Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,503 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • brubaker

    Hello Ing. Rossi,

    How fast could your company produce another 1 MW container plant? And how much would it cost? I am trying for several months to find enough people that also want to buy one like me. A read somewhere that you are planning with ~500 Euro per KW. So, I estimate that 500,000 Euros could be the price. If so, please prepare for the first 1 MW E-Cat for Germany in Rossi-Follower hands.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greg:
    What’s wrong?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Greg

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I’m CONCERNED that journal-of-nuclear-physics.com has been hacked by third parties attempting a scam. I don’t see any other reasonable explanation. You may wish to investigate the following comment entries:

    Andrea Rossi
    October 10th, 2011 at 4:30 PM
    Dear John Michell:
    Stay ready…and thank you a lot.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    .
    .
    .
    John M ichell
    October 10th, 2011 at 3:17 PM
    Congratulations on your great work with the E-Cat. I agree absolutely that it is best to avoid publicity at the moment.
    I am the author of the book “Rossi’s eCat” about the history, development and significance for the world of this momentous invension.
    The book came out this week (http://www/xecnet.com/publish.htm).
    In the spirit of enabling the E-Cat to be spread amongst the people, I have started an online initiative, fully described in the book, to bring together a global community of private customers for the device – allowing the introduction of a new currency unit based on E-Cat energy. See http://www.planetpay.com

    Very best of luck with the important matters!

    Greg

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dave,
    We will study your suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jessica Fulton:
    Ampenergo, our American commercial licensee, is working on the issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jessica Fulton

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    In regards to blocking delivery of the 1 MW power plant to the U.S., I was wondering if you are still in negotiation with the American company or if you are looking for a new partner to buy the power plant.

    Thank you for your time,

    Jessica

  • Dave

    Mr Rossi, as I see it you could compare the ECAT to a computer. The mechanical construction of the devise is the hardware, which could be manufactured under licence. The catalysis and any other proprietary components are like the software, and could be manufactured by you. You could then issue the unit once you have been paid for the Licence. The customer could then apply for a re-charge unit every six months and pay the licence fee plus installation charge. This way the ECat’s can be made in the country where they will be used. This way the cost will better reflect the construction costs of each country, and would introduce competition to drive down the price. You could control the design/manufacture quality through licencing, and you can retain control of your Intellectual property. You could call your company Ecatsoft.

    Best Regard
    Dave Dunlop

  • Hi,
    A new Video from the test i available on: ecat.com

  • J. Allard

    To: John Michell

    Mr. Michell I wanted to inform you that the internet link to the book does not work.

    Also could you give a more detailed description of what you mean by a new currency unit?

    with regards,

    J.Allard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Michell:
    Stay ready…and thank you a lot.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin Fallon:
    Thanks for your info. Stay in touch, because maybe I will need help to manufacture in outsourching the parts out of the core.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enzo Amato:
    Thank you!
    Andrea Rossi

  • Enzo Amato

    Caro Ing. Rossi,

    dopo aver letto diversi blog in questi giorni, noto che i serpenti e i clown cominciano a diventare nervosi. Si sentono delle teorie assolutamente ridicole (senza necessità di fare alcun calcolo) su come lei sia riuscito a produrre l’energia con l’e-cat (batterie agli ioni di litio addirittura!). Sembra che lo considerano come una sorta di James Bond con i suoi aggeggi tecnologici degli anni 70. Per quanto mi riguarda i miei (sani) dubbi sono scomparsi e le auguro di riuscire a perseverare con tenacia nel suo lavoro.
    Tenterò di interessare qualche giornale/rivista qui in Germania sull’e-cat tramite qualche conoscente. Vedremo se il mainstream si sveglia un attimo.

    Saluti
    Enzo Amato

  • Martin Fallon

    Mr Rossi, Your invention needs to make a economic impact straight away for people to move away from kerosene type boilers, if your price will not be attractive for people to purchase immeditley you could be left in financial ruin,and dont forget all the oil companies need to do is lower there price per barrel to keep you out, why dont you tender your invention for each country to manufactuer your product and promote it at the same time therefore cutting down on transportation costs, just place a seriel number on each unit build up a data base for warrinty and then after 2 to 3 years sub-contract the services out therefore at all times you will have control over all of your units and then i am pretty sure you will have a E-CAT II on the market by then plus a motor to attach to the e-cat for applying electricity to a household as well. I know of one company that has 3 manufacturing facilities that can kick start your operation for one part of europe, you need help to get this of the ground mail me if you want the details. by the way well done

  • Congratulations on your great work with the E-Cat. I agree absolutely that it is best to avoid publicity at the moment.
    I am the author of the book “Rossi’s eCat” about the history, development and significance for the world of this momentous invension.
    The book came out this week (http://www/xecnet.com/publish.htm).
    In the spirit of enabling the E-Cat to be spread amongst the people, I have started an online initiative, fully described in the book, to bring together a global community of private customers for the device – allowing the introduction of a new currency unit based on E-Cat energy. See http://www.planetpay.com

