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Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

by Yeong E. Kim Department of Physics, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

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ABSTRACT
Generalized theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recent experimental results of Rossi et al. for hydrogen-nickel system.  Based on incomplete experimental information currently available, preliminary theoretical explanations of the experimental results are presented in terms of the generalized BECNF theory. Additional accurate experimental data are needed for obtaining more complete theoretical descriptions and predictions, which can be tested by further experiments.

I.  Introduction
Over the last two decades, there have been many publications reporting experimental observations of excess heat generation and anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in metals at ultra-low energies, now known as „low-energy nuclear reactions‟ (LENR).  Theoretical explanations of the LENR phenomena have been described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) in micro/nano-scale metal particles [1-3].  The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation.  While the BECNF theory is able to make general qualitative predictions concerning LENR phenomena it is also a quantitative predictive physical theory.  Some of the theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments reported recently.  The BECNF theory was generalized for the case of two species of Bosons [4].

Recently, there were two positive demonstrations (January and March, 2011) of a heat generating device called “Energy Catalyzer” [5]. The Energy Catalyzer is an apparatus built by inventor Andrea Rossi, Italy. The patent application [5] states that the device transforms energy stored in its fuel (hydrogen and nickel) into heat by means of nuclear reaction of the two fuel components, with a consequent observed production of copper [5,6]. According to Rossi‟s patent application [5], heating of the sample is accomplished by an electric resistance heater.  Details of March 2011 demonstration were reported by Essen and Kullander [7]. The report [7] also contains references to January 2011 demonstration. In the following, we describe hydrogen-nickel reactions in section II. Other possible reactions are discussed in section III.  Conclusions are given in section IV.

