Ward, private communication, May 11, 2011.
  10. Y. E. Kim, “Deuteron Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles”, an invited talk to be presented at the Fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics 2011(APFB2011), August 22-26, 2011, Seoul, Korea. (http://www.apctp.org/conferences/2011/APFB2011/)

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839 comments to Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

  • UPDATE.
    Our article at Ny Teknik is now updated with a comment from Alexandros Xanthoulis, representing the investors in Praxen-Defkalion:
    http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3228376.ece

    A complete official statement from Defkalion can be found here:
    http://www.nyteknik.se/incoming/article3228643.ece/BINARY/DGT+Statement+8+August+2011.pdf

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sterling Allan:
    Please read and copy for use it to answer to the open letter the answer that I gave to Alessandro Casali in this same blog, few minutes ago.
    Thank you for your kind attention .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Hansson:
    The policy of making all those E-Cats in short time was not a fruit of my mind. Please read the answer I gave to Alessandro Casali few minutes ago.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Falcon:
    First of all, I am not professor.
    As I am repeating since January, for commercial issues please contact me in November. I always told to everybody this. Before the start up of my 1 MW plant, we will not make commercial agreements of any kind.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alessandro Casali:
    I repeat that the reason of the split from Defkalion has been only and exclusively financial.
    As for all the other issue: as all our Readers know, I always said that we would have been ready for the market from November only with the 1 MW plants, while for the small units more time was necessary, for many issues.
    In fact, we will start in October our 1 MW plant, and we will be ready to sell such plants from November, as I always said, while we will be ready for the small plants in due time. It is true that Defkalion, which is an entity indipendent form us, has repeatedly published that they were ready to make a mass production of E-Cats, they also said repeatedly and publicly that they were ready to invest hundreds od millions of Euros. I had no reason not to believe them. I could not know which kind of assets they had, so, theoretically, they could be able to make what they said, after getting from me the technology to make the core of the reactors. There was not reason not to believe. The problem emerged when, after we waited until the maximum possible term, we demanded that the financial duties be respected. At that point it emerged that the financial resources were not enough to go on. This is the sole real problem. There have not been technological problems (see the comment of their chief scientist Prof. Christos Stremmenos, published here few minutes ago), there have not been personal problems, at all, not counting the fact that I love Greece (by the way: to visit Greece in this season is like to go in Paradise), there have not been problems of delivery, I have already perfectly in schedule my 1 MW plant, while the production in big series of the E-Cats was not my duty ( by the way, I always said them that this policy was completely wrong, for the first 2 years, but they were free to do what they want in reece and Balkans); the only problem has been that they were delaying from months their financial duties, until it has not been possible to go ahead. Of course, since they have not respected what due, I did not give them any confidential information regarding the inside of the reactors.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Albert Ellul:
    From next November.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sakis:
    We are sure that we will be able to work also in Greece in future. This has been a bumpin the road, but I an sure that in your great Country we will find the way to work properly.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rick Meisinger:
    Thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rick Meisinger

    Andrea Rossi;
    A while back you mentioned “you have no idea of the difficulties I have to overcome every day”, I believe we are now getting a glimpse of what you are going through. If refining and birthing a new technology was not enough, dealing with the darker side of humanity must be the worst part. You are truly at the tip of the spear and my hope is that you are able to surround yourself with good people that you can trust. I am sure that lessons learned during your boxing days will come to good use. Keep your gloves up!
    With much appreciation and support;
    R.M.

  • sakis

    Dear DR Rossi

    Today is a sad day for me.. I live near xanthi and i send my CV so i can work there as a volunteer! i just want to be a part of the revolution !Also it was a great hope for us in Greece in times like this… Any way i wish you the best results with your new partners and i hope they don`t treat you like Nikola Tesla…
    I pray you find a way back with Defkalion and i am ALWAYS by your side as a true visionary of better world !
    Warm regards,
    sakis

  • Albert Ellul

    Dear Ing. Rossi:
    Just a simple question: When would I be able to purchase a 1 MWatt e-cat unit and get it delivered to any country in Europe?

  • Dear eng. Rossi,
    I’ve just published the last statement by Prof. Christos Stremmenos and by Defkalion too.
    In this moment I want to confirm my trust for you.

  • Alessandro Casali

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I hope you will agree with me that the news of your recent split-up from Defikalion has undoubtedly put some new shadows on this story, that’s how it goes, the higher the claims the higher the pubblic attenction.

    Now if you remember from our previous discussion i had poited out I didn’t think your technology was ready for mass production, at least not in the form nor in the times clamed by Defkalion, thus i’m not really surprised by this news. So was the problem only financial or maybe was Defkalion putting too much pressure on you to meet their schedule?

    You have a new and bigger customer now so it should be fine anyway, may i ask you then when you think the University of Bologna will start testing your device? i mean before or after the delivery of the 1MW plant?

