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Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

by Yeong E. Kim Department of Physics, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

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ABSTRACT
Generalized theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recent experimental results of Rossi et al. for hydrogen-nickel system.  Based on incomplete experimental information currently available, preliminary theoretical explanations of the experimental results are presented in terms of the generalized BECNF theory. Additional accurate experimental data are needed for obtaining more complete theoretical descriptions and predictions, which can be tested by further experiments.

I.  Introduction
Over the last two decades, there have been many publications reporting experimental observations of excess heat generation and anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in metals at ultra-low energies, now known as „low-energy nuclear reactions‟ (LENR).  Theoretical explanations of the LENR phenomena have been described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) in micro/nano-scale metal particles [1-3].  The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation.  While the BECNF theory is able to make general qualitative predictions concerning LENR phenomena it is also a quantitative predictive physical theory.  Some of the theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments reported recently.  The BECNF theory was generalized for the case of two species of Bosons [4].

Recently, there were two positive demonstrations (January and March, 2011) of a heat generating device called “Energy Catalyzer” [5]. The Energy Catalyzer is an apparatus built by inventor Andrea Rossi, Italy. The patent application [5] states that the device transforms energy stored in its fuel (hydrogen and nickel) into heat by means of nuclear reaction of the two fuel components, with a consequent observed production of copper [5,6]. According to Rossi‟s patent application [5], heating of the sample is accomplished by an electric resistance heater.  Details of March 2011 demonstration were reported by Essen and Kullander [7]. The report [7] also contains references to January 2011 demonstration. In the following, we describe hydrogen-nickel reactions in section II. Other possible reactions are discussed in section III.  Conclusions are given in section IV.

II.  Hydrogen-Nickel Reactions
The generalized BECNF theory [4] can be applied to the case of hydrogen-nickel fusion reactions observed in Rossi‟s device (the energy catalyzer) [5] under the following two conditions: (1) additives used (not disclosed in the patent application) form Ni alloy and/or Ni metal/alloy oxide in the surface regions of nickel nano-scale particles, so that Ni atoms/nuclei become mobile with a sufficiently large diffusion coefficient and (2) local magnetic field is very weak in the surface regions, providing a suitable environment in which two neighboring protons can couple their spins anti-parallel to form spin-zero singlet state (S=0).  Relatively low Curie temperature (nickel has the Curie temperature of 631 oK (~358 oC)) is expected to help to maintain the weak magnetic field in the surface regions. If Rossi‟s device is operated at temperatures greater than the Curie temperature ~358 oC and with hydrogen pressures of up to ~22 bars, the conditions (1) and (2) may have been achieved in Rossi‟s device. The mobility of Ni atoms/nuclei (condition (1)) is enhanced by the use of an electric resistance heater to maintain higher temperatures. This may provide a suitable environment in which more of both Ni atoms/nuclei and protons become mobile, thus creating a favorable environment for the case of two species of Bosons (Ni nuclei and composite Bosons of paired two protons). If the velocities of mobile Ni atoms/nuclei under the condition (1) are sufficiently slow, their de-Broglie wavelengths become sufficiently large and may overlap with neighboring two-proton composite Bosons which are also mobile, thus creating Bose-Einstein condensation of two species of Bosons. The generalized BECNF theory can now be applied to these two-species of Bosons and provides a mechanism for the suppression/cancellation of the Coulomb barrier, as shown in [4]. Once the Coulomb barrier is overcome in the entrance reaction channel, many possible allowed exit reaction channels may become open such as reactions (i) ANi(2p(S=0), p)ˆA+1 Cu, with even A=58, 60, 62 and 64. These reactions will produce radioactive isotopes 59Cu and 61Cu with A = 58 and 60, respectively. 59Cu has a half-life of 81.5 seconds and decays by the electron capture to the 59Ni ground state (58.1%) which has a half-life of 7.6 x 10ˆ4 years and to the 59Ni excited states (41.9%) which in turn decay to the 59Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 310.9 keV to 2682.0 keV [8]. 61Cu has a half-life of 3.333 hours and decays by the electron capture to the stable 61Ni ground state (67%) and to the 61Ni excited states (33%) which in turn decay to the 61Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 67.412 keV to 2123.93 keV [8]. Gamma-rays (and neutrons) have not been observed outside the reactor chamber during the experiment [6]. These gamma-rays may have been present inside the reaction chamber. If no radiations are observed, reactions (i) are ruled out. Focardi and Rossi [6] reported that the experimental results of Rossi et al. indicate the production of  stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu with an isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu ~ 1.6 (natural abundance is 63Cu/ 65Cu = 2.24). This production of Cu may be due to reactions (i). The production of 63Cu and 65Cu with isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu different from the natural isotopic ratio is expected and can be explained by estimating the reaction rates for 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu.  Reaction rates estimates based on transmission probability calculated from a barrier tunneling model similar to the alpha-decay theory indicate that the reaction rates for stable Cu productions, 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu, are expected to be much larger than the reaction rates for production of radioactive Cu, 58Ni(2p(S=0), p)59Cu and 60Ni(2p(S=0), p)61Cu. This leads to the prediction that intensities of the gamma-rays from the decays of 59Cu and 61Cu are expected to be weak and do not commensurate with the observed heat production, which is mostly from stable Cu production  reactions 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu. There are other exit reaction channels which are (nearly) radiation-less, such as reactions (ii) ANi(2p(S=0), α)ˆA-2Ni, (even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) [9]. For this case, we expect that the natural isotopic ratio of Ni isotopes will be changed in a particular way, which can be checked from the  sample after each experiment.  Even though reactions (ii) produce radioactive isotope 56Ni, it can be shown using the alpha-decay theory that its reaction rate is much slower (by many order of magnitudes) than those of other reactions. Other exit reaction channels, ANi(2p(S=0), d)ACu, ANi(2p(S=0), 3HeA-1Ni, and ANi(2p(S=0), t)ˆA-1Cu (all with even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) are ruled out since these reactions all have negative Q-values.  There are possibilities of neutron-emission exit reaction channels, such as reactions (iii) ANi(2p(S=0), n)ˆA+1Zn, (even A= 62, and 64; Q is negative for A = 58 and 60).  However, reaction rates for reactions (iii) are expected be substantially smaller than those for reaction (i).  Reactions (iii) involve emission of a tightly bound neutron (62Ni -> 61Ni + n, Q = -10.597MeV or  64Ni -> 63Ni + n, Q = -9.657MeV) while reactions (i) involve emission of a loosely bound proton from an excited compound nuclear state consisting of ANi (even A) and 2p(S=0). Therefore, the transmission probability of a neutron tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (iii) is expected to be substantially smaller than that of a proton tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (i). The branching ratios of reactions (i) and (ii) need to be determined by measurements of gamma-ray energies and changes in isotopic ratios from future Ross-type experiments.  Theoretically, the branching ratios can be estimated by calculating transmission probability of an emitted charged particle tunneling through both Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in the exit reaction channel, as done in the alpha-decay theory.

