Categories

Peer Review

All the articles published on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics are Peer Reviewed. The Peer Review of every paper is made by at least one University Physics Professor.

Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

by Yeong E. Kim Department of Physics, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

Direct download

ABSTRACT
Generalized theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recent experimental results of Rossi et al. for hydrogen-nickel system.  Based on incomplete experimental information currently available, preliminary theoretical explanations of the experimental results are presented in terms of the generalized BECNF theory. Additional accurate experimental data are needed for obtaining more complete theoretical descriptions and predictions, which can be tested by further experiments.

I.  Introduction
Over the last two decades, there have been many publications reporting experimental observations of excess heat generation and anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in metals at ultra-low energies, now known as „low-energy nuclear reactions‟ (LENR).  Theoretical explanations of the LENR phenomena have been described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) in micro/nano-scale metal particles [1-3].  The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation.  While the BECNF theory is able to make general qualitative predictions concerning LENR phenomena it is also a quantitative predictive physical theory.  Some of the theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments reported recently.  The BECNF theory was generalized for the case of two species of Bosons [4].

Recently, there were two positive demonstrations (January and March, 2011) of a heat generating device called “Energy Catalyzer” [5]. The Energy Catalyzer is an apparatus built by inventor Andrea Rossi, Italy. The patent application [5] states that the device transforms energy stored in its fuel (hydrogen and nickel) into heat by means of nuclear reaction of the two fuel components, with a consequent observed production of copper [5,6]. According to Rossi‟s patent application [5], heating of the sample is accomplished by an electric resistance heater.  Details of March 2011 demonstration were reported by Essen and Kullander [7]. The report [7] also contains references to January 2011 demonstration. In the following, we describe hydrogen-nickel reactions in section II. Other possible reactions are discussed in section III.  Conclusions are given in section IV.