    I really appreciate you kindness on keeping this open chat with the internet curiouses (like me) and sometimes i ask myself why are you doing this? i mean it is something not really common for someone who is busy working on an invention like this to spend part of his precious time aswering to people curiosity?

    Warm Regards,

    ac

  • Falcon

    Professor Rossi

    I have been asking questions on your blog a couple of times. And today I am in trouble. I have started a commercial relation with Defkalion GT, and even scheduled a travel to Greece with the people I am working for. I discover now that your relation in over. So, as I am asking now who can I contact. The group I am working for is very interested to import the technology in my region. So could you provide me with an email adress and/or a phone number?

    Thank you.

    T. B

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I’m referring to the production base that Defkalion mentioned as 300.000 units first year with one factory. And a further increase in the coming production cycle with exponential increase in output (millions of units).

    As I understand from your answer that figure never included production of core technology.

    Nevertheless, such huge adjustments in production capacity usually affect market strategies related to component flow and product range.

  • Hi Andrea,

    Here’s an open letter:

    http://pesn.com/2011/08/08/9501888_Betrayal_Catalyzed–An_Open_Letter_To_Andrea_Rossi/

    Betrayal Catalyzed — An Open Letter To Andrea Rossi

    An open letter to Andrea Rossi about the current situation, in regards to his denial of Defkalion having built a working E-Cat reactor.

    Your input welcome.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H.Hansson:
    Our production capacity will not be affected at all. We did not depend from them, they depended from us. Nothing is changed about our strategy.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Don:
    The measurements of the quality of the steam have been made by specialists, and of course have been made in mass .
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Craig:
    Our program goes on as scheduled, after the Agreement with the USA Partner.
    The 1 MW plant will go in Operation in the USA, I cannot say in which city, because you could understand immediately who is the Partner, and we are bound not to reveal it until the test day. All our commercial programs will go ahead as usual.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea,

    I am sorry to hear that the agreement with Defkalion ran into problems.

    The public are keen that this will not interrupt the timeframe for delivery of the first plant to produce heat. Can you confirm that the first eCat 1MW plant will belong to Ampenergo, or will the first plant be operated by this new as yet unknown partner you have been talking about who has plans for many eCat plants.

    Can you also confirm which American city will host this first 1MW plant?

    Thank-you,

    Craig
    Free Energy Truth
    http://freeenergytruth.blogspot.com

  • Don

    Dear Andrea,

    First, thank you for what you’re doing. I am happy you have put your life effort on developing this revolutionary technology. I have been evangelizing your work and your device to everyone I come in contact with. I have placed my personal and professional reputation on the line in support of the reality of the functioning of your device because I have believed in your honesty and integrity. It has been easy for me to overlook the naysayers because I know how limited people’s thinking can be.

    The most recent questions posed by the scientific community about your calculations of power output, based on dry steam vs wet steam have me a little concerned.

    Can you comment on this for me. Forgive me if you have already addressed this question before. My predisposition is to believe in your results, so I am asking so you can help me have greater confidence! Thank you.

    Don

  • wade

    Neil Taylor:

    You uh…realize if this invention is as promising as it claims to be, you won’t care much about oil any more, except as an ingredient in plastics or as a lubricant maybe…

    10 years or so of market saturation, and oil and coal would be nearly obsolete.

    I calculated you could probably replace existing diesel engines in container ships with electric engines or some sort of steam engine, powered by an hypothetical 80 mega-watt e-cat, and the entire system would fit in the existing engine room and 1/3rd of the fuel tank space, even with a 50% wasting of space.

    The savings in diesel fuel costs alone would be around $100 million per container ship per year (not counting efficiency gains of not having to transport the mass of other fuel).

    Admittedly, it would probably take several decades to optimize the technology, redesign, and retrofit ships and trains, but do you begin to see what this device really can do?

    Since ships and trains are often 30 to 50 year investments, a container ship could earn an extra 3 to 5 billion dollars in profits during it’s lifetime due to the savings in fuel costs…

    Yes, this is highly speculative, but hell, only requires an additional 80 times scaling of what Rossi is about to do anyway…

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    After submitting my question and my internet-browser was updating the web-page, I noticed that someone else have addressed a similar issue and also received a reply from you, my bad.

    Q: how much will this Defkalion problem affect your production capacity??

    Nevertheless, as I understand your EU operation was very much dependent on Defkalion. Even your USA operation incorporated Defkalion to some extent.

    Suggest that you looking for the new partner in UK (the language), Germany (industry tradition) or Sweden (fast track) — all are countries with a better credit rating than USA and Greece.