III.  Other Possible Reactions
In addition to the above reactions described in II, there are possibilities of reactions involving additives used (not disclosed so far). For an example, if lithium is added as an additive, reaction (iv) 6Li(2p(S=0), p 3He)4He may be possible. As in cases of reactions (i) and (ii), Ni nano-particles would be still playing an important role of providing two-proton singlet composite Bosons for reaction (iv). Reaction (iv) would not change the isotopic ratios of Ni.

VI.  Conclusions
In order to explore validity and to test predictions of the generalized BECNF theory for the hydrogen-metal system, it is very important to carry out Rossi-type experiments independently in order to establish what are exact inputs and outputs of each experiment.  If the entrance and exit reaction channels are established experimentally, we can investigate selection rules as well as estimates of the reaction rates for different exit reaction channels, based on the generalized BECNF theory [1-4]. Once these experimental results are established, further application of the generalized BECNF theory can be made for the purpose of confirming the theoretical mechanism and making theoretical predictions, which can then be tested experimentally. Basic description of the above theoretical concepts for BECNF in the hydrogen-metal system will be included in an invited talk at a forthcoming nuclear physics conference [10], and will be published in the conference proceedings [10].

References

  1. Y. E. Kim, “Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Deuteron-Induced Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles”, Naturwissenschaften 96, 803 (2009) and references therein.
  2. Y. E. Kim, “Bose-Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, 188 (2010), Proceedings of Symposium on New Energy Technologies, the 239th National Meeting of American Chemical Society, San Francisco, March 21-26, 2010.
  3. Y. E. Kim, “Theoretical interpretation of anomalous tritium and neutron productions during  Pd/D co-deposition experiments”, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.  52, 31101 (2010).
  4. Y. E. Kim and A. L. Zubarev, “Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter”, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Cold Fusion, Marseilles, France, 31 October – 5 November, 2006, World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 711-717.
  5. Andrea Rossi, “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTION”, United States Patent Application Publication (Pub. No.: US 2011/0005506 A1, Pub. Date: Jan. 13, 2011); http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/ja/WO2009125444.
  6. S. Focardi and A. Rossi, “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”, March 22, 2010. http://www.nyteknik.se/incoming/article3080659.ece/BINARY/Rossi-Forcardi_paper.pdf
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=66 ,  February 2010
  7. H. Essen and S. Kullander, “Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna, 29 March 2011”, a travel report, April 3, 2011; http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3144827.ece
  8. Table of Isotopes, 8th Edition, Volume I: A = 1-150, edited by R. B. Firestone et al., published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1999), pages 270 and 284.
  9. Reactions (ii) were suggested by T.  E. Ward, private communication, May 11, 2011.
  10. Y. E. Kim, “Deuteron Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles”, an invited talk to be presented at the Fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics 2011(APFB2011), August 22-26, 2011, Seoul, Korea. (http://www.apctp.org/conferences/2011/APFB2011/)

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839 comments to Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

  • Rick Gresham

    Dr. Rossi,
    I can certainly understand a business model built on licensing your technology to large entities. I’m curious whether you’ve considered an option for small developers and startups that have an interest in integrating your technology into products.