II.  Hydrogen-Nickel Reactions
The generalized BECNF theory [4] can be applied to the case of hydrogen-nickel fusion reactions observed in Rossi‟s device (the energy catalyzer) [5] under the following two conditions: (1) additives used (not disclosed in the patent application) form Ni alloy and/or Ni metal/alloy oxide in the surface regions of nickel nano-scale particles, so that Ni atoms/nuclei become mobile with a sufficiently large diffusion coefficient and (2) local magnetic field is very weak in the surface regions, providing a suitable environment in which two neighboring protons can couple their spins anti-parallel to form spin-zero singlet state (S=0).  Relatively low Curie temperature (nickel has the Curie temperature of 631 oK (~358 oC)) is expected to help to maintain the weak magnetic field in the surface regions. If Rossi‟s device is operated at temperatures greater than the Curie temperature ~358 oC and with hydrogen pressures of up to ~22 bars, the conditions (1) and (2) may have been achieved in Rossi‟s device. The mobility of Ni atoms/nuclei (condition (1)) is enhanced by the use of an electric resistance heater to maintain higher temperatures. This may provide a suitable environment in which more of both Ni atoms/nuclei and protons become mobile, thus creating a favorable environment for the case of two species of Bosons (Ni nuclei and composite Bosons of paired two protons). If the velocities of mobile Ni atoms/nuclei under the condition (1) are sufficiently slow, their de-Broglie wavelengths become sufficiently large and may overlap with neighboring two-proton composite Bosons which are also mobile, thus creating Bose-Einstein condensation of two species of Bosons. The generalized BECNF theory can now be applied to these two-species of Bosons and provides a mechanism for the suppression/cancellation of the Coulomb barrier, as shown in [4]. Once the Coulomb barrier is overcome in the entrance reaction channel, many possible allowed exit reaction channels may become open such as reactions (i) ANi(2p(S=0), p)ˆA+1 Cu, with even A=58, 60, 62 and 64. These reactions will produce radioactive isotopes 59Cu and 61Cu with A = 58 and 60, respectively. 59Cu has a half-life of 81.5 seconds and decays by the electron capture to the 59Ni ground state (58.1%) which has a half-life of 7.6 x 10ˆ4 years and to the 59Ni excited states (41.9%) which in turn decay to the 59Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 310.9 keV to 2682.0 keV [8]. 61Cu has a half-life of 3.333 hours and decays by the electron capture to the stable 61Ni ground state (67%) and to the 61Ni excited states (33%) which in turn decay to the 61Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 67.412 keV to 2123.93 keV [8]. Gamma-rays (and neutrons) have not been observed outside the reactor chamber during the experiment [6]. These gamma-rays may have been present inside the reaction chamber. If no radiations are observed, reactions (i) are ruled out. Focardi and Rossi [6] reported that the experimental results of Rossi et al. indicate the production of  stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu with an isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu ~ 1.6 (natural abundance is 63Cu/ 65Cu = 2.24). This production of Cu may be due to reactions (i). The production of 63Cu and 65Cu with isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu different from the natural isotopic ratio is expected and can be explained by estimating the reaction rates for 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu.  Reaction rates estimates based on transmission probability calculated from a barrier tunneling model similar to the alpha-decay theory indicate that the reaction rates for stable Cu productions, 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu, are expected to be much larger than the reaction rates for production of radioactive Cu, 58Ni(2p(S=0), p)59Cu and 60Ni(2p(S=0), p)61Cu. This leads to the prediction that intensities of the gamma-rays from the decays of 59Cu and 61Cu are expected to be weak and do not commensurate with the observed heat production, which is mostly from stable Cu production  reactions 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu. There are other exit reaction channels which are (nearly) radiation-less, such as reactions (ii) ANi(2p(S=0), α)ˆA-2Ni, (even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) [9]. For this case, we expect that the natural isotopic ratio of Ni isotopes will be changed in a particular way, which can be checked from the  sample after each experiment.  Even though reactions (ii) produce radioactive isotope 56Ni, it can be shown using the alpha-decay theory that its reaction rate is much slower (by many order of magnitudes) than those of other reactions. Other exit reaction channels, ANi(2p(S=0), d)ACu, ANi(2p(S=0), 3HeA-1Ni, and ANi(2p(S=0), t)ˆA-1Cu (all with even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) are ruled out since these reactions all have negative Q-values.  There are possibilities of neutron-emission exit reaction channels, such as reactions (iii) ANi(2p(S=0), n)ˆA+1Zn, (even A= 62, and 64; Q is negative for A = 58 and 60).  However, reaction rates for reactions (iii) are expected be substantially smaller than those for reaction (i).  Reactions (iii) involve emission of a tightly bound neutron (62Ni -> 61Ni + n, Q = -10.597MeV or  64Ni -> 63Ni + n, Q = -9.657MeV) while reactions (i) involve emission of a loosely bound proton from an excited compound nuclear state consisting of ANi (even A) and 2p(S=0). Therefore, the transmission probability of a neutron tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (iii) is expected to be substantially smaller than that of a proton tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (i). The branching ratios of reactions (i) and (ii) need to be determined by measurements of gamma-ray energies and changes in isotopic ratios from future Ross-type experiments.  Theoretically, the branching ratios can be estimated by calculating transmission probability of an emitted charged particle tunneling through both Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in the exit reaction channel, as done in the alpha-decay theory.

III.  Other Possible Reactions
In addition to the above reactions described in II, there are possibilities of reactions involving additives used (not disclosed so far). For an example, if lithium is added as an additive, reaction (iv) 6Li(2p(S=0), p 3He)4He may be possible. As in cases of reactions (i) and (ii), Ni nano-particles would be still playing an important role of providing two-proton singlet composite Bosons for reaction (iv). Reaction (iv) would not change the isotopic ratios of Ni.

VI.  Conclusions
In order to explore validity and to test predictions of the generalized BECNF theory for the hydrogen-metal system, it is very important to carry out Rossi-type experiments independently in order to establish what are exact inputs and outputs of each experiment.  If the entrance and exit reaction channels are established experimentally, we can investigate selection rules as well as estimates of the reaction rates for different exit reaction channels, based on the generalized BECNF theory [1-4]. Once these experimental results are established, further application of the generalized BECNF theory can be made for the purpose of confirming the theoretical mechanism and making theoretical predictions, which can then be tested experimentally. Basic description of the above theoretical concepts for BECNF in the hydrogen-metal system will be included in an invited talk at a forthcoming nuclear physics conference [10], and will be published in the conference proceedings [10].