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Norman:
    The last thing I am searching now is publicity. At the Oct 6 test we didn’t invite the mainstream media, and probably the less we will do it on the 28th.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Preoccuparsi del riscaldamento del pianeta utilizzando una fonte che non produce gas serra,allo stato attuale mi sembra una preoccupazione inutile.Certo le tecnologie fotovoltaiche sono suscettibili di enormi sviluppi e penso che la ricerca non vada abbandonata e le fonti vengano integrate ma,oggi,queste tecnologie non sono in grado di fornire abbastanza potenza per risolvere il problema più urgente,il riscaldamento serra,il freddo e la fame.Che l’ e cat funzioni e abbia ampia diffusione,è l’ultimo dei miei problemi.
    Saluti.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claud:
    Any idea to abate the price will be welcome. It is a matter of economy scale. I am studying all the ways to put the E-Cat at the lower possible price.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob Norman

    Dear Mr. Rossi
    Congratulations on your test, I view it as important as the right brothers first flight. I look forward to the 28th. I hope you are able to get Main stream media involved so your breakthrough will go viral around the world. Look to get as much publicity as you can.

  • Hamdi Ucar

    I guess…Even the design and development notes of the e-cat will be publicly available in full extent, including secrets, it will make two years or more for some party to even to obtain some useable heat from a replication…It is important to (let) science to follow this breakthrough.

    Thanks
    Hamdi Ucar

  • Albert Ellul

    Dear Ing. Rossi, many thanks for the reply and more so for the humouristic style. So, as you say, the cost of the ‘fuel’ is negligible. Wish you all the success you merit. You success will be for our own benefit, for humanity because we need cheap energy. Energy has been hijacked by the big corrupt political machinery, causing death and misery to millions of people around he world who have been deprived of cheap energy\cheap food\jobs etc all due to the crazy politics of taxing carbon.
    Your e-cat will undo all this corruption.

  • Claud

    Dear Andrea Rossi, you recently raised the problem of selling a big quantity of e-cat units to mantain an affordable selling price and vice-versa. The forecast of $500 per Kw seems to exceed the market expectations for what concerns home heating systems (not only the sanitary hot water). A 100 mq house request about 20.000 kcal to be heated in winter. This corresponds to a boiler of about 24 Kw power. Actually the price of such a traditional boiler ranges from $1.500 to $3.000 (obviously excluded fuel/gas consumption). There are various different strategies to face this problem but the commercial start-up must be very fine-tuned to avoid negative feed-backs.
    Happy to collaborate on this issue.
    My best wishes and gratitude for what you’re doing
    C.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Albert Ellul:
    The charge replacement will be a matter of some tenth of euros. We will have to economize the manpower to do it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Albert Ellul

    Dear Ing. Rossi, the new fire has been ignited and we thank you for it. The 1 MWatt plant will further solidify your achievement. Permit me one question regarding your plans for a popular 10Kwatt heater that you are planning to cost €500 per kwatt installed power, hence the 10Kw heater would cost €5000 approximately. This is a fantastic aim. However, IMHO, there is still one economic unknown, the cost of replacing the e-cat core every six months. Do you have an approximate cost?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    Sorry, this is a confidential info.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gent. Michele:
    Mi permetto di non essere d’accordo con Lei. Tutte le fonti energetiche si integreranno. Tutte, ripeto, tutte saranno indispensabili.
    I fatti lo dimostreranno.
    Cordiali saluti,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Don Witcher:
    The test will be made on the 28th of October. I will give details within a week.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • One-of-the-99%,

    Many of the users of Mr. Rossi’s forum, as I believe Mr. Rossi himself is, are pragmatists. Regardless of theory, opinion, current science, or even who gets elected as president of the U.S. in 2012, when the E-Cat satisfies its customer, Mr. Rossi should become one of the “overpaid” CEOs that you are referring to. If Mr. Obama’s proposed tax plan is in place when Mr. Rossi becomes wealthier than Bill Gates, when OPEC and oil companies take a back seat to the “new fire”, do you advocate that Mr. Rossi then should be forced to turn over that wealth? I can just imagine the protesters of 2031, staging an “Occupy Rossi Street” rally. just sayin’…

  • David Roberson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I think that you are optimizing your ECAT device very well. I wonder when we will begin to hear the skeptics suggest that they may have been in error. Some of them might never admit their ignorance.

    May I make a minor suggestion concerning your design? This suggestion is based upon earlier discussions where you confirmed that the energy released is in the form of high energy photons. These photons are then converted into heat energy within the lead shielding and the coolant.