II.  Hydrogen-Nickel Reactions
The generalized BECNF theory [4] can be applied to the case of hydrogen-nickel fusion reactions observed in Rossi‟s device (the energy catalyzer) [5] under the following two conditions: (1) additives used (not disclosed in the patent application) form Ni alloy and/or Ni metal/alloy oxide in the surface regions of nickel nano-scale particles, so that Ni atoms/nuclei become mobile with a sufficiently large diffusion coefficient and (2) local magnetic field is very weak in the surface regions, providing a suitable environment in which two neighboring protons can couple their spins anti-parallel to form spin-zero singlet state (S=0).  Relatively low Curie temperature (nickel has the Curie temperature of 631 oK (~358 oC)) is expected to help to maintain the weak magnetic field in the surface regions. If Rossi‟s device is operated at temperatures greater than the Curie temperature ~358 oC and with hydrogen pressures of up to ~22 bars, the conditions (1) and (2) may have been achieved in Rossi‟s device. The mobility of Ni atoms/nuclei (condition (1)) is enhanced by the use of an electric resistance heater to maintain higher temperatures. This may provide a suitable environment in which more of both Ni atoms/nuclei and protons become mobile, thus creating a favorable environment for the case of two species of Bosons (Ni nuclei and composite Bosons of paired two protons). If the velocities of mobile Ni atoms/nuclei under the condition (1) are sufficiently slow, their de-Broglie wavelengths become sufficiently large and may overlap with neighboring two-proton composite Bosons which are also mobile, thus creating Bose-Einstein condensation of two species of Bosons. The generalized BECNF theory can now be applied to these two-species of Bosons and provides a mechanism for the suppression/cancellation of the Coulomb barrier, as shown in [4]. Once the Coulomb barrier is overcome in the entrance reaction channel, many possible allowed exit reaction channels may become open such as reactions (i) ANi(2p(S=0), p)ˆA+1 Cu, with even A=58, 60, 62 and 64. These reactions will produce radioactive isotopes 59Cu and 61Cu with A = 58 and 60, respectively. 59Cu has a half-life of 81.5 seconds and decays by the electron capture to the 59Ni ground state (58.1%) which has a half-life of 7.6 x 10ˆ4 years and to the 59Ni excited states (41.9%) which in turn decay to the 59Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 310.9 keV to 2682.0 keV [8]. 61Cu has a half-life of 3.333 hours and decays by the electron capture to the stable 61Ni ground state (67%) and to the 61Ni excited states (33%) which in turn decay to the 61Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 67.412 keV to 2123.93 keV [8]. Gamma-rays (and neutrons) have not been observed outside the reactor chamber during the experiment [6]. These gamma-rays may have been present inside the reaction chamber. If no radiations are observed, reactions (i) are ruled out. Focardi and Rossi [6] reported that the experimental results of Rossi et al. indicate the production of  stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu with an isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu ~ 1.6 (natural abundance is 63Cu/ 65Cu = 2.24). This production of Cu may be due to reactions (i). The production of 63Cu and 65Cu with isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu different from the natural isotopic ratio is expected and can be explained by estimating the reaction rates for 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu.  Reaction rates estimates based on transmission probability calculated from a barrier tunneling model similar to the alpha-decay theory indicate that the reaction rates for stable Cu productions, 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu, are expected to be much larger than the reaction rates for production of radioactive Cu, 58Ni(2p(S=0), p)59Cu and 60Ni(2p(S=0), p)61Cu. This leads to the prediction that intensities of the gamma-rays from the decays of 59Cu and 61Cu are expected to be weak and do not commensurate with the observed heat production, which is mostly from stable Cu production  reactions 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu. There are other exit reaction channels which are (nearly) radiation-less, such as reactions (ii) ANi(2p(S=0), α)ˆA-2Ni, (even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) [9]. For this case, we expect that the natural isotopic ratio of Ni isotopes will be changed in a particular way, which can be checked from the  sample after each experiment.  Even though reactions (ii) produce radioactive isotope 56Ni, it can be shown using the alpha-decay theory that its reaction rate is much slower (by many order of magnitudes) than those of other reactions. Other exit reaction channels, ANi(2p(S=0), d)ACu, ANi(2p(S=0), 3HeA-1Ni, and ANi(2p(S=0), t)ˆA-1Cu (all with even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) are ruled out since these reactions all have negative Q-values.  There are possibilities of neutron-emission exit reaction channels, such as reactions (iii) ANi(2p(S=0), n)ˆA+1Zn, (even A= 62, and 64; Q is negative for A = 58 and 60).  However, reaction rates for reactions (iii) are expected be substantially smaller than those for reaction (i).  Reactions (iii) involve emission of a tightly bound neutron (62Ni -> 61Ni + n, Q = -10.597MeV or  64Ni -> 63Ni + n, Q = -9.657MeV) while reactions (i) involve emission of a loosely bound proton from an excited compound nuclear state consisting of ANi (even A) and 2p(S=0). Therefore, the transmission probability of a neutron tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (iii) is expected to be substantially smaller than that of a proton tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (i). The branching ratios of reactions (i) and (ii) need to be determined by measurements of gamma-ray energies and changes in isotopic ratios from future Ross-type experiments.  Theoretically, the branching ratios can be estimated by calculating transmission probability of an emitted charged particle tunneling through both Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in the exit reaction channel, as done in the alpha-decay theory.

III.  Other Possible Reactions
In addition to the above reactions described in II, there are possibilities of reactions involving additives used (not disclosed so far). For an example, if lithium is added as an additive, reaction (iv) 6Li(2p(S=0), p 3He)4He may be possible. As in cases of reactions (i) and (ii), Ni nano-particles would be still playing an important role of providing two-proton singlet composite Bosons for reaction (iv). Reaction (iv) would not change the isotopic ratios of Ni.

VI.  Conclusions
In order to explore validity and to test predictions of the generalized BECNF theory for the hydrogen-metal system, it is very important to carry out Rossi-type experiments independently in order to establish what are exact inputs and outputs of each experiment.  If the entrance and exit reaction channels are established experimentally, we can investigate selection rules as well as estimates of the reaction rates for different exit reaction channels, based on the generalized BECNF theory [1-4]. Once these experimental results are established, further application of the generalized BECNF theory can be made for the purpose of confirming the theoretical mechanism and making theoretical predictions, which can then be tested experimentally. Basic description of the above theoretical concepts for BECNF in the hydrogen-metal system will be included in an invited talk at a forthcoming nuclear physics conference [10], and will be published in the conference proceedings [10].