References

  1. Y. E. Kim, “Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Deuteron-Induced Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles”, Naturwissenschaften 96, 803 (2009) and references therein.
  2. Y. E. Kim, “Bose-Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, 188 (2010), Proceedings of Symposium on New Energy Technologies, the 239th National Meeting of American Chemical Society, San Francisco, March 21-26, 2010.
  3. Y. E. Kim, “Theoretical interpretation of anomalous tritium and neutron productions during  Pd/D co-deposition experiments”, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.  52, 31101 (2010).
  4. Y. E. Kim and A. L. Zubarev, “Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter”, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Cold Fusion, Marseilles, France, 31 October – 5 November, 2006, World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 711-717.
  5. Andrea Rossi, “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTION”, United States Patent Application Publication (Pub. No.: US 2011/0005506 A1, Pub. Date: Jan. 13, 2011); http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/ja/WO2009125444.
  6. S. Focardi and A. Rossi, “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”, March 22, 2010. http://www.nyteknik.se/incoming/article3080659.ece/BINARY/Rossi-Forcardi_paper.pdf
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=66 ,  February 2010
  7. H. Essen and S. Kullander, “Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna, 29 March 2011”, a travel report, April 3, 2011; http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3144827.ece
  8. Table of Isotopes, 8th Edition, Volume I: A = 1-150, edited by R. B. Firestone et al., published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1999), pages 270 and 284.
  9. Reactions (ii) were suggested by T.  E. Ward, private communication, May 11, 2011.
  10. Y. E. Kim, “Deuteron Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles”, an invited talk to be presented at the Fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics 2011(APFB2011), August 22-26, 2011, Seoul, Korea. (http://www.apctp.org/conferences/2011/APFB2011/)

Direct download

839 comments to Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Angelo Rimini:
    Thank you for your attention: before we put in the market the household applications many things have still to be done, so it will take at least one more year. In November will be started the production of the 1 MW plants.
    Nevertheless, our work on the household applications is going on, for the production of heat, conditioned air and electric power.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Angelo Lenci

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    my name is Angelo Lenci, from Rimini.
    It is more than 1 year I stay informed about the news of cold-fusion.
    I believe in this project and I believe in your good hearth and work!
    Do you think next year in Italy it will possible to sell the e-cat device to Italian Family?
    I want to be one of the first to get your device in my home!!!
    Congratulations for your discover!!
    Angelo Lenci

  • Simon Knight

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Greven Grevesson brought up a good point about the October testing of the “Mega-Cat”, and I am happy to hear that a subunit will be available for testing at the same occasion.

    It is extremely important that your new, possibly revolutionizing technology is given a fair evaluation and that the tests will be as transparent as possible. Even though many good men are already fully convinced of the viability of the H + Ni concept there are still more souls to be conquered, and this new test is a golden opportunity to do that.

    Therefore I suggest that you as soon as possible publish your rules for this test. What can be inspected? What instruments can be used? What can be measured? How are the results to be evaluated?

    The rationale behind this suggestion is akin to the reason for this well known procedure:

    ”If any person here present has knowledge why these two people should not be joined as husband and wife, let them speak now or forever remain silent.”

    If you and the wise men (no woman yet?) who are going to perform the test listen to the voices of “any person here present” and you and the wise men adapt the rules and procedures accordingly and if the test based on this negotiated protocol is successful, then there is good hope that even the most persistent skeptic will “forever remain silent”.

    Kind regards and good luck,
    Simon Knight

  • Peter G

    Dear Mr. Rossi
    Congratulations on your work, and my wishes for your good fortune. I commend you on your hard work and the effort you put into communicating your work with the world. Please, if you have time could you answer a couple of questions.

    1) Do you have people working with you to build and test the prototype 1MW system? It seems like a tremendous amount of work for one person.
    2) The 1000 or so 1 MW system that will be built over the next year, will the end use of those be used to produce heat or to produce electricity, or for some other use?

    Thank you for your time,
    Peter G.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonello Lai:
    No, I do not agree: my Effect does not contrast with the existing laws of the Chemical-Physical Universe; just has been discovered in their jungle, with total respect of it.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enzo Bellato:
    Thank you for your friendship: I’m delighted of it. Be sure and bet: the E-Cat technology will be put at the service of Mankind, first because our USA Partners have the necessary structure, second because my life is on these stakes. Of course we will have to face contrasting interests that will do all they can to destroy or discredit this work; we have some snakes around, paid by the competition, that are trying to destroy all this work before it can have its natural development: you have seen the personal attacks against me, and you will see much worst that this: the 1 MW start up of October terrorizes some, because now, for the first time, LENR are not small lab apparatuses not able to create real competition, but are real industrial power generation systems. Anyway, do not worry, because:
    1- in my life I have seen much worse than this, and I am not easy to be impressed
    2- these attempts are futile, because there is no snake around, even well paid, that will be able to forbid to my 1 MW plant to go in operation in October in such a place and with such Scientists arount to test it, that the efforts of our enemies will be, as I already said, attempts to stop the Niagara Falls throwing against them dirt with a shovel.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greven Grevesson:
    Yes, they will.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Antonello LAI

    @Peter heckert

    I agree with you about possibility of patent problems if it’s based on nature laws. I think also that maybe was better for Rossi declare on patent the name of catalyst. what would happen if tomorrow another company deposited a similar patent but writing clear catalyst name ?

