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Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,452 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Bob K

    Andrea Rossi, If something should delay the arrival or setup of the 1MW plant, would it still be possible to demonstrate a single 27KW Fat Cat, (with all tests and independent professional witnesses) at the preplanned end of October date?

    Thank you for your time, Bob

  • GG Khalsa

    Dr Mr Rossi I want to congratulate you on your progress and I will continue to follow your endeavors in anticipation of great things.

    I wonder if you have given any thought to public perception and the effect it can have. As you know you have, and will continue to have, people around that want to see you fail. Some of whom may have practice in using public opinion to coerce government regulatory agencies to do their work for them. I think it therefore advantageous to take a little time to rehearse the story that you wish to sell to the public.

    You may be a little vulnerable on the safety issue associated with a new energy source and may want to consider taking a proactive approach and frame discussions about the E-cat in a way that addresses those issues before they come up.

    I would consider not using the word nuclear at all but change that word in LENR to nucleus. I would also consider comparing the E-cat in simple terms to a water heater and discuss redundant safety precautions; like a water heater has a valve that will release if the pressure is too great, maybe you also have a gauge that cuts off the heating element inside the machine and shuts it down if there is a problem. Certainly it is a good idea not to mention a self destruct in case any one tries to steal the secret. I am sure there are other considerations but you see where I am going with this.

    Something to remember is the general public often reacts based on their fears. Most companies have people trained in public relations to handle a lot of this. Wishing the best of luck.

    GG Khalsa

  • Simon Knight

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Taking a look at the temperature registration curve from the September 7 demo you notice that it can be divided into five phases:

    1. increase during ramp up of heating power
    2. increase to 100C
    3. increase to 133C
    4. decrease to 120C
    5. quick decrease to 100C

    During phases 2, 3 and 4 the curve is fairly linear, slightly convex. This makes one wonder, at what time does the Nickel – Hydrogen reaction kick in? If we compare to one of the small E-Cat demos a nick in the temperature curve was clearly visible at around 60C, and this was taken as a sign that E-Cat was producing excess power.

    Kind regards, Simon

  • Andrea Rossi

    Deare H. Hansson:
    Sure, you are right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wladimir Guglinski:
    True: your paper will be published in the next days, our informatic is making the format.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Norman:
    Thank you, useful info.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob Norman

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    In looking for Lead replacements I found this company. Look at the THA product, up to 18.5 g/cc (better than lead). They also have Boron material
    http://www.radiationshieldingsolutions.com/shielding_solutions_xray_gamma_ray_shielding_tungsten_heavy_alloy.html
    I hope this helps. I am confused why you need Boron as it shields Neutrons, I thought CF only created gamma.

    Best Regards
    Bob

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Svein Utne:
    Thanks for the info!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michael K:
    The COP will remain the same. We have still to assess the commercial issues. Will do in November.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    In my Quantum Ring Theory it’s proposed a new nuclear model in which a central 2He4 is surrounded by deuterons which form hexagonal floors.
    The first nucleus with a complete hexagonal floor is the oxygen 8O16, with 6 nucleons 1H2 surrounding the central 2He4 (the 6 nucleons 1H2 form a structure similar to that of the benzene molecule).

    In a paper published in June 2011 by Phys. Rev. Lett. , the authors for the first time demosntrated by calculations that the nucleus 8O16 can have a stabilized linear chain configuration.
    Linear Chain Structure of Four-α Clusters in 16.O
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 112501 (2011) [4 pages]
    http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v107/i11/e112501

    So, we realize that the structure of 8O16 according to my QRT is corroborated by their calculations, because my model is similar to a linear chain configuration (where the six nucleons 1H2 form a closed linear chain about the central 2He4, similar to the benzene).

    The linear structure seems to be paradoxial, since 8O16 has null electric quadrupole momentum, and such nuclear property requires a spherical shape of the nucleus.
    In the book Quantum Ring Theory published in 2006 by Bäuu Press it is shown why such linear structure of 8O16 has null electric quadrupole momentum.

    In the end of present September the Journal of Nuclear Physics will publish my paper How repulsive gravity contributes for cold fusion occurrence in Rossi-Focardi experiment, where the Ni-H cold fusion reaction is analyzed by taking in consideration my new nuclear model.

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Watched the NY Teknik Video regarding the E-Cat container, very interesting.