References

  1. Y. E. Kim, “Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Deuteron-Induced Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles”, Naturwissenschaften 96, 803 (2009) and references therein.
  2. Y. E. Kim, “Bose-Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, 188 (2010), Proceedings of Symposium on New Energy Technologies, the 239th National Meeting of American Chemical Society, San Francisco, March 21-26, 2010.
  3. Y. E. Kim, “Theoretical interpretation of anomalous tritium and neutron productions during  Pd/D co-deposition experiments”, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.  52, 31101 (2010).
  4. Y. E. Kim and A. L. Zubarev, “Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter”, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Cold Fusion, Marseilles, France, 31 October – 5 November, 2006, World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 711-717.
  5. Andrea Rossi, “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTION”, United States Patent Application Publication (Pub. No.: US 2011/0005506 A1, Pub. Date: Jan. 13, 2011); http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/ja/WO2009125444.
  6. S. Focardi and A. Rossi, “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”, March 22, 2010. http://www.nyteknik.se/incoming/article3080659.ece/BINARY/Rossi-Forcardi_paper.pdf
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=66 ,  February 2010
  7. H. Essen and S. Kullander, “Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna, 29 March 2011”, a travel report, April 3, 2011; http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3144827.ece
  8. Table of Isotopes, 8th Edition, Volume I: A = 1-150, edited by R. B. Firestone et al., published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1999), pages 270 and 284.
  9. Reactions (ii) were suggested by T.  E. Ward, private communication, May 11, 2011.
  10. Y. E. Kim, “Deuteron Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles”, an invited talk to be presented at the Fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics 2011(APFB2011), August 22-26, 2011, Seoul, Korea. (http://www.apctp.org/conferences/2011/APFB2011/)

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839 comments to Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Norman:
    One E-Cat, as the one you can see in the report of the Swedish Professors (Google “Kullander Essen Report Nyteknik”) consumes 0.2 grams of hydrogen in 24 hours.
    The Ni charge is changed every 180 days of operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob Norman

    Dear Mr. Rossi
    I was wondering if you may inform us as to the amount of Hydrogen that will be required to run an ECat.For home units that run for 6 months before new Nickle is added, how much Hydrogen must be supplied in the same time. If it gets too large, there may be regulatory issues.
    Good luck on your fast approaching demonstration. Waiting is difficult!
    Regards,
    Bob Norman

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr.. Rossi,
    In many of your responses, you can trace a certain irritation on “Clowns and snakes” issue. You should keep in mind that your opponents are trying to delay the project by using subversive elements who writes provocative articles and demonize you through the rumor mill.

    This indicates that your opponent has an elaborate strategy with multi-faceted and ambitious goals. Money does not seem to be a problem.

    After a successful demonstration in October, the question of how and why it works will be moving into the university institutions. The focus moves from technological to the health, safety and competitive aspects. In practice, it becomes a “hearts and minds war” on key groups and customers. This is not something that your lawyers can fix because it is politics and emotions.

    Will contact you on this issue after the October demonstration and offer you a key component for you PR-function…

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Andrea Nisto:
    Io ringrazio sia Lei che Antonello Lai dell’attenzione “friendly” dedicata al nostro lavoro. Spero di non deludere entrambi ( dato che, sostanzialmente, dite la stessa cosa in due modi diversi, che entrambi apprezzo) a ottobre, quando arriverà il momento della verità.
    Onestamente, mi sembra che per quanto riguarda la rottura del rapporto con il nostro ex cliente greco io abbia dato tutte le spiegazioni che dovevo dare, e sarebbe scorretto da parte mia aggiungere o togliere altro. Fra l’altro, il loro responsabile Scientifico ha espresso in modo molto chiaro su questo blog il motivo della rottura, un motivo alquanto usuale nel campo dell’impugnazione dei contratti e molto facile da capire. Per quanto riguarda serpenti e clowns (ultimamente c’è anche qualcuno che ha scritto su vari blog che io sono scappato coi soldi…) non vale la pena di rispondere a queste persone, perchè i leader-snake sono pagati per screditarci, e chiunque legga con intelligenza quello che scrivono ha capito questo, gli altri sono zavorra. Saranno tutti spazzati via dagli impianti che a partire da Ottobre entreranno nel mercato.
    Grazie infinite ad entrambi,
    Cordiali saluti,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Nisto