  • Greven Grevesson

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    When the world class scientists performs their test in October, will they also have a smaller e-Cat module to test?
    The reason I ask, is that it is much easier to test one of the individual modules (because of the relative small energy production), than the big 1MW unit.

    Keep up the good work!

    BR
    Greven

  • Caro Andrea, mi permetta il tono confidenziale ma è tanto tempo che la seguo e la sento quasi un amico. La risposta che ha dato il 13 agosto ad Henry fa ben sperare che la sua scoperta non vada in mano a giganti che per qualche ragione la affossino non facendola funzionare. Lei parla di persone illuminate suoi partner americani e questa è una bella risposta alle domande più frequenti che ci facciamo: vinceranno gli interessi petroliferi o la diffusione del suo e-cat? Se vincerà l’e-cat in che mani andrà? ai cannibali finanziari o agli illuminati di cui parla?
    Lei inoltre risponde ad Antonello che il suo lavoro va al di la degli interessi suoi personali e questo le fa onore. E’ quello che abbiamo bisogno di sentire. Per i soldi si può fare tanto ma non tutto. Lei ha in mano i destini dell’umanità, un compito colossale che a mio avviso nessun uomo ha mai avuto. Usi il cuore per le sue decisioni. Grazie

  • Antonello LAI

    Da questa invenzione ovviamente qualche principio di chimica dovrebbe quantomeno essere rivisto, Lei crede che possa anche essere rimesso il gioco l’aspetto legato ad esempio al posizionamento stesso degli elettroni nel reticolo ?

  • Catscanner

    Dear Mr Rossi
    That is really impressive 
    Good work!

  • Peter heckert

    Mr. Rossi might be comparable to Marconi.
    Marconi did not discover electromagnetic waves, but he made the engineering and his inventions changed the world.
    Marconi had also proven many scientists false. At his time scientists did not believe in technical usability od EM waves.
    Marconi received a Nobel Price.
    Marconi was Italian ;-)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Catscanner:
    We have organized a dense chain of outsourching, in view of the massive orders. We already have the organization for the yearly production of 1.000 MW and already have organized the production for eventually raise to 2.000/year. Development will come with the market demand.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonello Lai:
    The importance of this work goes beyond personal interests.
    Thank you for your consideration, anyway,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Peter heckert

    @Henry

    If this is proven to work and commonly accepted Mr. Rossi must be awarded a Nobel prize and will become world famous.
    Maybe he does not need to keep it secret then…
    Anyway, when this works, there will a lot of research be done, and others might come up with devices.
    Of course yes, the e-cat might be patended and protected, but the working principle behind, if it bases on laws of nature, is not patented, because generic laws of nature or laws of physics cannot been patented, only devices can been patented.

  • Antonello LAI

    Ho letto la sua storia sul sito, mi auguro che Lei si possa vendicare con questa invenzione delle ingiustizie subite. Nel mio piccolo so cosa significa passare dalla ragione al torto. Oltre alla fantastica invenzione e ai benefici che darà al mondo intero credo che Lei dopo tanti anni potrà colmare e quindi prendersi la rivincita contro quelle mi permetta di dirlo MERDE che la hanno affossata in passato. Mi auguro che Lei non produca nemmeno un pezzo di questo ecat in italia fino a quando non le chiederanno scusa pubblicamente i capi di stato, ammettendo non solo lo sbaglio ma anche prendendo provvedimenti contro chi la ha ingiustamente processato. Questo forse non avverrà mai e per questo se fossi al suo posto mai produrrei alcun pezzo di questo ecat in italia.

    Certe cose non hanno prezzo a mio avviso e sono certo che Lei non si piegherà per nessuna cifra di questo mondo.

    Mi auguro altresì che Lei non rilasci interviste a giornalisti italiani fino a che non si interesseranno prima di riportare alla luce le assurdità delle accuse subite con la storia della Petrogold e Omar. Deve riprendersi una rivincita totale contro questo stato che passa al di là dell’aspetto economico.