  • Greven Grevesson

    Dear mr. Rossi
    As many others I want October to approach faster as this is very exciting! I have a small request for you, and I have seen the same request before: could you please consider to invite Peter Ekström from the university of Lund to the October demonstration? He is a very well renomated nuclear scientist and has previously been asked to analyze your machine. He is sceptic based on scientific evaluations, but has never bad mouthed you.
    If he says the machine works after the demonstration there will no longer be any doubt around your fascinating invention.
    Here is his contact information: http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/o.o.i.s?id=24911&task=listEngPerson&username=nucl-pek

    Best Regards
    Greven Grevesson

  • Jam

    @A.R

    Do you have any sub-assemblies with serially connected “E-cats” yet?
    Only 8~12 weeks left!

  • Claud

    Dear Ing. Rossi, reading your answers in this blog and the indicated time of your messages I keep noting that you’re actually working too much. You say that you must increase to 18 hours per day your working time: well, I really suggest you to take each and every day your full, due rest. And mainly for your own success sake! I understand your entusiasm, being so close to the great goal you’re going to reach: you feel no weariness now; but the most fatiguing phase will be after the full success of your 1Mw plant. When your competitors, and oppositors will attempt to minimize, to hit you and your project and to steal your idea. You have to be stronger then than now, or any weakness could be exploited against your discovery. You say that the timetable is duly respected: then recharge your batteries to be in good form to fight successfully.
    Hope you all the best.

  • Marco

    In this response (Andrea Rossi
    July 31st, 2011 at 12:33 PM) you said that to reach 200 ° C and serve four-Cat in the series, but it would be easier to make a ‘multiple unit in line 4-stage (only one entry of water 4 rooms reaction with its strengths and go to H band) to the desired output temperature to gradually hand control 4 single units, so far as the internal resistance is sufficient only in the first stage.
    Cordially
    M. Fontanari

  • F. Santandrea

    Dear Ing. Andrea Rossi,

    Good Luck to her dreams, are becoming reality!

    I think what he discovered is totally new and as such it needs an explanation totally new,
    if the old physics had been able to explain it would have already done!

    We need to explain nature in a new way, we need a new “tabula rasa” new mental categories

    and that’s what I started with this article :

    (English)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC UNIFICATION, ELECTRONIC CONCEPTION OF THE SPACE, THE ENERGY AND THE MATTER

    This paper came after our previous work entitled Quantized Space Theory (QST) published in September 1994. In this paper we have stated that the space should be considered as a “physical being”, moreover the physical being that is the base from which all physical phenomena are brought into existence.
    The following paragraphs expose briefly the results of our experimentation, our studies and analysis over all experimental data and over the laboratory experimentation.
    However we are still working on theoretical and experimental research with the aim of developing some applications and of understanding the unifying key for the physical laws of nature.

    In the research for an unifying theory of QST new categorization should be introduced. The physical space is not only the vacuum but a mean, it is the result of the energy transfer from the electromagnetic waves that had and that are passing through it. This statement has as a consequence that the matter is a stationary electromagnetic wave on local equilibrium with the space.

    The first logical step in the QST is the establishment of a connection between the quantization of energy and the quantization of the physical space. From the quantum of action given by Plank’s constant (h) we have hypothesized a reation quantum, equal and opposite to the energy quantum, from which the physical space is born.

    Besides this evidence, it has been stated also that resonance is the mechanism that interacts with the space to give birth to physical matter. Our axioms are:

    1) Space is the basic element that forms matter

    2)The space resonance is the dynamical mechanism which brings matter into existence

    3) The electron is a stationary wave that oscillates at the natural frequency of the space (Electron’s Compton frequency)

    4) The resonance of the physical space is redundant, and then a proton (first nucleon, hydrogen atom) is the consequence of the resonance of the electron

    5) The resonance of the electron in its natural frequency and in its following harmonics (double, triple, etc.) gives birth to the nuclei and the isotopes of the chemical elements

    continue in .pdf (English) http://www.atlantedinumerielettere.it/energie2006/pdf/labor-ingl.pdf

    (Italian)

    UNIFICAZIONE ELETTROMAGNETICA, CONCEZIONE ELETTRONICA DELLO SPAZIO, DELL’ENERGIA E DELLA MATERIA

    Questo articolo in parte prende spunto da un precedente nostro lavoro, “Teoria dello Spazio Quantizzato” (brevemente TSQ), pubblicato nel settembre 1994, nel quale abbiamo messo in risalto come lo spazio debba a tutti gli effetti essere considerato ‘ente fisico’, anzi l’ente fisico per eccellenza, substrato base dal quale prendono vita tutti i fenomeni della realtà fisica. In questi pochi paragrafi esponiamo sinteticamente parte degli studi, analisi e considerazioni su dati sperimentali assodati e su esperimenti di laboratorio personalmente condotti. Siamo tuttora impegnati in ricerche teoriche e sperimentali nel tentativo di realizzare applicazioni e comprendere in chiave unitaria le leggi fondamentali attraverso le quali la natura si manifesta.