    Note: When you ship that container to USA (By ship or air) you needs to secure those 52 individual E-cats separately. It appeared that they was just laying on the shelfs and not bolted.

  • Joseph Fine

    The German firm Siemens AG is getting out of the Nuclear business. Perhaps, one day, they may join up with Dr. Rossi and, with other companies, help develop energy catalyzer technology or Energie Katalysatortechnik.

    http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-09-18/siemens-ends-nuclear-business-as-germany-pulls-atomic-power-plug.html

    PS. The Japanese will want to be involved for obvious, but tragic, reasons.

  • Michael K.

    Dear Mr.Andrea Rossi
    I know that there are some skeptical point of view about the cold fusion heat unit, (it made about many invention and it’s inciting of course), but many people think the reactor is a success. I have some questions about the unit : if there is real a input/output ratio of 400W/12400W for the commercial variant of the reactor; if the reactor work in houses like central heating unit; in what output domains will be made the reactors? Would you like to commercialize in Eastern Europe, maybe will make a manufacturing unit in Italy? If I could help any kind, I make with pleasure.
    Best regards,
    Michael K.

  • Svein Utne

    Dear Rossi,
    Tocircle Industries in Norway might have what you are looking for. They can produce electricity from low temperature steam at a low cost and low maintains cost with a new simple system. They have from 4 KW till 400 KW systems.
    From their webpage:
    Tocircle’s unique geometric principle will greatly influence development in the pump, compressor, turbine and engine industries. The technology could lead to significant changes in numerous sectors across the world.

    The Norwegian developed technology possesses an enormous potential. It distinguishes itself from competing solutions by offering true multiphase capabilities and scalability. This patented pump/turbine/engine technology has a potential to replace existing technologies, solve unsolved challenges, and become a substantial contributor to technological and environmental innovations.

    Tocircle has begun its commercial phase by delivering solutions for electricity production. This is the first step in a broad, commercial ramp-up with an international outreach, joining hands with frontline partners across Cleantech and Oil & Gas industries.
    http://www.tocircle.com/english/index.htm
    I hope this will be of interest to you.
    Regards
    Svein Utne

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alexey M.:
    Thank you for the info.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H.Hansson:
    I have no idea.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paolo R. Ravenna:
    Please contact us in November for commercial issues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • paolo r. ravenna

    BUONGIORNO DOTT. ROSSI. LA SEGUO DA UN PO’ DI TEMPO CON AMMIRAZIONE. SONO NEL CAMPO COMMERCIALE E MEDICALE. MI INTERESSA IL SUO PRODOTTO E SAREI ONORATO DI POTERLO COMMERCIALIZZARE, NELLA FORMA PIU’ OPPORTUNA CHE LEI CREDE. SE MI PUO’ CONTATTARE, DESIDEREREI INCONTRARLA A BOLOGNA, QUANDO E DOVE LEI CREDE. CORDIALI SALUTI. PAOLO R.

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    How many hits monthly does this website have??

  • Alexey M.

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I’ve found compact solution for production electric energy:

    10kW-200kW advanced rankine engine Harry Schoell’s -

    http://www.cyclonepower.com

    1kW-3kW thermoacoustic stirling engine –

    http://www.etalim.com

  • Italo

    @ Alberto DL

    Complimenti per la vostra lungimiranza. Siete credo i primi amministratori pubblici che si muovono per l’E-Cat.
    A tutt’oggi c’è stato un assordante e colpevole silenzio da parte di politici e mass-media.
    Da Novembre dovranno mettersi in fila….

    Italo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Alberto DL:
    La ringrazio sentitamente per la fiducia. Mi contatti in Novembre, quando inizieremo ad affrontare le questoni commerciali.
    Cordiali saluti,
    A.R.