    Gent.mo Sig. Lai,
    non intendo utilizzare il sito dell’Ing.Rossi che è impegnato in faccende più importanti di me e di Lei per le nostre diatribe, ma devo scrivere queste due righe per fare alcune precisazioni all’ingegnere, che stimo e rispetto, ed anche se le ritengo superflue, vorrei spazzare via ogni possibile malinteso.
    Il commento su Krivit e sulla Defkalion mi vede, per quanto ne possa sapere io, completamente al fianco dell’Ing. Rossi ma parlo da spettatore e lo informo che sto vivendo un disagio che compenso con la mia fiducia nella sua persona ma questa incompletezza d’informazione, esiste e non la posso negare e gli suggerisco di dare un maggiore peso all’aspetto delle pubbliche relazioni.
    E questa è un’opinione personale, un consiglio e non una provocazione.
    Del resto è vero che l’Ing. Rossi non ci deve formalmente alcuna spiegazione ma egli ci dimostra il suo valore presentandosi coraggiosamente al pubblico su internet dimostrando ampiamente la sua disposizione mentale e la sua attenzione verso il prossimo.
    Per quanto concerne la DragonPetrol, non era una battuta, nè voleva esserlo: all’Ing. Rossi va la mia piena solidarietà per la sua vicenda umana e industriale. Abito a pochi chilometri da dove si è svolta la vicenda ed avendola seguita con interesse in tempo reale, credo che sia stata una delle vicende italiane più losche del ‘potere degli idrocarburi’ da Mattei a tutt’oggi. Pertanto il Suo commento mi lascia basito.

    Gent.mo Sig. Lai, Le suggerirei di scaldarsi di meno, di leggere con più attenzione e di non dare giudizi capestro alle persone. Credo che ciò che non fa bene in questo momento al progetto dell’e-cat, sia proprio il fanatismo, di un credo o dell’altro.
    L’energia più importante non è quella da idrocarburi o da fusione ma quella positiva che riusciamo a trasmettere al prossimo. Di tutte le altre energie si può anche fare a meno. Ci pensi.

    Cordiali saluti
    AN

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Antonello Lai:
    Grazie infinite,
    Cordiali saluti,
    A.R.

  • Antonello LAI

    Sig. Andrea Nisto, non crede che prima di fare click su “submit comment” dovrebbe rileggersi quello che ha scritto così magari si sarebbe reso conto della inopportunità di scrivere certe cose e mi riferisco sopratutto ai commenti 1 e 2.

    Rossi non deve convincere in anteprima ne Lei ne alcun altra persona. Mi pare che sia stata fino ad ora molto corretto. Egli ha semplicemente detto io ho inventato o per meglio dire scoperto questa reazione grazie anche alla collaborazione con Focardi e sulla base di queste sue affermazioni ha poi mostrato e permesso di fare il 90% delle prove possibili sull’aparecchio a chiunque fosse presente alle varie dimostrazioni.

    Queste sono state più di una e sempre con risultati positivi. Non capisco questo accanimento a pretendere prove al 100% prima della data da Rossi fissata.

    Si metta l’anima in pace Lei e tutti coloro che per motivi basati sul niente pretendono di dettare la road map a Rossi. Novembre è dietro l’angolo e quando anche fosse Dicembre è uguale. Lei avrà modo di criticare una volta che le promesse di Rossi non troveranno riscontri, ma prima di questa data è scorretto farlo e credo lei lo sappia bene.

    Io non credo che i comportamenti di Rossi con Krivit, Defklion e i suoi modi di gestire le pubbliche releazioni siano cose dove Lei o altri si debbano intromettere, perchè quelli non sono consigli ma provocazioni.

    Riguardo la battutta sulla Petrolgragon poi quella se la poteva risparmiare veramente. Quando anche Rossi avesse sbagliato non vedo cosa centri con la scoperta attuale. Probabilmente lei non ha mai avuto a che fare con la legge perchè diversamente saprebbe come funziona o per meglio dire delle volte non funziona. Se una sentenza ti condanna non è sempre detto che sei colpevole nella realtà e questo perchè nel nostro ordinamento non c’è la applicazione ma la interpretazione per molte cose, e questo fa si che delle volte passi anche dalla ragione al torto. Sono però cose complesse che se uno non c’è passato non può capire e quindi per tale motivo dovrebbe astenersi da fare certe battute.