    Per cercare di ottenere una teoria unificata nella TSQ sono state introdotte nuove categorizzazioni, esse mostrano come lo spazio non è il nulla ma è un mezzo, ed è il risultato della cessione di energia delle onde elettromagnetiche che lo hanno attraversato e lo attraversano, di conseguenza la materia può essere vista come un’onda elettromagnetica stazionaria in equilibrio locale con lo spazio.

    Nella TSQ il primo passo, quello che ci è sembrato il più ovvio, è stata l’individuazione di un nesso tra la quantizzazione dell’energia e lo spazio: partendo dal quanto di azione di Planck h abbiamo ipotizzato un quanto di reazione uguale e contrario che ha dato e dà origine allo spazio.

    Accanto a questa prima evidenza è stato individuato nella risonanza il meccanismo di azione possibile nello spazio, che dà vita alla materia, brevemente:

    1) L’elemento base costituente la materia è lo spazio

    2) Il meccanismo d’azione (dinamica) che permette l’esistenza della materia è la risonanza dello spazio

    3) La particella elementare elettrone è un’onda stazionaria alla frequenza naturale di oscillazione dello spazio (frequenza Compton per l’elettrone)

    4) Il meccanismo di risonanza dello spazio è ridondante, ne consegue che il protone (primo nucleone, atomo di idrogeno) è la risonanza dell’elettrone nello spazio

    5) Le risonanze dell’elettrone in frequenza fondamentale e successive armoniche doppia, tripla, quadrupla ecc. sono i nuclei ed isotopi successivi della tavola degli elementi chimici : Deuterio, Trizio, Elio, ecc.

    continua in .pdf (Italiano) http://www.atlantedinumerielettere.it/energie2006/pdf/labor.pdf

  • eernie1

    I did not finish answering Bill Nichols question.I was called away for a family reason. He asked if the strong force in the nucleus could be responsible for Rossi’s energy output.I attempted to describe the composition of the particles as assumed by the particle physicists.They later decided that the strong force was carried not by the muon but by another meson called the pi meson(pion).However it still performed the function of gluing the protons together to keep the nuclei from destruction.So,if you want to obtain energy from the nucleus,one way is to desturb the pion configurations enough to allow the protons to rearrange themselves.In Uranium this is done with a neutron and the result is a large energy emission and a splitting of the nuclear protons into smaller groups of atoms.Is it possible that a quasi neutron such as the Hydrogen atom could achieve this disturbance if it gets near enough or enters the nucleus? I think it is a good question.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Nichols:
    Thank you, very interesting suggestions, both 1 and 2.
    Do you have precise ideas of application? Interesting.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Bill Nichols

    Mr Rossi

    Two potential technology options to consider?

    1.) Role of desiccants (absorbs water)? There are some nascent compounds that show promise that may allow greater efficacy depending on your engineering in the Rankine cycle (condensation phase). Not to mention the operational desiccants already available.

    2.) Developing solid state cooling. Compounds that have characteristics using electricity and/or magnetism that result in acting as heat sinks…cooling temperatures…promise for higher potential efficiency? One compound I recall from prior lives would lower temperatures by 20+C (eventually more) and may replace traditional cooling in some/many applications using freon, etc. Maybe a facilitator in your designs if they are operationally ready?

    You may already be aware of these.

    If not, you and/or your partners may find some worth in at least checking into.

    From my prior life experiences and what I understand about your system(s)…they may down the road, provide options or enhancements in your journey for one or more industrial applications.

    Hope this is of some value.

    Best Wishes,

    Bill Nichols
    Atmospheric Physicist

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Colombo:
    Thank you for your attention. About your question: we have received threatens, so for security reasons I cannot answer, but I confirm that we will deliver our 1 MW plant in October.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sergio,
    You are a paradigmatic example of intelligent and constructive skepticism, in the Hegelian dialectic “thesis-antithesis-synthesis”.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Sergio

    Dear Andrea, I am an engineer and skeptical optimist, I let myself be surprised by the true facts. You are absolutely right about the imbeciles. They are useful to anybody even to themselves. Forza Rossi!