  • Alberto DL

    Gli amministratori del comune di Sappada (piccolo centro turistico delle Dolomiti Bellunesi) stanno seguendo l’evoluzione dell’E-CAT da alcuni mesi. Vogliamo esprimerLe tutta la nostra ammirazione per la determinazione con cui sta portando avanti l’ambizioso progetto. Ci auguriamo e Le auguriamo che nonostante le difficoltà che sta affrontando e dovrà affrontare i risultati possano premiare la sua impresa.
    Vorremo candidarci da subito ad ospitare sul ns. territorio un E-CAT per la produzione di calore per teleriscaldamento. (abbiamo già individuato l’area di installazione). Può darmi un riferimento per informazioni sulla commercializzazione dell’ E-CAT e lo sviluppo del progetto nel ns. paese?
    Grazie per la risposta.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Daniel De Caluwè:
    Thank you for your kind encouragement,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Henk:
    Thank you for the info.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Although Mr. Krivit was very sceptical, I found the video’s of your interview very interesting. On it, you made a very good demonstration and explanation of the small E-cats, and I agree with the calculations you did (concerning the energy-balance). I also did the calculations and found that the small E-cat produced about 98.4 kWh (= 354240 kJ = 4.1 kW during 24h) per gram H2 (the amount the small E-cat consumes in 1 day), and this is 2498.2 times the energy we get if we just would burn the H2 (Ho of H2 = 141.8 kJ per gram H2). And for your information: Also Dr. Edmund Storms did a good review of this.

    So, although Mr. Krivit was sceptical, for me, your demonstration and explanation of the small E-cat was very convincing.

    So I wish you a lot of succes with the bigger ones and with the 1 MW plant.

    Kind Regards,

    Ir. Daniel De Caluwé, Belgium.

  • Henk

    Andrea,

    I’ve found another possible alternative for shielding.

    See http://ecomass.com/

    These are high density plastics, which can be mold in any shape I understand. On their site is much info and they also are working in the energy sector. They have many products to provide and they are on the market with these products.

    But the other product sound more interesting (lower weight, they claim it’s a very green product as well) but I don’t know this product is already in production and available.

    regards,
    Henk

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alessandro Casali:
    I think it will be done in October.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Henk:
    Yes, we do. Thanks for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivan,
    Thank you, of course, for your generosity, but we are going through with our own means. I want not to play foot-ball with the bones of the others.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Simon Knight:
    We are studying the issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Piers D

    @ Stephan (Steverino)

    Your post reminded me of a the Bloom Energy launch. The product launch videos are available @ http://www.bloomenergy.com/newsroom/videos

    I would urge all involved with Leonardo Corporation to watch and learn from the Bloom Energy launch in preparation for the E-Cat inauguration.

  • Simon Knight

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Before the 1MW plant is taken into operation would it be necessary to have the system certified according to the ASME Pressure Vessel Code?

    Kind regards, Simon

  • Francesco Bandini

    Buongiorno Dott. Rossi,
    Lei conosce Linus Torvalds? è l’inventore di linux, il sistema operativo open source che ha rivoluzionato un ormai antico modello per il quale chi inventa, scopre o trova non condivide ma vende. Oggi lei, se le sue ricerche come tutto il mondo si augura porteranno risultati concreti, puo’ percorrere la stessa strada del sig. Torvalds condividendo con la comunità scientifica questa scoperta mettendosi nelle condizioni di beneficiare di sicuri finanziamenti immediati, protezione e appoggi internazionali super partes.
    Probabilmente non è ancora il tempo di condividere ma di sperimentare e un’esposizione mediatica troppo invadente potrebbe non essere d’aiuto ma ci pensi su a questa opportunità per lei e per tutti.
    In bocca al lupo

    Francesco B.

  • Ivan

    Mr. Rossi

    It concerns me that you are financially stressed. I can’t help financially, and you haven’t asked, but I would volunteer my time if needed. I am an Electronic Technician with 30 years experience in medical and scientific equipment repair. I could offer a week or two of free labor and would cover my own expenses to anywhere in the US.

    I am not a snake, but I really want you to succeed. I can provide referances if needed.

    Ivan Idso

  • Henk

    Hello Mr. Rossi,

    Do you know the characteristics of the radiation? How thick has the lead shield have to be? It will likely be an important issue.

    I think having to use a thick lead shield is a disadvantage. I did some searching on internet and found an alternative to lead.

    See http://www.canlaser.com/en/GammaRay.aspx

    If this technology works, it can be an important solution for many radiation problems. It can possibly be interesting for the E-cat.

    Henk

  • Alessandro Casali

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Thanks for replying all of my questions.

    the new test planned with Upsalla University is a great news, do you think it will be done by the end of September?

    Warm Regards,

    ac.

  • [...] Perhaps to put some of these issues to rest, Andrea Rossi has said that there will soon be another test conducted at the University of Uppsala, in Sweden. About this test Rossi states: [...]

