Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

by Yeong E. Kim Department of Physics, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

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ABSTRACT
Generalized theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recent experimental results of Rossi et al. for hydrogen-nickel system.  Based on incomplete experimental information currently available, preliminary theoretical explanations of the experimental results are presented in terms of the generalized BECNF theory. Additional accurate experimental data are needed for obtaining more complete theoretical descriptions and predictions, which can be tested by further experiments.

I.  Introduction
Over the last two decades, there have been many publications reporting experimental observations of excess heat generation and anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in metals at ultra-low energies, now known as „low-energy nuclear reactions‟ (LENR).  Theoretical explanations of the LENR phenomena have been described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) in micro/nano-scale metal particles [1-3].  The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation.  While the BECNF theory is able to make general qualitative predictions concerning LENR phenomena it is also a quantitative predictive physical theory.  Some of the theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments reported recently.  The BECNF theory was generalized for the case of two species of Bosons [4].

Recently, there were two positive demonstrations (January and March, 2011) of a heat generating device called “Energy Catalyzer” [5]. The Energy Catalyzer is an apparatus built by inventor Andrea Rossi, Italy. The patent application [5] states that the device transforms energy stored in its fuel (hydrogen and nickel) into heat by means of nuclear reaction of the two fuel components, with a consequent observed production of copper [5,6]. According to Rossi‟s patent application [5], heating of the sample is accomplished by an electric resistance heater.  Details of March 2011 demonstration were reported by Essen and Kullander [7]. The report [7] also contains references to January 2011 demonstration. In the following, we describe hydrogen-nickel reactions in section II. Other possible reactions are discussed in section III.  Conclusions are given in section IV.