  • Carlo Colombo

    Dear Mr. Rossi
    My most sincere congratulations for being already so close to produce hot water, heating and cooling, that’s really good news. I also believe electricity won’t be too far away although you’ll need the right partners for that.
    Best regards
    Carlo Colombo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter Heckert:
    We are working on this issue, even if we are ready for hot water, heating systems, low pressure steam ( water desalinitation, sterilization, etc etc), air conditioned. and so forth.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Raul Heining:
    As soon as our partner will give us all the characteristics of the air conditioner, we will give information of them. For sure, by October we will have the technology ready for sale.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vanderwalle:
    Thank you!
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    It is almost funny that there still are so much people that have problems accepting reality, while on the other hand you have problems with too much power. I guess you have already several options in the tryout-list to throttle upper stage e-cats at higher temperatures, or by adding some inert stuff to the powder or mix with the gas, like EGR sometimes reduces the heat of the flame in an internal combustion engine. As lots of us start to understand your diligent way you manage all this, it is not a matter if you will solve it, but only how much time you need to find the best solution.

    Please Mr. Rossi, take very good care of every aspect of your health, at least by sleeping enough. That is one of the things you are not sure it can be fixed, and when it breaks, it may be for good. Even the e-cat nor the customers and certainly not the sceptics are worth so much. Some believe Mozart was sort of killed that way.

    Best regards,
    Koen

  • raul heining

    Dear Rossi,
    Do you make cold through an absortion chiller?
    Regards
    raul

  • georgehants

    georgehants
    If just a few more scientists beyond the top half a percent would realise that everything is Quantum and as they have for 60 years, stop trying to hide something that frightens them to death because they don’t understand the first thing about it.
    Say Quantum to the average scientist, science teacher, and they go into a stupor of confusion.
    The best academic institutions have spent the last 50 years arguing about if it should be the Copenhagen interpretation or one of a dozen other theories, but in general sidestepping its reality to science.

    Any eight year old can understand everything about Quantum in a few minutes, it simply says, nothing is as it seems, but is infinitely more wonderful, and exciting for mankind to discover.

    Quantum means WE DON’T KNOW THE ANSWERS, and a completely open mind on everything is demanded.
    Any new science interpreted without Quantum could be deemed a Perpetual Motion Machine, if the energy is originating outside of known science.
    Quantum computers where denied and laughed at by main-line science and journals before, not physicists but mathematicians, showed that it could be done and would break any classical code in seconds, now everybody’s, at it.

    At present Quantum Biology and Quantum Brain are the latest issues, although proven to be correct are fought against tooth and nail, by a science entrenched in an illogical physiological block against the UNKNOWN.

    Everything is QUANTUM, not classical, any scientist looking for answers must look beyond present day fears of facing the truth and be brave and honest enough to say, we have spent long enough trying to hide reality and at last embrace the wonderful unknown world and opportunities of the QUANTUM.

  • Peter Heckert

    Mr. Rossi,

    as I understand it, the current e-cat device is designed for hot water or for steam at low pressure.
    To make hot steam probably the boiling point must be increased and this is made by increasing the pressure. And possibly a thermal between the reactor and the water buffer would be needed, so that steam bubbles cannot instantly change the temperature in the cat. Also the pump pressure must be increased. So I would think this device might be good for hot water and experimental purposes, but for hot high pressure steam another design would be needed and possibly a steam engine-engineer would be needed to improve the design for this purpose. These are my thoughts, I am not a specialist.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco:
    The phase change happens at 99.9 Celsius, we already know the problem inside the reactor, and are working on it. I think is matter of months, but we are close.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco

    Dear Ing. Rossi

    You stated that you have stable operation without external drive, up to about 100 degrees and that over 200 degrees you have stability problems. Could this be due the phase change of the water? If so, have you tried other liquids with higher boiling point such mineral oils (perharps in closed loop), to see if you get better stability?

    Best Regards,
    Marco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Terry Hilleshiem:
    Yes, 2k$ is a target quite possible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefano Cicchiello,
    We do not put limits to the market, there is no reason to.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Burt,
    Yes, the problems to make cold have been resolved, we found a very good Partner who is working on it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Burt

    Ready to produce cold??
    Someone, please point me to a link – this is news for me.
    Thanks…

  • stefano cicchiello

    Dear Ing. Andrea Rossi do You think Italy will be a place where will take place in future , industrial application and scientific research ? I know about the Research That will take place at the University of Bologna , but no others partecipations . Also i heard about a competitor. Your device in Italy has been granted , so i could believe in Our Country wont be difficult a quick development .
    Personally i believe Your should be Granted By UN as an project for Humanity , but probably i am am too radical .
    Wish You good work and my best regards

  • T Hilleshiem

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I made a little miscalculation in my post today at 7:27. I failed to deduct my yearly usage from the total output unless I should sell all the output back to the electric company. Then I added my savings for free electric power so yearly income would decrease to $3,000 depending on if 95% efficiency is possible using something like the greenturbine.net steam generator.

    With the news you gave us that it will take 4 eCats in series to get the 200deg temp is a big game changer for affordability for an average homeowner but probably not a deal breaker.

