Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,546 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Felix:
    Probably.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Felix

    Andrea,
    will you make another publication on researchgate if the test with the direct electricity from plasma will be successful?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Maximilian Nian:
    Thanks for the info.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Maximilian Nian

    National Geographic has published an article on the Ecat !
    Cheers
    Max

  • Andrea Rossi

    C.:
    I do not think the definition of Cold Fusion is correct, because we do not have any fusion. LENR perhaps is proper, or, more simply, Rossi effect, that is what it is in short.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • C.

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Is your effect a form of cold fusion? How do you think it is appropriate to call it:

  • Andrea Rossi

    Humberto Krugel:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Humberto Kruegel

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    I have the feeling that right now you are not pushing on the delivery of plants because you want first to fix all the problems emerged with the first ones you delivered. That would make sense.
    Godspeed,
    H.K.

  • Andrea Rossi

    David:
    We invented it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • David

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    is the control circuit to make directly electricity from the plasma something already off the shelves, or you had to invent it?
    Cheers
    David

  • Andrea Rossi

    CC:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    CC:
    In due time, if the R&D will be successful, yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • CC

    Dr Rossi:
    Will you update the menu of the video
    http://www.ecatskdemo.com
    with a link to the successful production of current directly from the plasma?
    Cheers
    CC

  • Andrea Rossi

    Adolf:
    I am not sure of it, and I am continuing to study all the alternatives selected in the paper
    http://www.researchgate.com/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Adolf

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    reading your excellent paper on Researchgate, I got a question for you: are you sure that ” …the Coulomb repulsion between electrons at a distance of four reduced Compton wavelengths can be balanced by Casimir force in specific geometric configurations” ?
    Adolf

  • Andrea Rossi

    Cher:
    1- no
    2- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Cher

    Dear Andrea,
    Watching http://www.ecatskdemo.com and reading http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    I got the sensation you are using deuterium.
    1- Do you use deuterium in the Ecat SK?
    2- did you make experiments with deuterium instead of protium?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jeannete:
    When it will be worth.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jeannette

    Dear Andrea:
    When will we read the stats of the Ecats ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alice Breen:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alice Breen

    Dr Rossi,
    Can you confirm that the safety certifications you got from SGS and Bureau Veritas are still valid?
    Chers
    Alice

  • Andrea Rossi

    Adam Duwall:
    True. I changed many ideas about the theoretical bases through all the experiments ( thousands ) that I made, but I do not agree that there is a substantial difference between the paper I wrote with Norman Cook and my last paper.
    Anyway only the imbeciles do not change idea when they realize that they are wrong. Besides, during these years I studied very much and I learnt things I did not know before.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Adam Duvall

    Dr Rossi:
    I read all the papers you published on Researchgate, after reading http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions and I noticed you changed position every time about the theoretical bases of the Rossi Effect.
    Can you explain?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Melania Manseau:
    I think it is not opportune until the matter remains strongly controversial. This could make confusion in brains that at that stage need to get profoundly the fundamentals.
    The situation will change when the common use of LENR will make controversies fade.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Melania Manseau

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Do you think LENR could be studied in middle and high school?
    Cheers
    Melania

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    Not anymore audacious, but very interesting.
    I am interested to have a more precise definition of what you write.
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Dear Andrea,

    My less audacious project requires little input from either of us. I’ll need just a few (maybe only two) of your 1 KW soon to be manufactured units.
    Our using your heat generators for a modest heat source in our manufacturing process would certainly draw the attention of our green markets and could be implemented in a very short time. My company has just landed a contract with 2300 stores of the world’s largest and most respected grocery chains. That contract already more than doubles our “Bezos” business and could bring near instant attention from rabid green minded consumers to your devices and more to my uniquely excellent soap as well. And we could be the first soap manufacturer to incorporate your new technology in our manufacturing processes. Of course, your help would be needed to integrate those devices into our system, but I doubt seriously it would take much of your time.
    Is there a more private opportunity for discussing this less audacious :-) project?