    Comunque GRAZIE per quello che sta facendo.

    Saluti
    Antonello L.

  • Catscanner

    Dear Mr Rossi
    You dont need a cristal ball to planning for the future.
    I mean do you think it is possible for you to make the secret parts yourself even if the demand grows?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Catscanner :
    I have not a crystal ball.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Henry:
    Our USA Partner is a team of enlightened People who wants to put this technology at the service of Mankind, due to theis cultural roots.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Henry

    Is your new business partner committed to allowing this technology to be used by individual homes and businesses, as soon as the engineering and safety issues are overcame?

    Lets consider a worst case scenario. If for some reason the new business partner decided to try and reserve the technology only for use by power plants, oil companies, and industrial factories (keeping it out of the homes of ordinary people) what would your reaction be?

    If I was a big oil or other major company trying to maximize my profits (and did not care about giving the power and wealth back to the people), I would never allow this technology to be used in individual homes. That would limit the money I could make. I would simply use the technology to pump oil more efficiently, process oil more efficiently, and produce electricity more efficiently. Then I would sell it at a slightly cheaper price than my competitors, but only low enough so that no one could sell their energy/oil for less.

    The problem with many big companies is that they are primarily about one thing – making the most profits.

    I personally hope your partner company is focused on proliferating this technology to the people as quickly as possible, lowering the price of energy as rapidly as possible, and is not driven by the need to maximize their profits.

    The fact is whoever is your partner company has the potential to make more money than Exxon Mobile or any other big oil company. I hope they will not take advantage of that, only make a *fair* profit, and use the technology to benefit the people.

    I just hope and pray this new partner company is focused on the people, and not billions of dollars in profits.

    Henry

  • Catscanner

    Dear Mr Rossi
    Do you have a plan in the future for letting someone else make all the parts of the E-cats even the parts that now are secret?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enzo:
    The R&D program with the University of Bologna is aimed to the research and development and will last a couple of years. In October our 1 MW plant will be put in operation in the USA and tested by the highest possible level Scientists, witnessed by the highest level scientific journalists.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Javier Becaria:
    We are working with all our Partners to put this technology at the service of Mankind in the widest possible way. Now we have Partners able to do this. I hope in an exponential development.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Harry V.:
    Thank you for your information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Dirico,
    Thank you for your kind considerations.
    Now I am exclusively focused on the condtruction of the 1 MW plant.
    Please contact us in November for commercial issues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • JOHN DIRICO

    Dear Mr Rossi:
    I have been following your amazing discovery for months now, I look forward every day for any new news about the E-cat, I would like to
    congratulate you for such an amazing invention and also Sergio Focardi for all his hard work and research, this technology can revolutionize the whole energy industry, Please be cautious as I’m sure there are many corporations that would like to see it disappear. I look forward to October and the 1 MW plant to open, I want to wish you all the luck in the Universe, and if you need a distributor in the Boston area I would be more than happy to be the first in the area, as you know the winters can be pretty cold here, I wouldn’t mind having an E-Cat Myself.
    If your ever in the Boston area I would love to meet you in person over Dinner.

    Wish you the best
    JD

  • Harry V.

    I forgot to include this link to the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre
    http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/cnbc.html

    By the way, Chalk River Laboratories was also the site of the first nuclear reactor in the world designed and operated outside the United States.

    Harry Veeder

  • Harry V.

    Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) is a world class nuclear reseach facility located in Ontario, Canada, and it is about a two hour drive from the capital city of Ottawa. CRL is the home of the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre for doing materials research. In the future, please consider using the facility to futher your understanding of the E-Cat at the atomic scale.

    Harry

  • Javier Becaria

    Dr. Rossi,

    I have read and watched your work on the web page. The first thought that came to my mind was the tremendous legacy you are going to leave to humanity. Your name will certainly be remembered by every scholar around the world. Then, a question came to my mind and it was: “How your work (E-CAT) is going to be accessible to the poorer population of the world that certainly will desperately need it?”. I saw in some other blogs that the main intend you have is to build a large E-CAT reactor to generate electricity. However, is this process going to drive the cost of electricity, and heat down/the same or up? And why?

    Is it the Hydrogen, Nickel consumption low enough to justify the reduction in cost compared to a regular hydroelectric plant?