II.  Hydrogen-Nickel Reactions
The generalized BECNF theory [4] can be applied to the case of hydrogen-nickel fusion reactions observed in Rossi‟s device (the energy catalyzer) [5] under the following two conditions: (1) additives used (not disclosed in the patent application) form Ni alloy and/or Ni metal/alloy oxide in the surface regions of nickel nano-scale particles, so that Ni atoms/nuclei become mobile with a sufficiently large diffusion coefficient and (2) local magnetic field is very weak in the surface regions, providing a suitable environment in which two neighboring protons can couple their spins anti-parallel to form spin-zero singlet state (S=0).  Relatively low Curie temperature (nickel has the Curie temperature of 631 oK (~358 oC)) is expected to help to maintain the weak magnetic field in the surface regions. If Rossi‟s device is operated at temperatures greater than the Curie temperature ~358 oC and with hydrogen pressures of up to ~22 bars, the conditions (1) and (2) may have been achieved in Rossi‟s device. The mobility of Ni atoms/nuclei (condition (1)) is enhanced by the use of an electric resistance heater to maintain higher temperatures. This may provide a suitable environment in which more of both Ni atoms/nuclei and protons become mobile, thus creating a favorable environment for the case of two species of Bosons (Ni nuclei and composite Bosons of paired two protons). If the velocities of mobile Ni atoms/nuclei under the condition (1) are sufficiently slow, their de-Broglie wavelengths become sufficiently large and may overlap with neighboring two-proton composite Bosons which are also mobile, thus creating Bose-Einstein condensation of two species of Bosons. The generalized BECNF theory can now be applied to these two-species of Bosons and provides a mechanism for the suppression/cancellation of the Coulomb barrier, as shown in [4]. Once the Coulomb barrier is overcome in the entrance reaction channel, many possible allowed exit reaction channels may become open such as reactions (i) ANi(2p(S=0), p)ˆA+1 Cu, with even A=58, 60, 62 and 64. These reactions will produce radioactive isotopes 59Cu and 61Cu with A = 58 and 60, respectively. 59Cu has a half-life of 81.5 seconds and decays by the electron capture to the 59Ni ground state (58.1%) which has a half-life of 7.6 x 10ˆ4 years and to the 59Ni excited states (41.9%) which in turn decay to the 59Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 310.9 keV to 2682.0 keV [8]. 61Cu has a half-life of 3.333 hours and decays by the electron capture to the stable 61Ni ground state (67%) and to the 61Ni excited states (33%) which in turn decay to the 61Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 67.412 keV to 2123.93 keV [8]. Gamma-rays (and neutrons) have not been observed outside the reactor chamber during the experiment [6]. These gamma-rays may have been present inside the reaction chamber. If no radiations are observed, reactions (i) are ruled out. Focardi and Rossi [6] reported that the experimental results of Rossi et al. indicate the production of  stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu with an isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu ~ 1.6 (natural abundance is 63Cu/ 65Cu = 2.24). This production of Cu may be due to reactions (i). The production of 63Cu and 65Cu with isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu different from the natural isotopic ratio is expected and can be explained by estimating the reaction rates for 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu.  Reaction rates estimates based on transmission probability calculated from a barrier tunneling model similar to the alpha-decay theory indicate that the reaction rates for stable Cu productions, 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu, are expected to be much larger than the reaction rates for production of radioactive Cu, 58Ni(2p(S=0), p)59Cu and 60Ni(2p(S=0), p)61Cu. This leads to the prediction that intensities of the gamma-rays from the decays of 59Cu and 61Cu are expected to be weak and do not commensurate with the observed heat production, which is mostly from stable Cu production  reactions 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu. There are other exit reaction channels which are (nearly) radiation-less, such as reactions (ii) ANi(2p(S=0), α)ˆA-2Ni, (even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) [9]. For this case, we expect that the natural isotopic ratio of Ni isotopes will be changed in a particular way, which can be checked from the  sample after each experiment.  Even though reactions (ii) produce radioactive isotope 56Ni, it can be shown using the alpha-decay theory that its reaction rate is much slower (by many order of magnitudes) than those of other reactions. Other exit reaction channels, ANi(2p(S=0), d)ACu, ANi(2p(S=0), 3HeA-1Ni, and ANi(2p(S=0), t)ˆA-1Cu (all with even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) are ruled out since these reactions all have negative Q-values.  There are possibilities of neutron-emission exit reaction channels, such as reactions (iii) ANi(2p(S=0), n)ˆA+1Zn, (even A= 62, and 64; Q is negative for A = 58 and 60).  However, reaction rates for reactions (iii) are expected be substantially smaller than those for reaction (i).  Reactions (iii) involve emission of a tightly bound neutron (62Ni -> 61Ni + n, Q = -10.597MeV or  64Ni -> 63Ni + n, Q = -9.657MeV) while reactions (i) involve emission of a loosely bound proton from an excited compound nuclear state consisting of ANi (even A) and 2p(S=0). Therefore, the transmission probability of a neutron tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (iii) is expected to be substantially smaller than that of a proton tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (i). The branching ratios of reactions (i) and (ii) need to be determined by measurements of gamma-ray energies and changes in isotopic ratios from future Ross-type experiments.  Theoretically, the branching ratios can be estimated by calculating transmission probability of an emitted charged particle tunneling through both Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in the exit reaction channel, as done in the alpha-decay theory.

III.  Other Possible Reactions
In addition to the above reactions described in II, there are possibilities of reactions involving additives used (not disclosed so far). For an example, if lithium is added as an additive, reaction (iv) 6Li(2p(S=0), p 3He)4He may be possible. As in cases of reactions (i) and (ii), Ni nano-particles would be still playing an important role of providing two-proton singlet composite Bosons for reaction (iv). Reaction (iv) would not change the isotopic ratios of Ni.

VI.  Conclusions
In order to explore validity and to test predictions of the generalized BECNF theory for the hydrogen-metal system, it is very important to carry out Rossi-type experiments independently in order to establish what are exact inputs and outputs of each experiment.  If the entrance and exit reaction channels are established experimentally, we can investigate selection rules as well as estimates of the reaction rates for different exit reaction channels, based on the generalized BECNF theory [1-4]. Once these experimental results are established, further application of the generalized BECNF theory can be made for the purpose of confirming the theoretical mechanism and making theoretical predictions, which can then be tested experimentally. Basic description of the above theoretical concepts for BECNF in the hydrogen-metal system will be included in an invited talk at a forthcoming nuclear physics conference [10], and will be published in the conference proceedings [10].

