Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,497 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Guido Chiostri

    Caro Dottor Rossi,
    se ho ben capito :

    – il test del 28 ottobre non sarà pubblico e sarà condotto secondo il protocollo richiesto dal cliente ma ne saranno resi noti i risultati asseverati da scienziati di alto livello ?

    – La centrale che sarà testata il 28 novembre sarà un prototipo oppure un modello già pronto per applicazioni industriali ?

    – E’ confermato che la fase di commercializzazione dei dispositivi inizierà a novembre oppure si dovrà attendere, anche in caso di esito positivo della prova del 28/11, il risultato del preannunciato lavoro di R&D delle università di Bologna e Uppsala ?

    – i potenziali clienti, naturalmente se dotati di adeguate credenziali , potranno far riferimento solo ai risultati del predetto test oppure avranno a disposizione ulteriori informazioni per valutare l’opportunità e la convenienza dell’eventuale acquisto ?

    – ci sarà un comunicato ufficiale che renderà noto al mercato con precisione il momento a partire dal quale i potenziali clienti potranno prendere contatto con Lei o con la sua società ( Leonardo corporation ) o rimane comunque valida l’indicazione del mese di novembre 2011 ?

    Grazie

    Cordiali saluti e buon lavoro

    Guido Chiostri

  • Peter

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Is the customer that will test the 1MW plant in Bologna the same as the one that was supposed to test it in the United States, or did you find a new one (you mentioned there were some contractual issues)?

    Best regards and a lot of luck in your endeavors !

    Peter

  • Adam Maitland

    Gentile Signor Rossi,
    I have been observing the ongoing circus surrounding the evolution of your marvelous e-cat since February and wish to congratulate you on your remarkable fortitude, patience and incredible work ethic.

    I cannot help but feel your connection to the ‘New World’. The ‘New World’ where intuition and heart play a greater role than intellect in empirical discovery. Zen teaches that mind is just a tool, a servant of the heart. It is the heart which is the ‘door to perception’.

    That you have followed your instincts and allied those feelings with intelligence, experience, and enduring energy is a sign to me that you are a leader in man’s evolution to a new paradigm and era.

    The time is coming. The youth and ‘young at heart’ are beginning to make their voices heard.
    The future will be lit by the truth that has shone through your lens.

    My greatest respects to you, Signor. Onwards and upwards.

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    How many pre-orders do you have on ecat, fat-cat and BIG-cat??

  • Joseph Fine

    A.R.

    1. Will separate sub-sections of each of the 500 KW halves (of the plant) be self sustaining at different times? That is, one section (say A of ABCDEF) will have heater power turned on for 10 minutes and then be shut off for 50 minutes. When heater power to A is turned off, heater power to section B is turned on et cetera. That way, some heater power will be on continuously, but only to one-sixth of the plant.

    2. Would you consider having all heaters turned off simultaneously and have the entire plant self-sustaining? That seems more adventurous, and I wouldn’t try it the first few runs. But could it be done? ( I am not suggesting you try it. Just curious. )

    The Heat is ON!

    Best regards,

    J.F.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear David Roberson:
    1- yes
    2- we turn on series of 6
    3- there are 2 pumps, one for each 500 kW system. We have divided the plant in 2 sections, each of 500 kW, each with its own dissipator.
    4- yes
    5- safety first
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jan:

    1- yes
    2- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jan

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    When you say that the test will not be “public”, will “high-level scientists” and “prominent scientific journalists” still be attending like you have indicated? In other words, will this test be the one that finally makes the E-Cat known to the larger public through mass media reports?

    Sincerely,

    Jan

  • David Roberson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Have you had the opportunity to connect several ECATS (such as 5) in parallel for a modest sized test before you prepare to fire up the “BIG CAT”? I am curious as to the proceedure required to reach operational conditions. Will you enable one ECAT at a time and verify that it is starting as expected or activate all as close to simultaneous as possible? How many helpers will be around to fire up the system?