    Maybe, these are questions that came too early to be answered but I was very intrigued about the real impact that your technology will have on people’s economy.

    Thanks,

  • Enzo

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    a famous skeptical saying is: “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence”.
    It’s no doubt that you make extraordinary claims. Your invention will change the world!

    Do you feel like you gave extraordinary evidence too?
    Don’t you think that only starting the research at University of Bologna will be considered an extraordinary evidence?

    I know, you’re not required to prove anything except to your clients, but what if I want to be your client and I don’t have the expertise needed to verify your claims (in an extraordinary way…)?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Georgehants:
    Our production of the 1 MW plant that will be started up in the USA in october is going on along the scheduling, without ant problem. After that, we will start the industrial production of the 1 MW plants. One of the more immediate use could be purification and desalination of water, as you correctly say. About the smallest E-Cats, I mean household uses, more time will be requested for certifications, which for households are more complex, for many reasons. But technologically we are ready, of course, being the smallest units just the modules of the biggest ones.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    A.R.

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Will the current problems lead to any delay in the release of the small E-CAT units which will be much more useful for water purification etc in small villages.

  • Andrea Rossi

    TO ALL OUR READERS: TODAY HAS BEEN PUBLISHED ON THE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS THE VERY INTERESTING PAPER
    “COLD NUCLEAR FUSION”
    OF E.N. TSYGANOV, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS SOUTHWESTERN, TEXAS, USA.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear A. Goumy:
    We have resolved the problem: oue E-Cats are apparatuses that repeat their work simply turning them on.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Nobili:
    Do not worry: we have very strong Partners in the USA and we are going on.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lex:
    Everything is going on very well, and our 1 MW plant is well in schedule. Do not worry of what some imbecile is writing : they can’t stop the Niagara Falls throwing dirt in them by a shovel: just ignore their chatters, look at the reality of our work.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Per Kylemark:
    We for sure will invite Prof. Peter Ekstrom to visit our 1 MW plant. I respect him and, of course, the University of Lund.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John and Others:
    Thank you very much for your smart insight. Thank you foryour suggestions.
    Warm regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • John & Others

    Dear Andrea,
    We have met on June 23rd during a conference. I had addressed a question to you,
    regarding the possibility that the e-Cat reactor’s inner operation was based
    on the double_beta-decay mechanism, as this mechanism had been proposed by
    Ettore Majorana back in 1930′s when he was part of the Panisperna Boys team
    and as it is implied in your published paper with Prof. Focardi.
    I had also asked you if Zeolith was the catalyst used in your reactor so to
    enforce maximum contact between Nickel’s nanoparticles and Hydrogen’s atoms.
    Although you kindly declined answering to me due to the fact that those are
    trade and system secrets that are not yet publishable, as you naturally stated,
    I had the opportunity to repeat and rather verify reasonable possibilities of
    truth on the above suggestions of mine. And that had already been done before
    the 23d of June presentation. Since last year when I read your paper and pending
    patent for the first time.
    You may recall that we had a small chat outside the presentation hall of Old-Phaliron
    municipality and I’m grateful that you had signed on my copy of your paper.
    We’r also doing some research in private with some associates of mine on the
    elements of the 1B/11 group of the P.S. and we have also verified that it is
    truth that some “transitions” between their left and right elements on the respected periods
    are also possible and are happening indeed. We have verified this many times by doing
    AAS to our samples, before and after the experiments. Zeolith is our catalyst of choise
    in all experiments. I’m not saying that we had experienced excess of energy production
    because we are not in the hunt of overunity mechanisms and our measurements and
    spectroscopic analysis are focused on the rates that these transmutations happen.
    Our concern is to show that LERNS are happening since the beginning of our cosmos
    and everywhere, even inside our bodies. There is where we suggest that the causes
    of all diseases are rooted. Papers will be published in time.
    [ In the mean time you may read the announcements of your fellow Italian scientists
    http://files.splinder.com/d01c16188dffd7f8b0989bb1d5eb343c.pdf ]
    BUT,BUT, since your machine is really an overunity machine and with the adaptation
    of a steam-Jet closed-Bryton turbine electricity will be pured out in MWatts, I suggest that
    you must protect your self, your fellow researchers and most of all your invention.
    Your invention will be remain in history as the one that will define our era from
    now on. Like somebody said, the Nickel era. I would say, the Free-Energy era.
    Find means and ways to secretly spread the full description of your invention to as
    many people as possible WORLDWIDE. Send also a copy to WIKILEAKS. In a scrambled & encoded manner of course.
    Doing so everyone and everything will be protected and secured and the only way of
    making it available to the poors of the world and to the free citizens of our societies.
    Your name is already registered in history as the inventor of E-Cat. Make it also known
    to those who might not die any more due to the lack of clean water and food production.
    With our outmost respect and love,
    John & Others

  • Per Kylemark

    Dear Adrea,

    I am following your research since january and have been looking forward to October to see the first commercial cold fusion 1 MW plant to be official. I saw the list of some of the prominent scientific evaluators that are going to study and verify your plants operation, an impressive list.