    Cordiali saluti

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andrea Nisto:
    1- Defkalion: I already said all there was to be said: please read carefully what I said, nothing has to be added.
    2- Snakes and Clowns: I never answer with chatters to chatters: I answer with facts; they will be annichilated by my plants
    3- We will put at the service of mankind this technology, as you have well understood.
    4- About petroldragon,please read well http://www.ingandrearossi.com
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Massimo Calì:
    Thank you,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Buongiorno Ingegner Rossi,
    stiamo seguendo la sua avventura con entusiasmo, cercando e pubblicando sul nostro blog tutte le notizie che riguardano l’E-Cat. Per stemperare la tensione che si è accumulata intorno al suo progetto, oggi ho scritto un breve articolo che la invito a leggere e che ci riporta a quando eravamo bambini: http://www.ecatnews.net/?p=9394
    Un caro saluto
    Massimo Calì

  • Andrea Nisto

    Gent.mo Ing. Rossi,
    non posso essere certo al 100% dell’effettiva efficienza del e-cat e questo glielo premetto per farLe capire che non sono un fanatico nè del ‘pro’ nè del ‘contro’: sono un agnostico anche se orientato a credere che il Suo generatore funzioni per tre motivi:
    1. perchè ho visto e letto tutto il materiale pubblicato in rete che mi sembra abbastanza convincente fermi i limiti alle verifiche che Lei ha giustamente imposto per ragioni industriali.
    2. perchè da suo ex vicino (Cernusco sul Naviglio) conosco un pò la persona e le Sue vicissitudini.
    3. perchè da ex piccolo industriale lombardo conosco le Sue motivazioni, la Sua passione ed anche un pò l’orgoglio lombardo (non so se di nascita ma sicuramente di spirito).
    Inoltre vorrei aggiungere che, ma questo non ha natura scientifica, vorrei crederLe con tutte le forze perchè Lei, potenziale premio Nobel, dà speranza all’umanità in un periodo di ombre e di totale sfiducia nel futuro.

    Due commenti veloci da uno che socraticamente sa di non sapere:

    1. riguardo al Suo comportamento con Krivit, che non mi piace a livello umano, per il tono, per la petulanza ed in generale per la sua inutilità, che però fa il Suo lavoro, non ho condiviso la Sua perdita di pazienza: mi creda, la Sua è stata una reazione condivisibile ma che non porta alcun vantaggio, solo una perdita di immagine a livello internazionale e Lei sa meglio di me che in questo momento l’appoggio della stampa e della pubblica opinione sono le Sue armi migliori.

    2. riguardo alla Defkalion, La pregherei di chiarire pubblicamente la situazione per ripetto del pubblico che La sostiene e non solo tramite un freddo comunicato stampa. In realtà ci sonounpò di ombre sulla questione che vanno dipanate.

    Per entrambe le situazioni Le suggerirei di trovare qualcuno che curi le Sue pubbliche relazioni: diventi americano sotto questo aspetto. Sia un Edison, non un Tesla, sia un Bell, non un Meucci, sia un vincente, non un genio incompreso.

    Infine una raccomandazione:
    non so se l’apparecchio funzioni o no, non so se possono essere vere le illazioni che ci sia la collaborazione di qualche governo o che l’operazione sia in realtà più grande dell’Ing. Rossi, ma se non erro completamente la mia impressione sull’uomo e filosofo Rossi, credo e spero che non si farà sfuggire l’occasione per fare qualcosa di grande, per diventare uno di quei personaggi dell’umanità che non sono famosi per qualche anno ma per generazioni ed ere.
    Se dovessero metterLa sotto pressione od altro, conto sul fatto che Lei si tuteli e che tuteli la Sua scoperta a beneficio di tutti quanti. Perchè ai tempi della DragonPetrol ci eravamo illusi e poi … ci siamo fatti male ma ora Lei non è più così giovane ed ingenuo, vero?

    La ringrazio e La saluto cordialmente.

    AN

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Joseph Fine:

    Problem is I cannot find any Flash desalination companies to invest in! Can you?……. Maybe Veolia…..GE…Siemens?

  • Joseph Fine

    Bernie Kopenhofer

    At 0.3 cents per KWH, you are probably right.

    And all the tea or coffee you can drink.

    J. F.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Joseph Fine: Re: Desalination

    Would it not be more economical to use a simple steam e-cat for flash desalination? There would be far less infrastructure costs compared to R/O.

