Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,

Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,558 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • J. Allard

    Mr. Rossi,

    Good luck with your invention.

    I have a simple question. When you state a 1MW plant, is this 1MW of heat or 1MW electrity?

    Again, good luck.

    J. Allard

  • FrancescoToro ing. Rossi
    Sono molto interessato all’acquisto di un E-Cat, formato familiare, per sostituire la tradizionale caldaia del riscaldamento domestico e per la produzione di acqua sanitaria. Ho letto da qualche parte una sua risposta in merito ai costi che si agirerebbero intorno a € 500/Kw per cui per installare una potenza termica di 22 Kw dovrei spendere circa € 11.000, cifra che non sarebbe alla portata delle mie finanze. Prevede che detto costo potrà essere ulteriormente abbattuto? Grazie

    Cordiali saluti

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claudio,
    When the Customer will deem opportune to make a press conference he will decide.
    This issue is out of our control.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joey:
    This stuff should have been already eliminated from the owner…in any case, let me repeat again:
    do not buy any E-cat from anybody because E-cats are not yet for sale, so any attempt to sell E-cats now is only a fraud.
    Before buying anything from anybody concerning our technology or our E-Cats, please contact
    We will give you all the necessary information to avoid to fall victim of a fraud.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gillis:
    Honestly, I think that this is a totally useless measure to be done, and extremely difficult too.
    Warm Regards,

  • Herb Gillis

    Would there be any value in measuring neutrino emissions during the test of the 1MW reactor on October-28? Perhaps this could provide information on the nature of the reactions taking place.

  • Joey

    Hey Rossi, I have some info you might find useful.

    The website that claims to be selling ecats (which you have informed us is a scam) does not have WHOIS protection yet. Here is their WHOIS data:

    XecNet Ltd
    3 Bouthwaite Drive
    York, Yorks YO26 4TQ

    Registrar: DOTSTER
    Domain Name: PLANETPAY.COM
    Created on: 21-JUN-99
    Expires on: 21-JUN-12
    Last Updated on: 01-SEP-11

    Administrative, Technical Contact:
    Michell, John
    XecNet Ltd
    3 Bouthwaite Drive
    York, Yorks YO26 4TQ

    I typed the e-mail ( into facebook and he’s on facebook too, and he has an account with “rossi’s ecat” as his display image.

  • Claudio

    Hi Mr. Rossi, I understand that it’s confidential to know the name to the costumer, but, will be possible to know before the 1MW test the protocol decided by the costumer?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Vinnie Jones:
    In the first stage of operation the output energy has variations, but if you observe the curve of the output during the last 3-4 hours, which means after the stabilization of the reactor, you can see that the output is regular.
    Warm Regards,

  • Vinnie Jones

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I have been studying the temperature curves from the October 6 demo. The primary temperature during warm up rises almost linearly and thereafter stays essentially constant at 120 degrees centigrade, it looks very nice. In contrast to this the secondary temperature difference varies wildly and does not indicate a stable output. Do you think the problem is with the actual power produced or with the temperature measurement as such?

    Kind regards, Vinnie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steve:
    We are working to industrialization, and our first 1 MW plant is very close to go to work.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andreas:
    Warm Regards,

  • Steve

    Dear Andrea,
    congratulations on the latest test.
    However, it seems obvious to me that you will need outside partners to convert this great technology into domestic and industrial applications.

    For domestic – Baxi, Potterton or Worcester.
    For Industrial – Rolls-Royce, Siemens, Westinghouse, GE.

    Prototypes are one thing – “shrink-wrapped on the aisle of Wallmart” is another thing entirely (a reference and salute to SmartScarecrow).

    If you are going to sell to domestic or industry – they have to be extremely reliable, otherwise your brand will acquire a bad name.

    Hope this observation does not come across as dismissive or shallow.
    I believe you deserve the right to receive the highest academic and financial rewards possible for the hard work and committment you have endured.