References

  1. Y. E. Kim, “Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Deuteron-Induced Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles”, Naturwissenschaften 96, 803 (2009) and references therein.
  2. Y. E. Kim, “Bose-Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, 188 (2010), Proceedings of Symposium on New Energy Technologies, the 239th National Meeting of American Chemical Society, San Francisco, March 21-26, 2010.
  3. Y. E. Kim, “Theoretical interpretation of anomalous tritium and neutron productions during  Pd/D co-deposition experiments”, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.  52, 31101 (2010).
  4. Y. E. Kim and A. L. Zubarev, “Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter”, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Cold Fusion, Marseilles, France, 31 October – 5 November, 2006, World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 711-717.
  5. Andrea Rossi, “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTION”, United States Patent Application Publication (Pub. No.: US 2011/0005506 A1, Pub. Date: Jan. 13, 2011); http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/ja/WO2009125444.
  6. S. Focardi and A. Rossi, “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”, March 22, 2010. http://www.nyteknik.se/incoming/article3080659.ece/BINARY/Rossi-Forcardi_paper.pdf
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=66 ,  February 2010
  7. H. Essen and S. Kullander, “Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna, 29 March 2011”, a travel report, April 3, 2011; http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3144827.ece
  8. Table of Isotopes, 8th Edition, Volume I: A = 1-150, edited by R. B. Firestone et al., published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1999), pages 270 and 284.
  9. Reactions (ii) were suggested by T.  E. Ward, private communication, May 11, 2011.
  10. Y. E. Kim, “Deuteron Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles”, an invited talk to be presented at the Fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics 2011(APFB2011), August 22-26, 2011, Seoul, Korea. (http://www.apctp.org/conferences/2011/APFB2011/)

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841 comments to Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

  • Anders F

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    Is the lower temperature used in order to be able to keep the reaction rate higher in the reactor? Higher temperature difference between the reactor core and the coolant should increase the amount of energy you can extract without the powder melting, is that assumption correct?

    Are the nickel powder in the reactor magnetic?

    Best Regards,
    Anders F

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Thon Brocket:
    Yes, we can reach up to 500 Celsius, but if we can work at 200 is much better for many reasons.
    Stirling engine needs 700 C.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chris Johnson:
    Thank you for the info,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chris Johnson

    United Technologies is a leader in heat to electricity technology using the Organic Rankine Cycle. Their PureCycle systems have been installed worldwide. They have a 225Kw system that can be ordered with short lead times. The units are modular, and can be combined for higher output. They claim $.01 per KWh maintenance costs.

    See http://www.the-atc.org/events/c10/presentations/B2-David-Paul.pdf and http://www.google.com/search?q=purecycle+electricity

  • Thon Brocket

    Dear Dr Rossi
    You’ve specified “300 kW, 200 °C”. 200 °C is low for efficient steam-turbine operation (though geothermal stations work with it). On the other hand, I believe you (or possibly Defkalion) have quoted 414 °C as the greatest steam temperature you have attained. Raising steam temperature to perhaps 350 °C would make a big difference, in particular in size / bulk of the plant. Is this possible?

    As a separate issue, for small domestic generators, I believe the Stirling engine is a better fit than the microturbine. Three companies that I know of (Whispergen, Microgen, Flexgen) have gas-fired products already on the market, which I guess could be easily adapted to run on the E-Cat.