    I noticed the large pump you have on the exterior of the cargo container. Can it supply water flow to only a few ECATS at a time? Does your power design allow water to exit the system into the steam duct during the heating up period?

    We are all sitting on the edges of our chairs hoping for your success. Please by careful and stay safe.

    Regards,

    D.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sean Parker:
    Yes, after the 28th no more public tests, we will be too engaged to manufacture and test for our Customers. We will continue R&D work with Bologna University and Uppsala University, but the work will not be public.
    Actually, also the test of the 28th will not be public, being a test made by the Customer, with his experts, along a contractual protocol. Anyway it will be the last work with a public report made upon the resulting numbers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Sean Parker

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You say that the MegaTest will take place on October 28. Does this imply that the test also will be completed that day?

    Kind regards, Sean

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claudio:
    The mentioned ratio is the average.
    The steam has nothing to do with the controls absorbed energy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roberto B.:
    Thank you for the useful suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Roberto B.

    Caro Ingegner Rossi.
    Ci terrei a far qualche riflessioni sui possibili vantaggi accessori sull’uso dei sali fusi come vettore di calore dal crogiulo del suo incredibile reattore ad una camera di compressione.
    1) Suppongo che così si sia in grado di tirar fuori una temperatura superiore a quella dei 400 gradi ottenuti con il vapore poichè il fluido non si espande in vapore(da dimostrare). Questo comporta l’assenza di pressione nei condotti interni al crogiuolo del reattore (minor incidenza guasti nella sezione critica)
    2) Negli impianti solari a concentrazione i sali fusi vengono stoccati dentro un serbatoio con una perdita di calore del 2% al giorno, questo permette di fornire energia elettrica anche di notte. Nel caso del suo ecat stoccare il calore in un serbatoio potrebbe avere interessanti applicazioni
    a) permettere di usare il reattore anche in condizione di produzione di calore di intensità con alta variabilità, il calore generato viene uniformato dallo stoccaggio dei sali fusi. Questo implica una sezione di controllo più semplice poiché non è necessario che il calore generato sia costante e neanche regolabile, basterebbe un ON/OFF
    b) ridurre la capacità massima del reattore necessario. Un reattore di 3KW potrebbe fornire senza problemi 10 e più KW di picco. Senza deposito di sali fusi si sarebbe costretti a costruire un reattore di capacità nominale pari al picco massimo necessario.
    c) L’intero set di reattori può essere stoppato anche per ore per la normale manutenzione o per la ricarica semestrale senza fermare l’erogazione di energia.
    3) E’ possibile usare gli impianti presenti già nelle centrali di produzione di energia elettrica ad olio/gas. L’impianto solare di Priolo fa già questo.

    Il mio suggerimento è di dare un’occhiata a questa tecnologia già discretamente collaudata, potrebbe essere un notevole balzo in avanti per la costruzione di impianti a fusione fredda estremamente versatili ed anche più economici.
    Tanti Saluti e in bocca al lupo per l’avvincente sua ricerca.

  • insight

    Dear A.R.,
    I think the E-Cat will help adopting also other renewable energy sources because people will not feel anymore that their choice makes no sense as when the most part of energy is still from oil or nuclear. It will be no more like emptying the ocean with a bucket. When E-Cat will show that it is the way to go, people who decide not to put one in their house, still they will be willing to adopt some form of renewable energy (someone likes wind, others like the sun). This is very important. They will like this new way of exploiting energy and maybe they will save energy too, thus giving further positive feedback to clean energy effectiveness.
    Best Regards

  • Claudio

    Hi Andrea,
    many times you wrote that the power gain on the E-Cat was limited at 1:6.
    The mentioned ratio, does regard only the “sustained mode” or what?

    In your opinion, at the end of the next future test what we will obtain in term of energy? In other words, taking a look at the results during test 6/10, seems that you need a little fraction of energy (100-200W) to obtain 2-3KW of power. This means then if we neglect the startup phase, your ratio power out/in can be 20-30 times. Is this the ratio we’ve to expect on 28/10?