    New Example if I need 4 eCats to reach 200deg temp to get electricity:
    4 eCats = 16kW x $2,852 USD = $45,632 + delivery + elect GreenTurbin gen? + installation? = 50K guestimate
    (maybe no sales tax if order unit on internet)

    (16kW x 24 x 365) x 95% – 9600kW = 123,552kW x $.1248 (WI) = $15,419 yearly income from net metering.
    If you factor in what I’ll also save in free electric power: 9600kW x $.1248 = $1,198 per year savings in electric.
    If eCat will also heat my hot water & home: $100 average per month x 12 = $1,200 per year savings in gas heating.
    Subtract eCat nickel fuel re-charge cost of only $43 (ea 6 mo) x 8 = $ 344 USD per year.
    If my guestimate numbers are true… system payback would be around 2.8 years which is great too!
    Total potential bonus to pocket in profit & savings based on 20yr life warrantee:
    17.2 yrs x $ 17,473 = $300,535 USD which I believe would be 9.0% rate of return if my initial guestiment investment of $50K is true.

    1. Is the $2K Euro per kW installed & working at the job site like your 1MW plant or just for the eCat unit and installation not included in that price?

    2. Since Euro to Dollar is so changeable day to day when you have a plant up and running in the US do you believe the actual cost could also be around $2K USD?

    It would be an honor to attend the 1MW demonstration in Oct. Also change my waiting list order to 4 eCats after the bugs are worked out next year & you have a 95% efficiency CHP I can attach to my elect heat pump HVAC & (solar ready) hot water heater. I believe it’s possible but I’m not a scientist.

    Warm regards,
    Terry

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rick Gresham:
    We can reach 500 Celsius, but in a very instable mode. The lower is the T, the higher the stability. At the moment, to turn off the input power, we must make steam at 100.1-101 Celsius; above this limit we need the drive, we are able to arrive to 200 C with good stability, above not, so far. This is the problem we are dealing with. I think that we will resolve the problem soon, because we are making very fast progress in this period. This is why we are ready to produce heat and cold, but still fighting to produce electric power .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I think you have the right policy when you are selecting guests with a practical testing experience and a solid theoretical background. But I want to raise my finger as a warning for the fact that you do not have any critics on the guest list.

    Even if it currently seems to be a total waste of time, food and scare hotel-rooms. It’s a good investment for how the historians and the society will think about this event. One must consider this issue from both a historical and futuristic perspective. It will be important for your image.

    The eCat business will be the biggest business in the world. And the courtesy you show “heretics” (eretico) will set the standards for many companies and universities and encourage a more generous attitude towards new ideas…

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandevalle: we will change every part which will break in 20 years for free. This is the guarantee we give to our Customers.
    Warm regards,
    and Thank You,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine,
    Is impossible to get rest, there is no time. October is tomorrow, I cannot make something less than perfect.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. Rossi,

    Please get some rest. If you get sleepy, you might make mistakes, and mistakes may lead to accidents. Not only does your 1 MW plant have to be in working order, you too have to be in working order. So take a few extra minutes and relax – just a bit. The show must go on.

    Joseph Fine

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Dr. Rossi.
    At the price you name, 2k$/kW, there cannot exist much competition.
    Besides, you’re too far ahead, and already behind the corner so lots of wannabe competitors will make expensive mistakes. If uptil now nobody was able to reproduce your device with only the data in the patent documents, and if you ask the fair price for the e-cat, why would anybody be so stupid to try and copy and make it more expensive and less performant anyway ?

    You leave no room for competition. Premium version and low-cost version will be the same and they will be yours. This is the politics I like the most because of their very sure outcome.

    You write about 20Yr warranty, but does that take into account the natural degeneration of the regulation system? Or do the “regulating electronics” replace with the charges ? Please forgive me if I say strange things.

    Best regards
    Koen Vandewalle

  • Peter heckert

    @Alvaro Rodriguez

    There is a much easier and faster method to test the measurement: Comparison. Use a reference e-cat device that has a powerful heater inside and no nickel and no hydrogen.
    Feed 5kW or 10 kW of electrical power in and measure the steam.
    Besides: “Testo” is not a noname product this is a (german) company that delivers industry measurement devices and that does
    certificated measurement calibration.
    I know this, because our reference DVM that we need for ISO9000 certification, is calibrated by Testo.
    So there is no reason to doubt the measurements.
    But as said: The easiest and fastest method to proof the correctness to any sceptic observer beyound all doubt, or to test the measuring equipment, would be, feed electrical power in and measure the steam.

  • Rick Gresham

    Dr. Rossi,
    Regarding GreenTurbine, you replied this afternoon that you

    “… have to put in series the cats to reach 200 C to make electric power with 33% of efficiency, and we will do this. To reach tis T we need 4 E-Cat in series, we are alreading testing this. In this situation we need constantly the drive, while without series, but only parallel we can go without drive.”