  • Joseph Fine

    A.R.

    http://www.workingwithwater.net/download/396

    Here is a paper describing Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination. Anyone interested in using an E-CAT, or rather a “SEA-LION” energy source, should download the article. It does require registration. Sorry for the inconvenience.

    The theoretical minimum energy for a desalination plant is 4.5 kwh/kgal. But even at 10-15 kwh/kgal, the costs are still high for widespread use. The best current desalinized water costs roughly $2-$3/kgal with the highest costs in Australia at about $10/kgal. C’mon Aussies. Buy the Sea Lion! Or E-CAT.

    J.F.

    J. F.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    I think You are right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. Rossi:

    I am reading about desalination costs in terms of KWH per 1000 gallons and KWH per cubic meter. (1000 gallons = 3.78541178 cu meters). The most efficient methods of desalination are not based on flash distillation, but on Reverse Osmosis (RO). That is, energy requirements are not based on heating sea water but from pumping sea water or brine at high pressure against the RO membranes.

    An E-CAT based desalination system would be more efficient when the heat is converted to mechanical energy directly – rather than first generating electricity and then running (electrical) pumps. Steam or super-critical CO2 turbo pumps might be used where appropriate. In either case, I suggest the term “SEA-LION” be used for the desalination version of the E-CAT. Perhaps better names could be suggested by your readers.

    J.F.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enzo bellato:
    Thjanks for the link,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Caro Andrea Rossi, nella stessa maniera che e-cat produce vapore può produrre aria calda la quale espandendosi può produrre spinta. Con qualche “vite in più”, mi passi il termine, potrebbe un giorno sostituire i reattori degli aerei o i più moderni turbofan? potrebbe essere una evoluzione del suo impianto?
    Ho trovato un link per scaricare studi della NASA desecretati dove a pagina 40 circa parla di studi fatti sulle LERN proprio per l’applicazione aeronautica. Purtroppo il mio pessimo inglese non mi permette di tradurre tutto. Su un blog che parla molto della sua invenzione “22 passi d’amore e dintorni” sulla sinistra troverà tra i post più letti “Fleischman e Pons avevano ragione” troverà i link della NASA.
    Grazie di cuore e come promesso ci sarò a novembre.
    http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030020905

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Erik:
    Thank you,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefano Calestani:
    We are working to give to this tech the maximum possible expansion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    OOPS. Just a “small” error. You need only 14 KWH not 1000 KWH to desalinize 1000 gallons of water. So that’s not much. 14 * .003 = $.042 ???

    Sacre Bleu? A nickel, maybe two? I think I’m getting thirsty.

    J.F.

  • Joseph Fine

    Fresh water from the sea:

    Current methods require about 14 kilowatt-hours of energy to produce 1,000 gallons of desalinated seawater.

    http://www.livescience.com/4510-desalination-work.html

    If I’m lucky, I can buy a gallon of water for $1.00 or so in the supermarket.

    If you have an E-Cat, you could produce 1,000 gallons for about $3.00 at $.003 per KWH of heat. Or maybe you need electricity and not heat? Oh well, make that $10.00 for 1,000 gallons. You could still sell the water at $1.00/gallon and make more than $900 (after the government taxes your profit).

    If you need water, you’ll pay a lot more than $1.00 per gallon. But you don’t have to pay more than 1 cent per KWH.

    J.F.

  • stefano calestani

    Caro Andrea Rossi
    sto seguendo la sua impresa con l’interesse di chi finalmente vede la possibilità di sterzare a 180° rispetto all’asset attuale, costruendo le colonne portanti del nuovo mondo. Non sono uno scienziato ma posso capire parte dei dubbi sollevati in merito alle potenzialità energetiche rese disponibili dall’Ecat o altre osservazioni conseguenti al fatto che ci sia ancora – per la grande massa – poca visibilità nella prospettiva di creare un prodotto commerciale entro la fine dell’anno. Poi ci sono anche gli snakes, torbidi ostacoli. Ma mi sono anche domandato due cose:
    1. perchè, avendo a disposizione una simile innovazione, non abbia cercato collaborazioni direttamente con gli Stati (posso capire dal poco di storia disponibile su suo passato perchè no l’Italia, ma gli altri?) che stanno male affrontando la scelta di muoversi verso piccole e autonome fonti di energia in sostituzione delle enormi centrali.
    2. cosa succede se ad Andrea Rossi viene il mal di pancia, considerato che pare non esistano altre persone fully aware del processo da lei inventato.
    con grande stima da un ingenuo ottimista,
    S.C.