    Just another question. It seems that that the steam stored inside the rector 2.0 (after the startup phase) allow you to reduce the energy spend for control. Is this statement true?

    thank you and all best wishes for the 1MW plant!

    Claudio

  • Claud

    Dear Ing. Rossi, being quoted on Forbes is always a good start. Hope your next time will be for “High net worth individuals” ranking :-)

  • FrancescoToro

    La prova del 28 Ottobre potrebbe segnare l’inizio di una NUOVA E APPASSIONANTE RIVOLUZIONE ENERGETICA… Stampa, Telegiornali, Giornali Radio, riviste scientifiche, tutto l’Establishment compresi i POLITICI! Cosa fatte? NIENTE…TUTTI ZITTI…anzi… quando parlate e solo per sputtare dubbi e sentenze! Come al solito in Italia… “nemo propheta acceptus est in patria sua”.
    Coraggio ing. Rossi; siamo in tanti con Lei… Tenga duro e vada avanti imperterrito.
    Cordiali saluti

  • Jan

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    The E-Cat is being featured on Forbes.com. Congrats!

    http://www.forbes.com/sites/markgibbs/2011/10/17/hello-cheap-energy-hello-brave-new-world/

    Best Regards,

    Jan

  • Alex

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    I’m sure you have already run the 1 MW tiger with success prior to the 28th October demonstration to the world. It is very important to be 100% successful so that the snakes will not find any exposed flesh where to bite and poison you.

    Following a successful 1 MW operation of the 28th October, do you see a probable time when I would be able to purchase a 1 MW unit for industrial use in an EU country? I am asking this since I have already found potential serious clients for whom I have been providing building and industrial services consultations and I am very eager to initialise a first project with e-cat process and commercial heating.

    Best regards,

    Alex

  • Sean Parker

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Congratulations Andrea, you made it to the Forbes Magazine:
    http://www.forbes.com/sites/markgibbs/2011/10/17/hello-cheap-energy-hello-brave-new-world/!

    And now we are counting down day by day to the MegaDemo that is due October 28. Could you please tell us what duration it will have?

    Best wishes, Sean

  • Italo

    Dear Ing. Rossi, some days ago you wrote:
    “Dear Italo,
    We measure the temperature inside the reactor, but not with thermocouples: we invented a very good method (confidential)”

    I understand that your method is confidential and that you cannot give details.
    Anyway I have read somewhere that you measure that temperature using some non-metallic substances having different melting points. If it is so, it would necessarily be a discontinuous method, unuseful to control the reaction WHILE the reactor is running.

    It would be instead necessary a system capable to give a continuous signal, proportional with the temperature of the core, similar to a thermocouple.
    A continuous signal infact could be the main and important way to control the stability of the reaction.
    Probably (I suppose), it isn’t possible using a thermocouple (made with metals) because the inner side of core doesn’t permit inserting metallic objects.
    Probably (I suppose), a thermocouple could be affected by something happening inside the core, besides the temperature, giving then erroneous signals.

    May I ask you if your invented system is continuous or discontinuous? Thank you.
    Kind regards,
    Italo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni:
    Our target is to get the same efficiency that the Carnot cycle has with other sources.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Enzo Amato:
    I confirm: on the 28th so far there are no obstacles to run the test. Of course, if in the preliminar tests we are running something will go wrong, we will have to delay. But so far, so good.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Enzo Amato

    Caro Andrea Rossi,

    L’attesa per il test è ormai spasmodica. Se mi permette un consiglio: non si lasci mettere sotto pressione. Se ha bisogno di altro tempo per il test da 1 MW se lo prenda. Tutti quelli che lo sostengono lo capiranno.
    Provebio adatto all’e-cat:
    “La gatta frettolosa fa gli e-cattini ciechi!”