    There is a lot of information, some more and some less accurate, regarding the e-cat being circulated. I believe I’ve read the e-cat has been operated at up to 414C and up to either 15KWth or 35KWth but that the first generation e-cats availalbe to the public will be lower temperature, lower output. Is it safe to assume the publicly available e-cat temperature and output will ramp up fairly quickly as they enter the market in larger numbers? Is similarly safe to assume that e-cats integrated into systems by licensees will operate at higher power levels?

  • eernie1

    Mr. Bill Nichols;
    My theoretical treatment of the creation of the universe only takes it up to the formation and the distribution of the primal energy.In the spirit of
    Occam’s razor,I have kept it as simple as possible by eliminating two concepts of the previous theories that made the creation much more complicated and harder to accept at least for me.At this stage the condensation of the energy into particles has been treated quite well by the physicists who have devoted much time and efforts in the development of theories to explain their formation.They think that one of the first stages involves formation of a basic particle called a Quark which came in a variety of forms.Their present labors are directed towards finding what they call a God particle which is the mother of all the particles.The Quarks then combine into a variety of forms which eventually result in the known particles such as protons electrons and neutrons and which then form what are called atomic nuclei.Then to keep the protons from repelling themselves and destroying the nuclei because of their positive charges,a strong force carried by a mu meson(muon)keeps them together.The nuclei then capture enough electrons to neutralize the positive charges and this creates the stable atom.I have no difficulty accepting their assessment of how this was accomplished.From this description I can conclude that the variety of possible interactions between the different particles and their corresponding electomagnetic nature can make almost any proposed outcome acceptable.I can think of a number of combination of interactions between particles that may explain Rossi’s creation of excess energy through a nuclear phenomenom.We must thank nature for allowing most of the matter to not exist as Plasma here on earth.You would not like to live inside a flourescent light bulb.Investigators are attempting to explain the unusual results of the double slit experiments by the coupled interaction of photons no matter how far separated they may be.Recent papers have been published.Keep up you interest in science.In my old age it has provided me with many hours of enjoyment.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Georgehants:
    I am afraid that this year I will not have holidays. I don’t even have time to sleep enough, actually. I have calculated that I have to increase to 18 hours per day my shift, to be sure to arrive with my 1 MW plant ready by the 20st of September; from 20 Sept throug 10 oct I will use the plant closed doors, by myself, then it will be placed in the factort of the Customer, to be started officially within the end of october, after a further period of operation with closed doors.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear T Hilleshiem:
    Very interesting. Yes, we are studying the Green Turbine tech and it is a candidate. We have understood so far that we have to put in series the cats to reach 200 C to make electric power with 33% of efficiency, and we will do this. To reach tis T we need 4 E-Cat in series, we are alreading testing this. In this situation we need constantly the drive, while without series, but only parallel we can go without drive.
    About your second question, yes it is possible.
    Stay in contact, in end October I wnnt to see you at the 1 MW plant, so we will reason together on what you said.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alvaro Rodriguez,
    I am very sorry to say what follows, but it is clear that you do not know the instrumenmts we used during the test. Do you think that we and all the professors that made the tests are so stupid to have used a probe that works up to 70 Celsius? The Testo Instruments have different kind of probes, and OBVIOUSLY the probes that we used work at the temperatures we measure. You are accusing professors of Physics with enormous experience to measure temperatures with probes that can’t stand those temperatures: something like to accuse a Formula One driver not to be able to drive a taxi.
    In any case, obviously, in October our Customer who has bought the 1 MW plant will make it tested, as I said in a former comment by some of the main Scientists of the world.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Thank you for the warning, but all I am thinking about is to work on my 1 MW plant. I am accustomed to perwonal attacks, of any kind, but all that really counts is that my plants work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Dr. Rossi: Congratulations again. I am sure you have considered the below but I had to write to make sure.

    Security: With the huge dollar impact of your invention you can expect attacks from many fronts. Both physical and psychological.

    Please make sure you know your security officer for both trust and competency and have multiple layers of security.

    Good luck!

  • Sebastian

    I should add that this article was also published in the “science and nature” section in the printed version of the newspaper on July 20th, not just as an online article.

  • Sebastian

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    You might be interested to hear that the first main stream media has pickup up the E-Cat story. I am talking about the “Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung” (FAZ) from Frankfurt, Germany (respected national daily newspaper, circulation of 360000). You can find the article here: http://www.faz.net/artikel/C30950/kalte-fusion-ein-italienisches-energiemaerchen-30468569.html (in German).
    They are rather skeptical about the E-Cat but give it the chance it deserves. Only the first image contains a wrong description, calling the blue box the keeper of the industrial secret.

    All the best to you
    Sebastian

  • Alvaro Rodriguez

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1EnIQkG8no&feature=related
    Plus,the instrument Galantini used to measure the steam is this one ,http://www.greentechtools.com/testo-176-h2-0572-1766-data-logger ,
    and has a range up to 70ºC.
    Please do a proper steam test to show the excess heat is real.I know you have found unwanted resistance,but it is just natural that people want more info before making up their minds.
    Plus,the instrument Galantini used to measure the steam, is this one http://www.greentechtools.com/testo-176-h2-0572-1766-data-logger and doesnt have the range.