    You have suggested that the reaction core must be subjected to a high temperature in order to release the photons in the LENR process. Earlier I mentioned that it would be interesting for you to place an insulator of a well defined nature between the reaction chamber and the energy heat conversion region.

    The concept occurred to me that the insulator might consist partially or totally of an air space of, as example, .5 cm. The heating device to activate the nickel-hydrogen mixture of course needs to be on the chamber side in good thermal contact with the core. With this configuration, a much more modest amount of heat energy would be required in order to heat the reaction chamber up to operation temperature as most of the heat is confined by the insulation capacity of the air. I would suspect that the time required to reach the desired temperature would be reduced greatly as well.

    Now, mention was made of a thermostatic device to help control core temperature. With the above configuration, this can be achieved extremely well. Consider a valve or thermostat that allows a liquid coolant spray passing through the air space to be subjected to the inner active surface. The flash vaporization of the coolant would offer very effective and fast cooling. A check valve of some type could then release the vapor back into the main coolant region of the ECAT. I further envision the placement of passages within the lead shield to direct the coolant for spray all around the inner package.

    Another advantage of using the liquid to vapor flash transition would be the ability to immediately cool down the reaction chambers and stop the energy generation process when required.

    Forgive me for taking up so much of the space within your blog and your precious time reading this. You suggested that your reader should submit ideas for the design of the next version of the ECAT and I am attempting to make my contribution.

    Thank you and God bless you,

    D.R.

  • Don Witcher

    Mr Rossi

    Congratulations on what I and most objective observers consider a very successful demonstration for its purpose. Moving on to the upcoming one megawatt plant now I have a question.

    Disposal of a few kilowatt hours of waste energy in an urban environment is a trivial problem and we all do it everyday. Disposal of a few megawatts of concentrated waste energy in an urban environment starts to become a non trivial problem. Can you tell us at this point what your plans are for use/disposal of the output energy of the one megawatt plant when you test and demonstrate it at the end of the month.

    Regards and thank you

    Don Witcher

  • michele

    Egregio dott. Rossi,
    nonostante gli scettici e i forti interessi contrastanti al suo progetto io sono convinto che la sua reazione nucleare funzioni, purtroppo.
    Dico purtroppo perché il costo di produzione energetico così basso rivoluzionerà il mondo come lo conosciamo ora, e gli investimenti sul risparmio energetico o l’utilizzo di rinnovabili non saranno più interessanti.
    Quello che ha ottenuto non è molto lontano dalla reazione che avviene nelle stelle, volendo effettuare un bilancio energetico, noi stiamo generando energia “dal nulla”. Sostanzialmente ogni suo E-cat è paragonabile ad una piccola stella, cosa succederà quando la sua tecnologia verrà utilizzata in larga scala? Trasformeremo il pianeta in una stella. Non converrà più puntare al risparmio energetico e quindi il pianeta tenderà a scaldarsi.
    Al momento comunque siamo legati ancora alle fonti fossili e penso che la sua invenzione ci libererà da questo,perciò gliene sono infinitamente grato, ma non dobbiamo dimenticare che questa sua preziosa energia ci servirà solo per raggiungere un equilibrio energetico tra gli scambi sole-terra pari a zero. Questo sarà l’unico modo per evitare il surriscaldamento globale. Nell’attesa e nella speranza che si voglia comunque continuare sulla strada dell’efficienza e risparmio energetico, mi metto a sua disposizione se necessitasse di assistenza. Spero che la mia società possa presto avvalersi del suo reattore per la realizzazione di impianti industriali (sia riscaldamento che raffreddamento con ciclo ad assorbimento), sarà nostra cura utilizzare tutti gli accorgimenti del caso affinché non venga comunque sprecata energia solo perché economica.
    Attendiamo sviluppi futuri e speriamo di essere tra i primi a poter utilizzare la sua invenzione in italia. Mi contatti personalmente se lo ritiene opportuno.
    Ringrazio
    Cordiali Saluti
    Michele P.
    Gisacom

  • FrancescoToro

    Dear Ing Rossi good morning.
    Only a question: does the so-called generator of frequencies to wide band, that you have turned on during the test, have a functional and essential importance or only a function “disturber” for possible unauthorized surveys of the ghost of issue of the E-Cat?