  • Stephan (Steverino)

    Andrea Rossi,

    As one who lives in the Bay Area of San Francisco, I will not be surprised to learn that your US customer is none other than the notable Google founders team, who are avid supporters of innovative clean energy technologies, i.e., Bloom Energy, which they use to support power requirements for massive server farms on campus.

    I have also been involved in clean energy technolog R&D since 1976, when I began development of the Chevy Volt framework technology (later released in 2010), though at that time the world was seriously addicted to ICE and V-8s, so there was little funding available to my effort to pursue it; today I am all but certain my recently devised clean energy storage design will work well in new electric/e-Cat powered vehicles. I also suspect that this propulsion schema will be much more robust and reliable than Lithium-ion energy storage as used by Tesla Motors and others these days, particularly when my design storage will allow a full, “flash charge” on the fly when used with your technology, provided your technology succeeds as well as I suspect it will. If so, then it is likely the size of the power plant needed for a 400h.p. all electric vehicle with unlimited driving range for meer pennies will be considerably smaller and lighter than the Tesla Roadster, far exceding its performance in a full-size body, if desired. Musk is going to space anyway…so, good luck to him…

    Similar application of your technology with my storage design (in stealth mode too) may also provide for low cost energy (electricity) generation for any location, domestic, industrial, business or grid and likely at a profit to domestic customers. Unfortunately, there will be many economies, industries, companies and people who will be temoporarily displaced with the introduction of your technology as well as my own, though I also have the means of providing tremendous security and protection from anyone with ill intent with their nefarious acts if they were to threaten your/our mutual endeavors. In fact, it is good that you are pioneering your efforts with the e-Cat so that I can get a good look at exactly how Big Oil/Energy will reform themselves into something more meaningful. However, I suspect when they discover that removing fluids from the Earth’s crust causes earthquakes and aquifer contamination, they may ban oil and gas drilling forever, especially considering the promise your technology offers to replace them…yahoo! Uh-oh…but then how will we get plastics? Oh yeah…cornstarch and soybeans…I forget…hmmm

    Cheers and see you at Google next month!

    Steverino

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alessandro Casali:
    1- I prefer not to give this info, for security reasons
    2- multiple
    3- see 1
    4- yes
    5- longer
    6- will need drive time to time
    7- everything upgrades in time
    8- I ddid NOT say that we are already working, I said the first steps have been made: signed the contract and some other thing. The proper R&D with the University of Bologna did not start yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Georgehants:
    Yes, of course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    A question put on Independent E-CAT News, could you answer please.

    Peter Roe
    September 16, 2011 – 9:50 am | Permalink

    I hope he means the dT of total electrical input vs. heat output at the radiator as calculated from accurate water flow rate and I/O temperature readings. The duration of such a test will also need to exceed any possible thermal storage or chemical energy input mechanism if it is to be definitive.

  • Greven Grevesson

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I am very happy to read your response to Pietro F below!
    When do you believe you can have these tests up and running? If you need money I believe it is no problem to get people to invest in this once the machine is verified. Me myself would without any doubt invest in your device once the scientists at the university of Uppsala has verified that it works as stated. You have to understand that people still are sceptic as there has been many scams around “free energy devices” in recent years. Even so – I believe you are truthful, but I would not invest until external scientists has verified it.

    BR
    Greven

  • insight

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I know you have no time now to think to possible uses of the E-Cat other than the soon coming 1MW plant, but you can store ideas.
    I think that the lack of reactivity in modulating power output would not be a problem for E-Cat cars. It is enough to put the electric version of E-Cat you are working on, inside an electric car, like many are already made and available (also old cars can be refurbished). Just the battery has to be small (thus cheap) so to just guarantee to save power when in excess and provide it when needed. It is likely that also the driver must modulate the E-Cat power according to his/her driving style or guess of imminent power needs and this could make the E-Cat car thrilling to drive. Many get pleasure from driving with technical consciousness.

  • georgehants

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Sorry to hear about your financial problems but wonderful that you are managing to keep to your timetable.
    Remember that history shows that it is never easy for scientists to introduce new science, but all the more satisfying when it succeeds.

  • Alessandro Casali

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    glad to see your Plant in the flash, many congratulations!

    I didn’t know you were assembling the plant in Bologna, i thought it was in US? did you manufacture also the cores in Italy or have you shipped them trom US?