  • Erik

    Dear Mr Rossi, here is another suggestion that technology can transform heat
    electrical energy, and this has no moving parts is a solid-state material, it is a
    great advantage for the development of various applications. I hope I can add in your research for the generation of electrical energy with the e-cat. I will continue researching and suggesting something that might help.

    http://alphabetenergy.com/

    cordially

    Erik.

  • Rick Meisinger

    Dear Joseph Fine;
    Agree. Snake enrichment is not a good thing, too much energy is wasted.
    R.M.

  • Joseph Fine

    Rick Meisinger:

    Only snakes with specific isotopes can be used. But no one wants to enrich the snake.

    J.F.

  • Peter Heckert

    @Erik,

    Here is a good video about it in english language:
    http://youtu.be/QzIurXjrFHs
    Wow, thats a phantasic device!
    Feeding power into the grid is payed quite well here in germany.
    If the e-cat could be combined with this, it could not only save energy costs, it could be used to earn money! If it works as advertised, of course.
    BTW, Im not a capitalist. Even socialists need to calculate financial balances and sell or buy stocks sometimes ;-) .
    Best,
    Peter

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Burt:
    The idea is very good, so far it is not possible, for reasons I will explain when it will be possible, but the idea is very good.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Burt

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    Is a thermal output ratio of 6:1 still a valid estimate (there have been different ratios discussed).
    Assuming a 6:1 ratio, could one e-cat drive 6 other e-cats (thermal) which drives 36 e-cats (thermal) which are then used for production of electricity?
    Best Regards
    Burt

  • Rick Meisinger

    Dear Joseph Fine;
    if you transmuted a snake into a worm; would there be any excess energy?
    Thermal Regards;
    R.M.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Erik:
    Very interesting, to be studied. Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    Wow, that’s snakology!
    A.

  • Joseph Fine

    (for all who didn’t know)

    On SNAKES: http://pet-snakes.com/taming-snake

    ……..” One of the most challenging things any snake keeper can do is to tame a wild snake down to the point of being comfortable with you. Before we get going on what to do you should be well aware that some snake’s simply won’t be tamed. You’ll need to know when enough is enough and it time to stop your efforts.”

    …..”The most important key is to remember that a snake is never really tamed. It is at best acclimated to you and willing for whatever reason to put up with you. No matter how much you work at it the snake will never become like a dog or cat that comes when called.”

    J.F.

  • Erik

    Dear Mr. Rossi, I believe this machine can work very well with your e-
    Cat. I hope it is possible to combine these technologies for domestic use.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m9d929JhdHM&feature=player_embedded
    http://sanevo.de
    http://www.ehe.eu/ehe/dm/whispergen.asp?nombre=2401&sesion=1347

    cordially.

    Erik

  • DvH

    Hi A.R.
    just to remind you: when you move your pilot-plant from greece to usa, make sure to change your schematics: they have nasty things like inch, gallons, psi, 110VAC over there…
    waiting for spectacular news in october/november 2011
    dvh

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear James West:
    You are right: phylosophical studies, in my case, have teached to me never to accept something as it is, and suspend any given knowledge, with a procedure which can be expressed by the greek derived word “epochè”. Everytime I find myself in front of a given system, I immediately make epochè on it and try to find another better way. It is stronger than me, I instinctively fight against anything that is given to me as “done, well known, shared by anybody, correct, absolutely certain…”. By the way: this means that I suspect that before or later a competitor of mine will make something better than what I did, but this is what makes life interesting
    Warmest regards,
    A.R.

  • James West

    As a scientist who has studied philosophy, can you cite any specific philosophical influences that have either shaped your approach to your work or else informed your Promethean discovery of a new fire for humanity? I must say, your bold claims and brave efforts–as well as the predictable the opposition to it–remind me of the courage of Giordano Bruno, who, unlike Copernicus, did not merely say that it was ‘theoretically’ possible that the earth revolved around the sun, he declared this was a very real fact of nature! As Bruno wrote on more than one occasion, “everything is in everything else,” and you have discovered a fiery truth within nature that was previously hidden from our eyes, just as Bruno did. As for the opposition you now face, well, as Bruno also said, it is from the coincidence of opposites that nature begets the world as we know it. We are about to know it quite differently. Bravo!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kim Patterson:
    Thank you,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Stern:
    We are working hard on the electric power generation, and soon we will have a product.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Stern

    Mr. Rossi:

    My proposal is to build a fully functional prototype generator. If you type in ‘steam turbine’ in Youtube or Google, you will find many small devices in the 1..5 kW range that should work with one of the small e-cats that you made your demonstrations with.