    With deep respect and best wishes,


  • Andreas

    Caro signore Rossi,

    il Suo reattore funzionerrà/funzionerebbe anche con fluido Nichel @ 2500°C ?


  • Dear Mr Rossi, With regards the design of your E-Cat and the nickel/hydrogen reaction core. By your information you state that surface area of nickel in contact with hydrogen is important with regards the reaction. Maybe this obvious, but when cold water enters the E-Cat could it enter in the membrane of the core beneath the nickel so as to keep the nickel as cool as possible and position the resonator upermost to heat the hydrogen. Regards E.A.

  • Dear Ing. Rossi, congratulation for the last e-cat test. I’ve tought about another application for the e-cat; I’ve just put in my house the floor heating. It need water at only 28-30 C° so I think could be interesting have your e-cat developped for this application! thanks for your hard work! Best Regards

  • Giovanni Guerrini


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John L Miller- George:
    Thank you for your insight, I will consider your thought.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Ernesto Seligardi:
    Io con questa gente, per fortuna, non ho più niente a che fare. Mi hanno fatto perdere un anno di tempo, bluffando . Adesso basta. Io devo lavorare. Stia pur certo che non hanno niente, non ho dato loro niente, continuano a fare l’unica cosa che sanno fare: chiacchierare e bluffare. Non tornerò più su questo patetico argomento.
    Ho rispetto, comunque, per l’onestà intellettuale dell’unico scienziato che avevano, il Prof. Stremmenos. Per il resto…MA MI FACCIA IL PIACERE !!!
    Cordiali saluti,

  • caro ing. Rossi. mi sono permesso di scrivere e pubblicare sul nostro sito E-CATNEWS.NET le considerazioni che ora sottopongo alla sua attenzione in questo post. Mi piacerebbe avere un suo parere su questa incresciosa situazione cosi da poter pubblicare il suo pensiero in merito. L’articolo è postato a questo indirizzo…………la ringrazio fin da ora.. E.S. MA MI FACCIA IL PIACERE !!!!!

    Supponiamo anche solo per un momento che io potessi diventare il presidente , il proprietario , insomma , colui il quale rappresenta ed agisce come Defkalion… Capita a volte, è sempre capitato , che accordi commerciali non vadano a buon fine , o che una volta stipulati non siano onorati dalle parti.. ci mancherebbe altro… E’ il business. La rottura tra la Defkalion e Rossi lo dimostra.

    Ma ora sta succedendo qualcosa di paradossale, di assurdo. Il Prof. Stremmenos, Vice Presidente onorario nonché principale ricercatore e leader scientifico della Defkalion, di quella che, inizialmente , ho ipoteticamente supposto essere la Mia compagnia, lancia una terrificante accusa attraverso una lettera aperta pubblicata in rete. Proprio alla Mia stessa compagnia , della quale Lui stesso è Vice Presidente onorario.!!!!

    Il comico viene ora.. Ed io che faccio ? Come mi comporto? Si, ventilo e faccio intendere che potrei chiedere i danni perché tu, Prof. Stremmenos stai mettendo, a mio parere, il piede in due scarpe e perché fai dichiarazioni che, chiaramente a mio parere, non sono esatte. MA POI INVECE…(Udite ! Udite!) …..accondiscendo ad una sorta di perdono paternalistico e dichiaro ” Spero SINCERAMENTE (sic) che potremo premere il pulsante di start INSIEME!!!!” :O. :O Ma Come.!!!! INSIEME CHI? Il Prof. Stremmenos insieme alla Defkalion? L’ing. Rossi di nuovo insieme alla Defkalion con il Prof. Stremmenos Vice Presidente? L’ing. Rossi e il Prof. Stremmenos da una parte, ormai diventati di fatto , compagni di ventura, e la Defkalion dall’altra? Il Vice Presidente onorario della Mia compagnia mi pugnala alle spalle, dopo che precedentemente anche L’ing. Rossi si era defilato, ed io dichiaro di sperare di poter ancora lavorare di comune accordo con Lui e forse con entrambi?? Solo perché cosi si eviterebbe di fare guerre intestine x brevetti e sfruttamenti commerciali? Ma quando mai!!!!! Ma mi faccia il piacere!!!! (direbbe Toto’).