    Best regards
    Thon Brocket

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greg:
    Actually, my work of organic waste into oil has been widely used: many biodiesels come from there. When I published in 1978 that with organic wastes was possible make oil a big laugh exploded. Today biodiesel is the 5% of the oil consumed in the world. Nevertheless, I made many mistakes. And paid dearly for them. See http://www.ingandrearossi.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guru Gurovic,
    Very interesting, I am going through it, thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • […] was gracious in his response to all suggestions, and indicated that he will check into all of them. One thing he did mention, however, was that he […]

  • Guru Gurovic

    Folks,
    problem with not mature 3rd party steam turbine suitable for 200°C may seriously decelerate whole great effort with 1MW demo plant.

    Folks it is important to little help for finding competent manufacturer of such turbines.

    Because 200°C input is very similar for geothermal turbines, I found these:

    Yunnan Qingjie Steam Turbine Co Ltd:

    http://www.ynqlj.com/ynsts/show.asp?id=3906

  • Greg

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    with the completion of the 1MW power plant in Greece you will instantly become a celebrity. Do you think this will force the scientific community to look into your other ground-breaking inventions: like to one which turns waste into oil?

    Best regards,
    Greg

  • Rick Meisinger

    Dear Sebastian;

    Your may be right. By all appearances Capstone seems to be an innovative group that has done some good work with turbine technology and integration into useful applications. They should be heavily motivated to make any necessary modifications to work with the E-Cat technology once they see Ampenergo driving down the road. Just thought the two groups might be able to help each other. Thanks for your comment.

    Warm regards;
    Rick Meisinger

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Oliver Halling:
    Thank you, if they have a ready product we are ready to test it.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • oliver halling

    URGENT !!!
    Dear Mr. Rossi, please notice:
    No turbines needed: panasonic thermoelectric generator for the e-cat !
    I posted a link at facebook “methode rossi”.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Albert Ellul:
    I have ready a technology to retrofit existing power plants, and possibly soon one system will be installed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Albert Ellul,
    This engine is efficient with temperatures above 700 Celsius.
    I can’t use it.
    Tyhank you a lot for the help,
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Sebastian

    Dear Rick Meisinger,
    I found this Capstone turbine, too, but aren’t their turbines all gas turbines? I don’t think they could be converted to using steam without much effort…

    Sebastian

  • Albert Ellul

    Dear Ing. Rossi, the following may be of interest to you. I had eceieved this some time ago:

    Jason Shrieves j.shrieves@qalovis.com
    Hello
    The current Stirling Biopower product, called a FleXgen G38 is an electric grid-dependent Stirling engine based generator set which is fueled with gaseous fuels such as Natural Gas, Propane, or Bio Gas (basically any gaseous fuel with energy density over 13MJ/Nm3). It operates at steady state, producing 38kW electrical power (50Hz) with an additional 65kW thermal energy possible when installed in a combined heat and power application.

    The FleXgen G38 includes an integrated gaseous fuel delivery and combustion system, which delivers heat to the hot side of the Stirling engine. Because of the steady state operation of the machine, fuel consumption is relatively constant and dependent on the energy content of the fuel. Service costs are approximately 1.2 Eurocents/kWh thanks in part to the long service intervals of 10.000 hours.

    Purchase price typically ranges between 90.000-€ and 100.000-€ per unit depending on optional equipment. This price does not include VAT or shipment.

    Stirling Biopower is developing a new variation of the FleXgen which can use heat sources as fuel for electrical generation. This product is called the FleXgen H-Series, initially available as the FleXgen H38 with 38kWe maximum output. This product will be capable of integration with waste heat, biomass furnaces, pyrolysis systems, and other sources of high temperature heat (500°C+). The efficiency and power output will be dependent on the temperature and mass flow rate of the hot gases passing through the heat exchanger. It is not yet known when the H-Series product will be ready for sales.

    Please review and let me know if you have any further questions. Please let me know where your installation would be located as well.