    I saw before someone mentioning for you to invite Peter Ekström to be one of those that may evaluate your invention in October? I personally can think of noone more qualified to do the job since Peter have extensive experience in subatomic measurement, spectroscopy etc. He is naturally a sceptic but a person very dedicated to the scientific method. The Lund University is probably also one of the most interesting universites for future material research having attracted multi-million investments in the new MAX IV state-of-the-art synchotron laboratory which may be a handy resource in order to further understand these new phenomenas. It is a in region closely connected to Copenhagen and is therefore attracting highly competant scientist from all over Europe.

    Peter can be reached at: Peter.Ekstrom@nuclear.lu.se

    Many thanks for your time and good luck with the start-up of your dream.

    Kind regards,

    Per Kylemark, PhD

  • Lex

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I am following your promising invention for quite a while.
    It is painful to see what is going on now.
    Is there anything we (believers) can do to help you to get
    the possitive attention of the main stream media and opinion leaders?

    All the best,
    Lex

  • Giovanni Nobili

    Dear.Dr.Rossi,

    the “secret” place developing the 1MW plant could be not so “secret” because can be easy, with few dollars, to find it simply following people involved in it. Maybe not so easy for normal people, but great powers (states, high energy industries etc…) can do it (i suppose) in easy way.
    We all have heard about financial/industrial/governments pressures to close your project.
    What about possibly sabotage on your industrial plant? My great fear is that enemies can destroy your plant, then without the famous “great proof” people can be convinced that e-cat is vaporware. I imagine that you’re in an hard moment, because it seems that many scientist groups are about to discover the secret of high output energy in LENR.
    I’m sorry for my frankness, but your work is the most important atm for the well of the whole world.
    Very thanks for your work, i wish the best for your career and for your future (a working e-cat would imply a great place in human history for your person).

    Giovanni Nobili

  • A. Goumy

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    A well known issue in LENR field is repeatability, and you should have faced it many times during your experiments with prototypes. However, what cannot be avoided during the development of prototypes becomes critical when you come to production: for instance, you cannot afford fine-tuning of every E-Cat you build, in order to get the best performances, or reject too many devices if they are out of specs. Did you already rule out, or at least are you confident in ruling out soon, this kind of problems?

    Best regards,

    A.G.

    (Please feel free not to publish my question if you find it intrusive)

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    please do not let events upset you to much, something as wonderful as the release of the E-CAT is never going to run perfectly smoothly.
    As you know it is only getting the E-CAT on the market that counts.
    You have many supporters that care greatly for the success of your venture for the good of mankind and understandably become worried if anything looks like a threat to it’s progress.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    We will communicate the name of our USA Partner in due time.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Visscher:
    Again, and for the last time:
    IT IS TOTALLY FALSE THAT WE AND DEFKALION ARE TOGETHER AGAIN.
    THE PRESS RELEASE THAT HAS BEEN PUBLISHED BY EFA SRL ON AUGUST 6TH 2011 HAS ALREADY EXPLAINED THE SITUATION.
    WE WILL NOT RETURN ON THIS ISSUE.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear S. Woosnam:
    Yes, we measured gamma rays inside the E-Cats: are such gamma rays to heat the water.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear TH:
    1- No, because we do not use radioactive materials and we do not waste radioactive materials. In any case, our US Partner is dealing with this issue. A remote control system is in any case opportune and we will make use of it.
    2- The E-Cats are well insulated, so inside the container the temperature will have just a slight delta above the room temperature.
    3- Same as above
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sterling Allan:
    It is totally false that EFA srl has cured the agreement with Defkalion. There is nothing at all to add to the press release already published the last week (August 6th 2011).
    This answer is valid also for many other Readers who have asked us the same thing.
    Andrea Rossi

Leave a Reply

 

 

 

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>