    Se io fossi veramente il Presidente della Defkalion , perdonatemi il francesismo, a calci in culo , lo farei uscire dalla Mia società. Come potrei mai più fidarmi di Lui indipendentemente da chi abbia veramente ragione o torto. Se io fossi veramente il Presidente di Defkalion e avessi in mio possesso veramente la tecnologia dell’E-CAT non perderei li mio tempo per cercare di riallacciare contatti di ” Buon vicinato” con l’ing Rossi e il suo entourage, Prof. Stremmenos compreso. Uscendo dal ruolo ipotetico che mi sono dato nelle mie elucubrazioni, l’unica spiegazione che a me pare plausibile di un simile comportamento da parte della Defkalion sia che la società Greca abbia poco o nulla in mano…che abbia la speranza di risalire sul carro che hanno perso, che vogliano ri-cavalcare la tigre, (anzi il gatto) di Rossi.

    Lo trovo, se non fosse comico, quasi patetico……Ma mi faccia il piacere!!!

    Read more:

  • John L Miller-George

    Now that a useful amount of excess heat has been demonstrated, many will come to try and figure out how to use your technology in their products, for example, in water heaters, if they do not want to become extinct dinosaur water heater producers.

    Since there are many applications to products that already exist, if you do not license some producers to integrate your technology into their products, you will be a direct threat to every one of those businesses who will become uncompetitive solely because they rely on dinosaur energy inputs.

    Those dinosaur product producers will have no choice but to join with the dinosaur energy producers to try and get the government to forbid your technology, or to tax it, or to regulate it in such a way as to make it no longer a threat.

    The fight will be bad for the common man or woman, even if you win it in the end.

    However, the more people you license to use your technology, the more people will be there to support expanding it’s use and working to fight any attempts to suppress it.

    Over the long term, your technology will win, but there will be a lot of misery before it kills the last snake.

    Please seriously consider hiring one or more of the folks who discussed licensing issues with you on this blog (NOT me please), and send folks who want to get licenses to that person.

    Unsolicited advice is always the hardest to hear, but…

    You should be using YOUR UNIQUE GENIUS on working with the technology, and helping develop versions of E-Cats that fit the needs of authorized licensees, not on trying to produce a bunch of different products using your technology, trying to manage licensees, or dealing with regulatory tangles invented by snakes so they can fatten their pile of money.

    Let your licensees build the products and fight the snakes for you, while you work with people of good will to develop more E-Cat modules to go in their products and laugh as every snakes head is cut off.

    Please, please, please, license your technology widely, let the royalties pour in, and keep working with your toys for the good of all humankind.

    Warm Regards,


  • Andrea Rossi

    I hope so: it will be the first start up, it is not impossible that we will have some trouble. If we will not succeed at the first “launch” be sure we will not retire…
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ongaro Marius,
    Please contact in November for commercial issues,
    Warm Regards,

  • Egregio Dott. Andrea Rossi Sono Ongaro Marius da Treviso e volevo farle presente un mio particolare interesse nell’iniziare una collaborazione finanziaria o di marketing di vendita della sua geniale idea a breve in Italia. Gradirei poter comunicare con lei privatamente se interessato ad un confronto. la mia mail personale è .
    Gradita risposta.