    Thanks,
    Jason Shrieves
    Technical Manager Stirling Systems
    Qalovis Farmer Automatic Energy
    Zum Hagenbach 8
    D-48366 Laer
    +49 2554 911 817 office
    +49 151 116 11112 mobile
    +49 2554 911 800 fax
    j.shrieves@qalovis.com
    http://www.qalovis.com

    Rechtsform: GmbH, Amtsgericht Steinfurt HRB 7850
    Geschäftsführer: Peter Vergossen

  • Albert Ellul

    Do you see in your plans the possibility of an exisiting power station, say 500 MW capacity, being converted completely from coal/gas/oil to e-cat generated steam?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefano:
    You are right, you are right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rick Meisinger:
    Thank you!
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Keith:
    Thank you!
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Keith

    Mr Rossi, check out the Panasonic break through, you may not need Turbines… http://www.green-energy-news.com/arch/nrgs2011/20110051.html

    Regards Keith…..good luck.

  • Rick Meisinger

    Dear Andrea Rossi;

    Capstone Turbine Corp. http://www.capstoneturbine.com/ is an US corp. and appears to have a mature product line of turbines for residential, commercial and interestingly; cars and buses. This turbine type may not be the ultimate solution using super critical CO2 but may work as an interim solution with efficiencies between 34% to 80% with waste heat recycling. Not a turbine expert either, but assume their natural gas heat source could be replaced with an E-Cat.

    With much support and appreciation;
    Rick Meisinger

  • Stefano

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    your E-Cat is very futuristic too.
    Nuclear Reaction -> Gamma Ray -> Heat -> Electricity.
    Maybe it is possible to have a step less in this process.
    Best regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mario:
    Yes, the ceramics field can intersect with us.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Voce Solitaria:
    Of course, in case of electric power generation it is opportune to recover the heat to increase the efficiency: this is co-generation, or tri-generation if you make also the cold.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Felize:
    1- yes
    2- no
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luke Mortensen:
    300 kW
    200 Celsius, if possible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefano:
    Interesting, but very futuristic. Not ready for us.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Stefano

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    could be interesting o convert gamma-ray energy into electric energy.
    Take a look at this document: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16952338

    Regards

  • Luke Mortensen

    AR,

    What industrial scale should the steam turbine be optimized for?
    Specific: How many Modules ( or KW ) per generator?
    Specific: What temperature and PSI would the generator be designed to receive?

    If you give the community those target product specs,
    I believe the community here and elsewhere can locate an *industry standard* generator to fit the specific ecat needs. No new tech required.

    I suspect that turbines for medium scale geothermal turbines would meet your needs. With this input, the forum can generate better output for you.

    Best,
    Luke

  • Felize

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Congratulations for your achievements in the field of the Nickel/Hydrogen fusion. Your competence in operating safely a self-sustained Ni/H reactor is really impressive.
    I would like to ask you a couple of questions about your experience with hundreds of e-cats:
    – have you found some other control variable (apart hydrogen pressure and/or charge heating) for controlling the reactor? I think you have collected enough data to move in this direction;
    – have you changed the grain size of the reactor charge in order to achieve the self-sustained condition without losing the control of the process?

    Warm regards,
    Felize

  • vocesolitaria

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    1 – I understand that you are testing self-sustained reactors, but for safety reasons they will not be released for the first production lot.
    2 – for simplicity, and efficiency considerations, at first the genatarors will produce just heat.
    3 – generation of electricity is possible with a typical efficiency of about 30%.
    4 – since the 70% of energy waste is heat, isn’t it possible to consider at least to generate the electrical power necessary for the sustainment of the system, since the waste heat is anyway useful as final product? This would be a “self sustained system”, not intrinsecally but with the aid of an external generator, with no external energy requirement and no energy loss.
    Am I wrong?

    Best Regards
    Luciano

  • Alessandro Casali

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    1-2 years is not too bad… but, if you manage to make your reactors to work mostly in self susteining mode thus increasing exponentially their efficency, then i believe you can use (in 1MW plants) any already available turbine even if not so efficent because you will have an electricity gain anyway.