    Charlie
    PS: Is that a little less audacious?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    About powering your Cessna, we are far from that. Sorry to disappoint you, but I am afraid that powering your glorious Cessna with my Ecat your familiarity with friendly skies would exponentially improve in surprisingly short time.
    About your other projects ( I hope less audacious ), let me know.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Good Morning Andrea,
    Thought I would give you a shout. I just passed another flight physical, which at only 77 years old, allows me to menace the friendly skies for another two years. Still time for you to figure out how to power my fifty four year old Cessna 172. New business keeps me in my hobbies.

    Charlie
    PS: If you ever have the time, I would love to discuss some other projects.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    Thank you for your insight: say good luck from me to Dr Jim Irby.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Andrea,
    Hope all is well with you. Would love to be more involved with studying your progress, but I’m busy playing aviator. I just got word from Italy that my Zigolo Motor Glider MG-12 is being shipped this week. Looking forward to some sight seeing and soaring in it here in Northern NC. By the way, I just got a note this weekend from my wife’s first cousin, Dr. Jim Irby from MIT fusion research, about his participation in their new experiments and a copy of the MIT News article. He and I have had several discussions about his work and yours. Interesting to have two different points of view to ponder. I’m rooting for and betting on you. Don’t let me down and I’ll share my winnings. :-)
    Charlie Sutherland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jenell Laferriere:
    Thank you for your attention.
    For the Readers: it is linked to http://www.ecat.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jenell Laferriere

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Congratulations for the 6 minutes summary of the Stockholm event.
    Cheers
    JL

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charles T Sutherland:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charles T Sutherland

    Andrea,
    I hate to bother you with silly stuff, but my curiosity has led me in a lots of different directions. This, however, might be interesting to you and very well may give your enterprise a new purpose.

    I have been following solar activity for about 11 years now – just as a hobby. It is now beginning to appear that our sun may be heading into substantially less activity and subsequently we are very likely heading into much cooler times.

    I was introducing a friend to another of my interests (David LaPoint’s theory of primer fields) and stumbled upon some more information that has been added (Part #4) to his series of arguments:
    http://www.ice-age-ahead-iaa.ca/h264/Ice_Age_Startup_45.mp4

    If you are familiar with all of this and have discounted it, I apologize for taking your time.

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Andrea,

    You know I have been following you. You seem to have weathered most of the big storms so far. Patience and perseverance will prevail. Hang in there.

    The big guys in energy know who you are. ABB can build you the best production line, but keep a close eye on them, and you will beat all the big guys.

    Automation and QX are the keys. The big guys are watching us as well. We are world wide and have been #1 on Amazon for 5 years.

    When you are ready, we would love to see how we can incorporate your E-Cats in our production and advertising.

    All the best,

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please find on
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    the comments published today on other posts of this blog.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    Thank you for the information,
    Happy New Year to you and to all our Readers !
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Andrea,

    Here is something that might interest you.

    A very small 16 cylinder sterling engine. This is a crude model, but I thought you might like the idea. I know I do. :-)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nSE3GmUdxoQ

    Happy New Year.

    Charlie Sutherland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    I see what I can do.
    Happy New year!
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Andrea,

    I hope you had a Merry Christmas. Now go make next year’s Christmas all the more Merry.

    Charlie Sutherland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    Nice dream.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Fair enough! Just wondering if your reply is on account of my age or your device. :-)

    Dreaming here:

    Siemens has a 50lb electric aircraft motor good for 160hp. Batteries are heavy and only good for about an hr or so.

    My Cessna has a 6 cylinder Continental O300D. It puts out 145hp at 2400 rpm. It weighs 300lbs and topped off forty gallons of fuel (only enough for about four hours) is another 300 lbs. I can save another 60 some pounds by changing out the old avionics and replace them with a new GPS glass panel with all the sensors and instruments and radios needed for the plane as it is now powered.

    If your 300lb (guessing here) Ecat can run a 200lb Sterling at 2400 rpm and puts out between 125 – 160 hp at the prop, I can paint EXPERIMENTAL on the side of the plane to satisfy the FAA, then you, er, we just might have something. And it will run and run and run and run. I can add 30 lbs of full auto-pilot and avionics for a long long trip.

    Thanks for the dreams anyway…. All in fun,

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    If you will put the E-Cat to fly your plane, I will not fly with you in it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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