  • Dear Andrea,
    Here’s our article at Ny Teknik on the termination of the agreement:
    E-cat: Rossi breaks with Greek Defkalion
    http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3228376.ece
    Kind Regards,
    Mats Lewan

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    Yes, it is a sad day, because I have been betrayed with lies. I am sad mainly for my friend Christos Stremmenos, the Greek Scientist who made the tests in Bologna for the reeks: he always believed in this, made a titanic effort to bring this in Greece, and now all his work too has been betrayed, but I am sure that we will work again together, maybe in Greece with other organizations: it would be a pity to throw away the baby with the dirt water. But the tech must go on, we signed a tremendous contract in the USA. The Customer has already made plans for 1,000 plants in the USA, and has the financial dimension for this.
    By the way: it was already foreseen from me this USA plant, if you remember, I told months ago that we were preparing also a plant for the USA.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sterling Allen:
    The truth will come from the Judge which will emit the verdict in Court, where we will resolve the issue. It will be fast, because the contract foresees an Arbitrate College.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Hansson:
    I have already explained all that my attorneys told me to explain. The rest will come from the Court. Of course during a litigation there are two different versions, this is why we want a vedict made by a judge, to have an undisputable truth. Facts, not chatters.
    And, by the way, there is not much to dispute: we made all our duties, they did not respect their financial obligations. The sole reason of the break is this, all the rest is chatters.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Visscher:
    No, the start up will be within the end of October.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Neil Taylor:
    Very good idea.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • H. Visscher

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Now that the 1MW demonstration is being held in US rather than Greece I have another question.
    You always said that the 1MW plant was being manufactured in the US. Now that the plant does not need to be shipped to Greece, does this mean that this buys you time and that therefore the presentation can happen sooner rather than the end of October?

    Thanks

    H. Visscher

  • Neil Taylor

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    In a followup to my previous post regading the application of e-cats in the oil fields of the world, here are a few facts that may be of interest from Wikipedia on tar oil sands:

    “The crude bitumen contained in the Canadian oil sands is described by Canadian authorities as “petroleum that exists in the semi-solid or solid phase in natural deposits. Bitumen is a thick, sticky form of crude oil, so heavy and viscous (thick) that it will not flow unless heated or diluted with lighter hydrocarbons.

    Oil sands reserves have only recently been considered to be part of the world’s oil reserves, as higher oil prices and new technology enable them to be profitably extracted and upgraded to usable products. They are often referred to as unconventional oil or crude bitumen.

    Making liquid fuels from oil sands requires energy for steam injection and refining. This process generates two to four times the amount of greenhouse gases per barrel of final product as the production of conventional oil.
    Many countries in the world have large deposits of oil sands, including the United States, Russia, and various countries in the Middle East. However, the world’s largest deposits occur in two countries: Canada and Venezuela, each of which have oil sand reserves approximately equal to the world’s total reserves of conventional crude oil. As a result of the development of Canadian oil sands reserves, 44% of Canadian oil production in 2007 was from oil sands, with an additional 18% being heavy crude oil, while light oil and condensate had declined to 38% of the total.”

    Thus, the e-cat’s applied here would significantly reduce greenhouse gases as petroleum products would not have to be burned to make steam and the costs for producing oil from this tar sand process would be greatly reduced and production enhanced. Also, the e-cats would be portable and easily located where needed. All real pluses for this industry. Oil will likely always be needed as it is used for many things in our modern society besides fuel…

    Sincerely,
    Neil Taylor

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I never fully understood why the first public test-run should be performed in Greece, adding several factors of complexity (different work ethics, logistics, import/documents/permits just to mention some).. It seems much smarter to run it in a location near your workshop (or in your workshop) in USA.

    Said that, I also wants to draw your attention to the facts that this is a good opportunity to put facts strait, the press release opens up for speculations that may affect the eCat brand. Defkalion will for sure air their version..

  • Hi Andrea,

    Thanks for answering my earlier questions. Our first of two stories today is here: http://pesn.com/2011/08/07/9501886_Rossi_Terminates_Defkalions_E-Cat_Rights_and_License/

    Rossi Terminates Defkalion’s E-Cat Rights and License
    In a stunning announcement, Andrea Rossi has reported on his blog — the Journal of Nuclear Physics — that the licensing agreement between his company and Defkalion Green Technologies Inc. has been terminated. What are the ramifications of this turn of events? First 1 MW plant will be in USA.

    The second story is one I’d like to get your comment on, to include, if you don’t mind.
    http://pesn.com/2011/08/07/9501887_An_E-Cat_Full_of_Lies_-_Rossi_or_Defkalion/
    An E-Cat Full of Lies – Rossi or Defkalion?
    Andrea Rossi has announced that he has terminated the licensing agreement with Defkalion Green Technologies Inc., and states Defkalion has never built or tested an E-Cat or Hyperion unit. This contradicts the countless statements from Defkalion representatives. Either Defkalion or Rossi is lying. Who is being honest and who is not?