    Warm Regards

    AC

  • mario

    another funny question.
    I know I’m probably far ahead of your nowdays concerns, but instead of asking about the core I’m interested on development of what we could see at this moment.
    In a sentence how you see tech ceramics with enclosed shields for future developments?
    Max working temp. can be rised?
    Don’t tell me about costs. the costs are nothing if people ask to buy and, as you said, we don’t even know how far human creativity can go, in terms o productivity too.
    Keep on working as always.
    Caldissimi saluti
    Mario

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear CGV:
    Thank you for the info,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alessandro Casali:
    1- From 1 to 2 years
    2- 1 year
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Alessandro Casali

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    thaks a lot for your quick and frank reply.

    How long do you think it will take to have a smal e-cat (in the range of 5-30 KW) producing electricity?

    And how long it will take for bigger plants (1MW or more) to produce electricity?

    I think it should be easier for big plants.

    Warm regards,

    AC

  • GCV

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    about : Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycle

    this link is to a paper (2004) you might interested in:
    http://web.mit.edu/jessiek/MacData/afs.course.lockers/22/22.33/www/dostal.pdf

    It appears that SANDIA (DOE) was already involved at that time.

    Warm regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alessandro Casali:
    I agree with you. For the production of thermal energy we are ready, in any sense, for the electric power we have to work and the solutions will not arrive in short term. Honestly.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gillis,
    Thank you for the info,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    You might want to consider Etalim’s thermo-acoustic technology for electric generation [www.etalim.com]:
    “Etalim Inc. is developing new and groundbreaking technology that converts any fuel or heat source to electricity, with extraordinary efficiency and simplicity. The Etalim TEG device is elegant, straightforward to manufacture, and inexpensive. Etalim’s unique TEG platform has several addressable markets, such as utility-scale solar power, cogeneration/CHP, and auxiliary/rural/telecom power generation. Etalim plans to manufacture and sell TEG devices to system OEMs within our target markets.

  • Alessandro Casali

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    from your latest posts i undestand you have problems converting heat to electricity due to the lack of appropriate tecnology in the market.

    Are these problems only related to small reactors or do they also affect 1MW plants?

    I think the problem is that before your invention there was not much need for microturbines (in the range of few KWs) out there, therefore at present, considering all the technical issues in developing such kind of devices, there aren’t probably good options available.

    In my personal opinion you have got something very powerfull in your hands but it will take some time (more than Defkalion says) to develop it to something mature for the market, expecially for the household market.

    I’m fully convinced that you are doing the right thing now concentrating on big plants where you have less problems finding parts in the market and also getting all needed athorisations.

    Next step will be to sign up partnerships with other industrial players in order to develop the devices you need to further expand your products range.

    Warm Regards,

    AC

  • Joseph Fine

    A.R. et al,

    The CO2 turbine is not an off the shelf item, it is true. But within the next few years, industry will switch to S-CO2 for cost and efficiency reasons – not to mention size. A 20 KW turbine might fit in the palm of your hand. Perhaps, someday, the Steam Automobile will become a CO2 auto.

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guru Gurovic:
    Thank you for the info, I will contact.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Arnd,
    Thank you, I will contact them,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Anders:
    Thank you for the info.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Anders F

    When looking for turbines I would suggest you try talking to the larger manufacturers of steam turbines. Even if companies like Siemens AG don’t have really small turbines in their product portfolio, they are sure to have prototypes. Besides you need the knowledge and the production capacity of a large manufacturer in order to be able to expand rapidly. For your MW plants Siemens have turbines that will work, for generators I would talk to ABB. I am not affiliated with either company but know for a fact that both provide products with excellent quality and durability.

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    If main-line science, journals and administrators had spent the last twenty years doing the jobs that the taxpayers fund them for and not sitting in ivory towers proclaiming that we are the experts and nothing beyond known science, such as Cold Fusion, can possibly exist, then industry would have had ample time to produce highly efficient heat to electric generators ready for your E-Cat.
    The harm done to the World by this inexcusable delay, only honest histories will be able to assess.
    Will young students now be taught and encouraged not to take anybody’s word for things, but open their minds and DO THE RESEARCH.

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