  • Salvatore Valvo

    Caro Ing. Rossi,
    Le scrivo in italiano perchè sono orgoglioso che una invenzione così fondamentale sia il frutto del genio di un italiano.
    Mi unisco a coloro che ritengono che la data del 6/10/2011 passerà alla Storia, e le formulo i migliori auguri di ogni successo.
    Leggendo vari commenti, mi è sembrato di capire che sono insorti problemi con l’ investitore americano, se ciò fosse vero lanci
    l’ idea di una raccolta fondi privata. Penso che tanti italiani sarebbero disposti ad investire su questo progetto. In un momento
    così difficile per l’ Italia, questa sarebbe la risposta migliore ai tanti “declinisti”: mostrare che è sempre faro di progresso.
    Aspettando con fiducia le tappe successive di questa enorme impresa, ho messo da parte una bottiglia di spumante da stappare,e sono
    certo che avverrà presto, quando la Sua scoperta sarà accettata, senza se e senza ma, dalla comunità scientifica internazionale.
    Un caro saluto.
    Salvatore Valvo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo:
    In part yes, but not only.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chris Beall:
    1- only one reactor has been inserted in the wafer
    2- Confidential
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Peter Heckert

    @Peter,

    I am building electronic devices.
    When these are ready they must undergo thermal shock tests, vibration tests, tests of functionality, electromagnetic compatibility (they are exposed to electromagnetic interferences and electrostatic 5000V impulses). I am used to do this even with my own creations, because I know it is better to find problems myself than let others find them.
    This all is not done to destroy them, but to harden them and to fulfill laws and to verify or improve them.
    It is better not to see each technical question as a hostile attempt.
    The only thing of interest (I think this is also Mr. Rossis interest) is the truth and understanding.

    Kind regards,

    Peter

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hank Mills,
    Good idea.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear K. Dobrolecki:
    Casey, you are right!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter Heckert:
    Good question.
    The primary circuit flow rate has been 15 kg/h of water.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Peter

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I find it very amusing how much energy some people are willing to put in to find weaknesses with your device. I think you should be lucky that they are not investing the same amount of time to try to replicate your invention :-)

    Thank you again for the brilliant test and hope to see you in Sweden next year for your Nobel price(s)!

    Best regards,

    Peter

  • Peter Heckert

    Mr. Rossi,

    Could you tell the primary flow rate of the peristaltic pump?
    Unfortunately this was not documented.
    From this we could get an optimistic upper limit for the energy generated, if we assume all water was vaporized.

    kind regards,
    Peter

  • ANNOUNCEMENT

    Andrea Rossi, the inventor of the E-Cat (Energy Catalyzer) has asked for the help of the alternative energy community, in designing the case for his home heating product. He has asked for the community to submit concepts, so he can purchase the best idea from the individual who submitted it!

    You can obtain more information about the competition by visiting the following PESWiki page.

    http://peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Cold_Fusion_E-Cat_Case_Design_Competition

    Lets get started!

  • K. Dobrolecki

    Dir Mr.Rossi
    I fully agree what Hank Mills wrote earlier, that outsiders see it differently than you.

    When I was working with one of my employers on new machine by making some changes, and he was thinking about solving some problems. I was looking over his arm to see what he was doing.
    When he said. OK, we do this way, I said him what might be wrong with the assembly or maintenance later.
    He said “Casey you right”.
    When it happened third time, he said with irritated voice. “Casey, you right, you right like my wife, she always is right”.

    I said, OK Bill, I will shut up my mouth. Oh no, he replied. I don’t want waste time and money just by making some mistakes. Tell me anything you see wrong or have some suggestions.

    What I mean. One might be looking from the point of solving some design problem, but some body else will see the same thing from difference angle and have different idea.

  • I think the idea of having more than one reactor core inside the device is brilliant.

    If the effect that “makes heat” does not come from a constant source of energy, then having more than one reactor core could help “average out” the output of the system. For example, if one core drops in temperature, the other two can make up for it. Also, I think that it might take less input energy to start up three reactors in the same module, that three separate reactors in three separate modules. In the future, I wonder if we will see reactors with hundreds of very small reactor cores.

    Just thinking out loud here.

    Hank Mills
    Hank Mills

  • Chris Beall

    Mr. Rossi,

    I am trying hard to understand the many reports that have been created about your E-Cat, but I always seem to have unanswered questions:

    1. For the 6 Oct test, only one of the three modules in the E-Cat was active. By what means were the other two made inoperative? They don’t seem to have separate heaters or hydrogen inputs. Was the nickel powder left out of them?

    2. There is a brown cylindrical device with a green label connected to the hydrogen fill port, about 3cm in diameter and perhaps 10cm long. A wire is connected to its outer end. What is this and what is the other end of the wire connected to?

    Regards,
    Chris Beall

  • Italo

    Dear Ing Rossi, thank you for your reply.
    I wish ask you one thing, if it is not an industrial secret:
    – The intensity of the Effect depends on the pressure of hydrogen? That is, more pressure give more heat?

    Because if it is true, a simple way to stabilize the reaction could be to regulate automatically its pressure by an automatic controller and a regulating three-way valve on input line. It could be easily realized.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luke Mortensen:
    1- the Effect that makes heat does not come from a constant source of energy
    2- mix with a constant temperature flow by means of a by pass system reguated by thermostats
    3- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Ilario:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Cordiali saluti,
    A.R.

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