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    Is this a sad day for you ?
    Did you expect this ? Only a man can keep his word. Companies cannot, it seems.
    Is it greed, profit-seeking or incompetence or was it only a little too big for a small country ? Time will tell.
    Will the new customer help you to the market, or is it for more experimental purpose ?
    Are you able again to make smaller agreements ? In other words: when can I have my own e-cat ?
    My thoughts and my heart are with you.
    Best regards.
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luca T:
    I was in the States until 2 days ago, I will return there very soon; we will communicate the start location the day before the start itself.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    Please read the answers I gave to Georgehants one minute ago: same questions.
    About Europe, our technology will have the same diffusion we always said, even if the first 1 MW plant will be started up in the USA. The context in which it will be tested will be so high, that no further skepticism will have reasonable room ( I am talking of the honest skepticism)
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Georgehants:
    Prof. Stremmenos has tested our E-Cats many times in Bologna and has made a very good work; I do not know what has been done in Greece from Deflalion with the documents made by Prof. Stremmenos; also other officers of defkalion made tests in Bologna, for this purpose.
    The work has been good, as well as has been good the work that Defkalion made to get authorizations, I suppose, even if it has never been my business; the problems which caused the cancellation of the contract are just financial.
    By the way, the report of the last test made by the Greek Scientist Christos Stremmenos has been published, the work has been very good, and my personal relationship with Prof. Stremmenos is good. We hope in future to make again a good work in Greece.
    When a verdict will be issued regarding the suit in course between Defkalion and us will be published all will be clear. Now I prefer not to enter in particulars, but, again, the issue is just financial, not personal, nor technological, nor scientific.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wade:
    1- It will take time. For now we are ready with plants of 1 MW, which can be combined.
    2- Our USA Customer is taking care of this issue,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Dr Rampado Roberto:
    In october we will put in operation our 1 MW plant and it will be the keystone of our development and of the demonstration of the industrial applicability of our technology.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    p.s. About the fraudolent attempt of imitation: let them try, the market will show what works and what doesn’t.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Simon Knight,
    Thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Simon Knight

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    An application that finds widespread use and that would be well suited for the E-Cat is steam cleaning as can be seen at this
    site: http://www.sjecorp.com/system/usProductsDetail/102368

    I can see the name already: The stEam-Cat!

    Kind regards, Simon

  • Rampado Dr Roberto

    Caro Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Una prova dell’E-Cat al di sopra di ogni dubbio, fatta magari presso l’Università di Bologna o di Upsala o anche in USA, potrebbe accelerare il rilascio del Brevetto Internazionale o anche solo Europeo, invalidando eventuali tentativi fraudolenti di concorrenza in atto ?
    Con tanta stima ! Buon lavoro !
    Rampado Dr Roberto

  • wade

    Dear Dr. Rossi:

    Do you think this technology would one day be scalable to the size of existing conventional nuclear reactors?

    Also, what about licensing and regulations in the U.S? Because we all know it’s coming. You require a license to do just about anything other than breathe in the U.S., and I think they’ll license that too soon…

    Isn’t it true that the United States government, or else state and local governments, will require certification as a boilermaker AND some sort of nuclear certification in order to be allowed to operate an E-Cat? That’s not too big a problem for companies and corporations who can just hire somebody, or already have somebody qualified, but for individual use, that may become too expensive and impractical to maintain licensing and certification.

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    A question put on E_CAT World.

    What about the e-cats that were supposedly being tested by Greek government officials to determine their safety and efficacy? Was that all a lie?

  • Martin

    Dear mr Rossi,

    Shocking news today! Is prof Stemmenos stil convinced the ecat works as you told? And does this means that the people of europe must wait longer for ecats? Can you also say something about the ecat tests of defkalion? We have been told they tested the ecat many times (is this true?) And can you give some info about the tests of the greek gevernment?

    Thanks a lot for answering the questions.

    Best regards

    Martin

  • LucaT

    Rossi, are You in the states nowadays?

    … and I suppose the plant will start in Florida … am I wrong?

    Thanks in advance

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sterling Allan:
    The 1 MW plant will be installed in the USA,:please read the answer I geve to you few minutes ago.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Sebastian

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    thank you for your replies. My first comment (8:13AM) is still “awaiting moderation” though you already answered it. Could please make it public to everyone else knows to which questions you responded? Thank you. You can then delete this comment, of course.

    Best regards and all the best to the new strategy with the US society. In my eyes the better choice as I never approved of the people behind Defkalion.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enzo Amato:
    Our 1 MW plant will be respect the time scheduling and will be put in operation in the USA .
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear SEBASTIAN:
    Leonardo Corporation and EFA will continue their regular work and commercial strategy .
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

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