    Ongaro Marius

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear bernie Koppenhofer:
    Is right, we had an attack, but has been resolved in a couple of hours by our informatic.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Zeus AND Mr John Michell:
    Now I see: I didn’t check the site, I receive too much emails to read the links…Probably this has been an excess of enthusiasm due to a misunderstanding. Please, Mr John Michell: just take it off and the case is closed.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Vinnie Jones:
    That’s the flow of the condensate water, and it is not constant. The energy produced has been measured on the secondary circuit, so I didn’t take a record of the primary flow rate. In any case, the flow rate of the pump of the primary circuit is regulated at 15 l/h.
    Warm Regards,

  • Jessica Fulton

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    When you test the 1 MW plant will it be at full power?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo:
    Thank you, we already are dealing with this issue.
    Just, I remember to all our Readers that nobody has to buy an E-Cat before asking us if the dealer is authorized, writing to
    No E-Cats are for sale, anyway, yet.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chris Beall:
    All will be governed by means of a software.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Karl Poehlmann:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,

  • My Dear Dr. Rossi


    Some business considerations I hope will be helpful:

    You may already know this…
    Large e-Cat building air conditioners
    Chiller input energy/temperature specifications:

    Max Palevsky, SDS founder, observed (for computers in 1964) that as much expense is spent in construction as in maintenance over the lifetime of the installation. 50% to build and 50% to maintain.

    We (in engineering procurement) now try to figure life cycle costs for a system.

    I am sure you have someone modeling this for your business.

    I have some painful personal experience as a user of a new BOSCH tank-less water heater, where in the field it is very hard to find effective and affordable field service persons. BOSCH has a miserable reputation for dependability and unhelpful customer support, and they are a ‘successful’ global company, with mature designs.

    I am trying to imagine how you might design a small low-duty-cycle spa water heater that will run, problem free, for the life of the spa. For 20 years, and so very dependable that there is no need for maintenance for many years and using very low electric input.

    It could open up a huge market for tiny e-Cats and re-start the spa industry that is today uneconomic.

    So, I am sure you are wrestling with the problem of providing the necessary affordable organization to do the field support. Six months replacement time is not very attractive for the consumer. Unless he can do this himself, safely, with common tools. So I hope 6 months to replace is not the figure for a low-energy, low-duty-cycle design.

    The specification for minimum guaranteed number of restarts, and Min/Mean/Max time to replace all need to be high and known from the start by the consumer.

    A conservative specification sheet needs to be published. Duty cycles, Availability percentages, on/off cycle-times, output life degradation curves, and efficiency lifetimes need to be conservatively specified and guaranteed by over design.

    Safety factors and control requirements need specification. Appropriate sensors, actuators, displays and computer programmed control units need to exist, and have backup power for graceful emergency shutdown.

    Seismic/vibration specifications and safety-certification testing needs to be developed and performed.

    So you might expect to first sell to organizations that will do the safety engineering and certifications at their cost and they will sell to the public and do the field support.

    To start up, and to avoid bankrupting your company, you must manage the growth carefully, keep the production scale small, highly predictable, and at first geographically concentrated, close to the factory.

    Beware, there was and may still be a US law that enables the government to buy, in a self declared emergency, any number of just-finished units off your production line for any (DX-priority) government project. This causes you to breach your contract delivery schedules to your regular customers. So if you make things in USA, you might want to plan to have some units uncommitted for emergency shipments. You may also need some clause in your contracts to revoke schedule dates for any force majeure or government preemption actions.

    Every sale must be at a profit that is high enough to sustain growth. Field support must also be ever profitable.

    The unknown unknowns will come from ‘knowhere’ to bite.
    Never ship problems to the field. Field ‘costs-to-fix’ cascade.

    Never promise a schedule that you cannot conservatively meet.
    [You are doing this splendidly to date, and I salute you for this.
    You are amazing!]

    Start with a high-cost product and a small production structure that is initially and continuously profitable and maintain slow profitable, balanced growth of your support organization. This enables continued improvement in design with little cost to retrofit.

    If you publicly let it be known that you are going to grow your business slowly and in a controlled, always-profitable, never-borrowing, business-like way, you might disarm the snakes that are fearful of too rapid a change.