    This is what many would be grateful for you to do:

    First you would show your termocoulpes are well calibrated by putting them together in cold and hot water and showing their results are fairly the same.
    Then you would show the temperature of the ecats steam (please in a tube outside of the ecat) is above that of a kettle of boiling water + calibration error of instrument.

    Could the ecat cannot overheat steam due to safety issues reheat it a few º afterwards trough a resistance and measure the power used.

    I think if you face and surpass this layer of inquiry the next
    reporters to knock at your door will be those of Times.

    Thank you,
    Alvaro Rodriguez Cueto

    Thank you.

  • Bill Nichols

    @Eernie1

    Regarding your Cosmology comments, also the phenomena of Rossi, offer replacing the conventional inertial and gravitational framework of Newton, Einstein, Planck, and so on within the prism of the stronger forces of Strong Nuclear and E-M (2 sides of the same thing?).

    These 2 forces are ~38+ orders of magnitude greater than gravitational. Could it be were looking at things through the improper lens? Think in terms of charges, versus assuming our current neutral framework about the cosmos.

    Everything is energy including matter, and most all matter (form of energy) is plasma. “Plasma is a collection of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons, together with the remaining non-ionized or neutral atoms or molecules.” [A. L. Peratt, "Not With a Bang" THE SCIENCES Jan/Feb 1990]

    Could this explain some of peculiarities of the 2 slit experiment of waves or particles?

    Observations are the key, offer they tilt away from a inertial framework. Rossi’s phenomena complements this.

    The more fancy our mathematics gets, the greater the likely were off base from my 35 years experience. Consider Occam’s razor.

    How would your ideas be incorporated through this framework?

    Some thoughts.

    Highest Regards,

    Bill Nichols

  • T Hilleshiem

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I’ve been eagerly following your amazing discovery and anticipation of the October unveiling of your first 1MW E-Cat plant. I want to wish you much success in your E-Cat endeavors. I do have some ideas which I hope are not too crazy… they just seems logical to me.

    I agree that the future will be changed once your E-Cat is in full production and my hope is that you keep the price affordable for us average consumers so we can all reduce our dependence on oil & dirty fuels like coal.
    You said the cost would be $2,000 euro per 1KW = $2,852.00 x 4KW = $11,408 USD (rounded up to 12K for tax & delivery)

    I also hope that your new technology will someday give us a way to power and heat our homes and even have electric power left over to sell back to the grid via net metering.
    1. If I use a battery bank to store excess power do you believe I could power our home using just one 4kW E-Cat?
    If so I guestimate: Your E-Cat $12K system + cost of “Green Turbine” generator*?? (greenturbine.net) + battery bank + installation = $15K?? then factor in any excess power buy back rebate from my local electric grid which I estimate would net me:
    (WI = 12.48 cents per kilowatt hr)
    http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_b.html

    Example:
    <800kW (my monthly average power usage) x 12 months = 9600kW total used ea year
    4kW per hr x 24 x 365 = 35,040 x .95 (Green Turbine efficiency est.*) = 33,288 x $.1248 (WI) = $4,154 yearly income from net metering.
    If you factor in what I’ll also save in free electric power: 9600kW x $.1248 = $1,198 per year savings in electric.
    If it will also heat my hot water & home: $100 average per month x 12 = $1,200 per year savings in gas heating.
    If my guestimate numbers are true… system payback would be less than 2 years which is awesome!
    Total potential bonus to pocket in profit & savings if life warrantee is 20 yrs:
    18 x $ 7,750 = $139,500 USD

    2. Could your E-Cat cooling system be routed through a hot water heater and/or geothermal radiant floor system, if controlled by temperature valves, to help heat the home when needed?
    If so, this would truly bring up the efficiency of your E-Cat & the Green Turbine* to 95% or higher if their number is correct.

    Please add my name to your waiting list of customers for a 4K E-Cat steam generator.

    Warm regards,
    T Hilleshiem

    *I assume the $2,000 euro price doesn’t include a steam generator to produce the electricity which will need to work in the 200C range.

    So far the Green Turbine steam driven electric generator seems like the most efficient and hopefully least expensive to use with your E-Cat steam generator for future micro CHP (combined heat and power) furnace hopefully for every home in the world…

    http://www.greenturbine.eu/en/home.php

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    Are you planning a holiday after October to sit back for a while and enjoy the fun as reality hits science and the media.
    It will be a circus, with every debunker scientist, on the news telling us all how clever they are in this discovery.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tomas Rojewski:
    This is a commercial issue we will deal with from November, but from the numbers we published already you can get an idea.
    Besides, you have not emissions of any kind.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Eernie 1:
    Thyank you for your insight,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

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