    The 27MW e-cats are single core or do they have multiple cores?

    Did you already ship the plant to US?

    I was surprised by the weight (80kg) of the latest e-cats, did you increase the thickness of the lead shield?

    Mats Lewan says self sustained mode can last up to 30 min and then needs some 10 mins of input power to keep reaction going, is it exactly like that or can it last any longer?

    Do you think future generations of e-cat will be able to run always in self sustained mode or do you think they will always need input energy from time to time?

    If non always in self sustained mode, do you think future e-cats will reach a better balance than 1-6? if yes what do you think could be the maximum balance?

    Since you recently stated UNIBO is already working on e-cat R&D, does that mean that you have already provided them with an e-cat?

    Thanks for your patience in reading my lot of questions.

    Warm Regards,

    ac.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F:
    Yes we have very big financial problems, because I have spent on this all the money I had, and sold all I had, also because the Customer we counted on could not maintain his financial engagements and this has left the ship in the middle of the ocean without oil for the engine. But we are going through, the 1 MW plant will be ready for the end of October for the test anyway, we are close.
    Yes, we will organize e new very important test in Uppsala, and this time we will make the calorimetric measurements in a new way, suggested by the Professors: the steam circuit will be a closed circuit with a condenser and will exchange heat with a flow of liquid water: basically, we will have a primary circuit of the E-Cat and a secondary circuit through a radiator, and the energy will be calculated not from the delta T of the input/output of the reactor, but from the delta T of the secondary, which will exchange the heat by means of a heat exchanger. Of course the calculation of the energy produced will be in our disadvantage, because the heat exchange system has not a 100% efficiency, but I can accept it, because our energy gain is very high. The operation will be made also with self sustaining mode. We are already making this test in our factory, and the results of the energy gain are very close to the measurements we made in past. I am very satisfied.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enzo De Angelis:
    1- for commercial issues, please contact me in November
    2- the patent is pending, I do not know if the start up of the 1 MW plant will help it
    3- We received thousands of requests to attend to the test of the 1 MW plant, but at this point, for obvious safety and security reasons, will attend only the Scientists involved in the test (about a tenth of persons) and the Scientific Journalists invited (very few, for safety and secutity reasons: also from this side we received hundreds of requests, and it is very embarassing to make a choice, so have been invited only few very high level, who will pass on what thay will get). Eventually, we will organize visits for small groups per time.
    4- I think we will be ready for electric power in one, maximum 2 years
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Enzo de Angelis

    Caro dott. Rossi,
    Continuo a seguire la storia dell’E-Cat fin dalla dimostrazione di gennaio 2011 e sono interessato a una qualsiasi attività commerciale ad esso relativa, compatibilmente con le mie potenzialità tecniche (sono diplomato con la specializzazione in energia nucleare) ed economiche in particolar modo in prospettiva futura.
    La cosa che però mi sta più a cuore è lo sviluppo teorico scientifico della sua scoperta, cosa che potrà avvenire molto rapidamente solo se il segreto industriale che ne è alla base sarà rivelato alla comunità scientifica mondiale.
    Le chiedo pertanto:
    La presentazione della sua centrale da 1 Mw potrà facilitare la concessione del brevetto internazionale?
    Non sarebbe possibile per lei concordare con le autorità preposte la concessione del brevetto contestualmente alla rivelazione del segreto industriale?
    Ho inoltre alcune domande di carattere più generale da farle:
    Chi sarà invitato alla presentazione della centrale da 1 Mw?
    A quanto la prima dimostrazione di una centrale multi Mw con produzione di calore ed energia elettrica?
    Come mai i media mondiali ancora colpevolmente tacciono sulla sua scoperta?
    Vi è stato per l’E-Cat un interessamento dei politici italiani o di altri stati mondiali? e se sì quali?
    Infine voglio ringraziarla dal più profondo del cuore per il bene che la sua scoperta farà all’umanità.
    Cordiali saluti,
    Enzo de Angelis

  • Pietro F.

    sig. Rossi
    Sono mesi che la seguo, ho la sensazione che i problemi finanziari e tecnici stiamo aumentando considerevolmente. L’ecat ha sicuramente bisogno di acquisire maggior credibilità sul mercato, perché non organizzare un test in autosostentamento che duri qualche ora prima della prova da 1mw?

    Coraggio

    Pietro F.

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