    They can adjust over time if their plans can be gracefully revised to include low-cost, appropriate scale, dependable (99.999 Availability) steam energy a few years out.

    As an investor in Husky Energy (Canada)I am aware that they are starting to exploit tar sand oil extraction and shale oil extraction, both that consume a large amount of steam, generated from burning extracted oil that they could otherwise sell profitably if they had your inexpensive steam energy.

    Seems like a natural for the e-Cat in a larger scale installation. The company is controlled by Li-Ka Shing
    Hopefully he is not one of the snakes.

    My best wishes to you and your team for your continued successes.

    Karl Poehlmann

    BA, Physics, 1958 San Diego State College,
    Retired Electronics/Aerospace/Computer Scientist

    I am doing medical research now, and not looking for employment.
    But if I could help you in any confidential and thoughtful way,
    based on over 50 years of
    science/business/computer/investment/management/procurement experience,
    please let me know offline.

    You may delete this message, unpublished, from the blog if you wish.

  • Greg

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Glad to see your disavowal of the planetpay nonsense. Take care.


  • Chris Beall

    Mr. Rossi,

    The results from the 6 Oct test are very impressive. I keep thinking of more questions:

    For the test, the resistive heating applied to the E-Cat was manually controlled. It was started at a middle value, then gradually increased at intervals to maximum heating. After a period of time, heating was turned off, then on again for short (about 10 minute) periods. After self-sustained mode was entered, a separate frequency device was activated.

    Does the timing of the heating and the frequency device fixed and the same for all E-Cats, that is, can the same pattern of heating and frequency device be applied all the time? If not, what indication do you use to decide when more heating is required or when it can be turned off? I understand that specific values might be confidential, but I am asking in general terms and seeking only a general answer. Is this control process simple enough that you could have instructed me what to do and then I could have run the test?

  • Jürgen Weber

    Hello Mr. Rossi
    first thanks for your great work.

    “The Power of New Energy. World Green Energy Symposium” from 19 to 21 October in Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA.

    The following is on the agenda:
    Cold Fusion
    A Discussion Presented By:
    MIT Professor
    Peter L. Hagelstein

    Now the question: Are you or are you represented by someone on the show? If so by whom?

    All the best for the next weeks.

    J. Weber

  • Italo

    Dear Ing. Rossi:
    The website that is trying to sell E-Cats refers to this other (XecNet Ltd UK):

    But it doesn’t really mean that it is necessary true
    as they have lied in selling E-Cats.

  • Vinnie Jones

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I read with interest the answers that you gave to Mr. Gunnar Lindberg. Among other things you say that 15 liter/hour was pumped, but close to the end of the test Mats Lewan made the following note in his report:

    “18:57 Measured outflow of primary circuit in heat exchanger,
    supposedly condensed steam, to be 328 g in 360 seconds,
    giving a flow of 0.91 g/s. Temperature 23.8 °C.”

    This will only give you 3,3 liters/hour. Could you please explain that?

    Kind regards, Vinnie

  • Zeus

    Just FYI “For Your Information”

    The web site
    Seems to be related to this user of your blog: (see below)
    Your friendly replies to him seem to have given him some credibility. I am sure this was not your intention.

    John M ichell
    October 10th, 2011 at 3:17 PM

    Congratulations on your great work with the E-Cat. I agree absolutely that it is best to avoid publicity at the moment.
    I am the author of the book “Rossi’s eCat” about the history, development and significance for the world of this momentous invension.
    The book came out this week (http://www/
    In the spirit of enabling the E-Cat to be spread amongst the people, I have started an online initiative, fully described in the book, to bring together a global community of private customers for the device – allowing the introduction of a new currency unit based on E-Cat energy. See

  • Andrea,

    Take a look at my latest question to skeptics:

    Carlo Ombello

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    I can confirm what Greg Leonard is saying about this site, this is what I got when I tried to access this site early this morning:

  • Andrea Rossi


  • Zeus

    Just FYI
    This site appears to be trying to sell e-cats

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brubaker:
    We are organizing the production, also with outsourching connections. Of course the price is bound to an economy scale. In November we will have precise commercial data.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gunnar Lindberg:
    All the box containing the reactor is filled with water. The reactor wafer is cm 20 x 20 x 4 (external dimensions), and to it are welded all the steel wings necessary to exchange all the heat produced inside the reactor. When we disassembled the E-Cat all the attendants have seen that all the box around the reactor is just a water box, filled of steel wings and water. The water had been taken off, after the cooling, so with a torchlight it has been easy to observe that all the box outside the reactor is a water tank. The water enters from the bottom of the box, evaporates and goes out as steam from the top of the box. Therefore is absolutely impossible to insert any fuel, because it could be mixed with the water, and obviously could not burn. There is not air inside, just water and steam. As for the reactor, it is tight and waterproof. The volume free for the water is about 30 liters, so that to fill up it are necessary about 2 hours ( the pump of the primary circuit pumps about 15 liters per hour), but, as a matter of fact, the water begins to evaporate before the box is full of water, so usually the “Effect” of the reactor starts before 2 hours.
    Warm Regards,

  • caro ing. rossi
    la seguo da mesi nella sua grande avventura dell’E-CAT, nella speranza di poter un giorno partecipare alla sua distribuzione,installazione e assistenza,in quanto da generazioni la ns. famiglia è impegnata nel settore elettronico ed energetico. Sono sicuro che con il suo aiuto potrò avere le indicazioni corrette per contattare le persone o le aziende.
    carissimi saluti
    Carlo Atomo Turchetti

  • Greg

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    If you are aware of these things, that’s another matter but I would be concerned about the page: . At the least it appears to be a risk for identity theft issues and there’s no apparent encryption.

    I hope this is of value.


  • Greg Leonard

    Dear AR and Greg(a different one)

    I can confirm there was something odd about this page this morning – one of my bookmarks.
    When I tried it early this morning, I was directed to a page with some sort of green banner and the message
    This Account Has Been Suspended.

    I tried to refresh the page several times during the day – always with the same result.
    I retried my bookmark this afternoon and everything was fine.

    It looks as though a hack has been attempted, and my first attempt to access this page happened during the attack – I was directed elsewhere

  • Gunnar Lindberg

    Dear ing. Rossi,
    The test perfomed in Bologna october 6 was indeed impressive.

    However, based on the time required to attend self sustained mood, I have a question for you: According to data given by Mats Lewan in Ny Teknik it can be estimated that, if the water volume of Fat-Cat #2 had been the same as that of Fat-Cat #1, it would have taken 8.5 hours to fill up Fat-Cat #2. I must have made a mistake in my calculations. Could you please help me out here?
    Best Regards
    Gunnar Lindberg

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi:

    It pains me to see you embark on producing the E-cat yourself. In my opinion the world needs you to concentrate on improving your invention. For you to spend your time and energy on the mundane issues of producing and marketing the E-cat is a waste. Can you give us any insight into why large industrial companies are not knocking your door down for the right to manufacture and market this wonderful new invention?

  • Joseph Fine

    John Michell, Greg, A.R.

    Two books have been written on this topic, so far. More are likely.

    ‘Rossi’s eCAT’ by John Michell and ‘Secrets of the E-Cat’ by Mario Menichella.

    I haven’t read either book. As far as I know, there is no authorized version of any of this material yet. (Other than this blog.)

    The basic information in these works comes from the articles, commentary to the articles, and comments to the comments that have appeared in this BLOG (Journal of Nuclear Physics). As well as similar Blogs, 22passi, FACEBOOK, NY TEKNIK, et cetera.

    I don’t think that this was a Hack. Just links that may have been mistyped. And perhaps some exuberant language.

    As I haven’t read the books, I can’t recommend them.


    Links to texts:

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