    If such a complete generator prototype is working, caloric measurements or questions about energy output are obsolete, simply demonstrate that no auxiliary energy is required. This will be a proof without doing measurements, the only thing to verify would be that it is not connected to external energy, i.e. unplugged for electrical heating, pump and control panel.

    Furthermore, a complete unit would be a good promotion for your device. Starting the first fusion type generator will be a historical day. Just show a complete functional device, any lay man can verify it if it works “unplugged” and auxiliary electric energy comes from the steam generator only.

  • Kim Patterson

    Keep up the great work Mr. Rossi and thank you for your strength and determination. (get some rest too)

    Everything, and I mean every problem we have today is
    traceable to the cost of a barrel of oil

    Why now?, Why now are the powers that be, letting us
    have it now (always previously,bought and shelved).

    What has Changed?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear David Robertson:
    I know perfectly what is behind the snakes and who is backing them and, believe me, the chances that they have to stop me are the same, as I said, of a plumber who tries to stop the Niagara Falls throwing dirt on their edge, also if one of these backers is very powerful, but I have seen much worst than that in my life.
    Thank you anyway for your clever analysis of the behaviour of Prof. Levi, an extremely honest person and a professor of Physics of the University of Bologna who is considered a very high level Universuty teacher from all hte students and the professional operators of the University world.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Iggy Dalrymple:
    Thank you for your suggestion. We will make this tech useful as widely as possible.
    We have to. We are thinking how to.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Iggy Dalrymple

    Andrea Rossi – “Of course we will have to face contrasting interests that will do all they can to destroy or discredit this work; we have some snakes around, paid by the competition, that are trying to destroy all this work before it can have its natural development: you have seen the personal attacks against me, and you will see much worst that this: the 1 MW start up of October terrorizes some, because now, for the first time, LENR are not small lab apparatuses not able to create real competition, but are real industrial power generation systems.”
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    I believe you would have been safer in commercializing the E-Cat in an energy-poor industrialized country like S Korea. Maybe for insurance, you could have a dual effort in another country like Korea, India, or Singapore.

  • David Roberson

    I watched the 5 part interview of Dr. Levi by Steven Krivit. In my humble opinion Dr. Levi was truthful and answered the questions posed by Steven very well. It was aparent that Dr. Levi is convinced that the ECAT device is real and revolutionary. It saddens me to think that someone would try to discredit a sincere, open scientist.

    It should be noted that Steven censors his blog heavily and does not typically publish posts that support the work of Mr. Rossi and the other ECAT researchers. I am surprised that anyone claiming to be a fair reporter would behave in such a manner.

    Mr. Rossi, please continue to work hard toward delivering your product to that lucky customer on time. The future historians will remember that company and yourself in a fitting manner.

    Try to think of the people of the world as you determine how to set prices for the ECAT related products. If the costs are too high, the usage of expensive oil will continue and the world economy will falter.

    Keep up the great work Mr. Rossi and thank you for your strength and determination.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Antonello Lai:
    Grazie infinite,
    Cari saluti,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joe Shea:
    The snake arrived to the point to say to Levi” I have to write a bad story on Rossi, if you don’t help me I will make a bad story also about you”. The imbecile said this in presence of a witness, Levi opened against him a prosecution by his attorney, because in Italy what the snake made is a crime.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Having watched the 5-part interview of Giuseppe Levi with Steven Kirvit of New Energy Times, I am convinced that Kirvit is a fraud who is working for a competitor or a government to discredit Dr. Rossi’s work. I hope he does not succeed.

  • Antonello LAI

    Io a Lei la ammiro, ma non per l’invenzione che sarebbe una cosa scontata, ma perchè Lei risponde a tutti e questi tutti sono persone normali. In altre condizioni economiche avrei prenotato il biglietto per andare in u.s.a alla presentazione e stringerle la mano.

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