    Cari saluti

    Enzo Amato

  • Giovanni

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    Could you foresee a rough estimate of the percentage of electric power that could be generated from a xKw e-cat plant? I mean, for example, what electric power could be generated by a 1 Mw steam generating plant?
    Many thanks for your capacity to answer all questions we are posting to you.
    My best regards
    Giovanni

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chris Beall:
    The software has all under control, but in a test, which is not a regular operation, the controller can make adjustments.
    We will give the particulars in the report.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chris Beall

    Mr. Rossi,

    I understand that production E-Cats will be controlled by software. I have a question about the complexity required of that software:

    Will the controller simply follow a standard startup pattern and then a standard self-sustain pattern or will the controller make adjustments based on some sort of feedback from each Fat-Cat?

    If the latter, what sort of feedback will be available to the controller?

    Regards,
    Chris Beall

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jessica Fulton:
    Yes, and not only the single modules, but we tested all the safety systems, to be sure in any case of the intrinsic safety of the plant. Safety first, obviously.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roberto B:
    Yes, we are testing alternative fluids.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alvaro Rodriguez:
    Snakes are the paradigmatic example of how corruption can expose a journalist to pathetic situations. Anyway, the times of snakes are over, after the start up of our 1 MW plant the market will sweep them away. They have been paid from competitors who tried all they could to forbid us to arrive at this point, but, as you see, they failed. Your suggestion has already been taken in consideration.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jessica Fulton

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I understand that you have not tested the 1 MW power plant yet and are waiting to do so for the customer, however, I was wondering if you have tested all of the individual units that make up the power plant?

  • Alvaro Rodriguez

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I support you in defense of the Snake latest article,which was the most manipulative use of science I have ever seen.
    The only thing he proved is his total lack of knowledge in the field of thermodynamics.

    Allow me to make a recommendation:
    in order to create a huge demand on the ecat,and to be able to mass-produce from the beginning,making prices low from the first moment,wouldn’t it be better if a scientist,supporter and friend of yours as is Prof.Stremmenos published a thorough and independent week long comparison between a fully working ecat and a coreless one?

    This move would let everyone know how profitable the ecat really is from the beginning and would be the cheapest and best marketing movement.

    Sincerely yours,
    Alvaro Rodriguez.
    Engineer and wanna-be world saviour.

    That would be scientific and undebatable,

  • Roberto B.

    Salve Ingegner Rossi,
    Se non ho compreso male il limite di temperatura
    del vapore è dettato dal punto di fusione del
    nichel, quindi la temperatura massima all’interno
    del nucleo del reattore deve esser mantenuta sotto i
    1455 gradi.
    Si riusciribbe a tirar fuori dal nucleo più di 400 gradi
    se si usassero dei sali fusi, così come avviene nei
    pannelli solari termodinamici dell’impianto di Priolo?
    Essi funzionano con un sistema che porta fuori dai concentratori
    solari sali fusi a 550 gradi e genera energia elettrica
    raffreddano tale fludio a 270 gradi (generando vapore)
    il quale viene reimmesso nei concentratori solari.
    La perdita di energia dovuta all’uso dei sali fusi è
    molto bassa.
    Saluti
    Roberto

  • Pietro F.

    Complimenti per la sua determinazione.

    Spero che i problemi finanziari siano stati risolti e le faccio i miei auguri.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo:
    1- The steam will be condensed in dissipators and recycled to the plant
    2- see answer 1
    3- Situation much more complex, will see the report
    4- Exactly
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni:
    We will run also in self sustained mode, the periods will depend on many factors. In any case, the power output will be 6 times the power input. About the snakes: the time of the snakes is over. The start up of the 1 MW plant is the end of the mental masturbations of enviuos, wannabe theorists, lecturers of calorimetry and engineering. Now LENR goes to the market. The test will not be made by me, but by the Customers’ consultants. Time of chatters is over. Maybe the test will not be good, maybe: it will be the first time I will start up a plant of that dimension, but in this case the problem will be the Customer, not the bunch of imbeciles that instead of understanding that we actually made LENR a reality lose their time digging holes on the surface the water in the middle of the ocean to find the wine. And in the case this test will go not well, we will learn and remake another, and another, and another, but, be sure, we will arrive to the target. At any cost.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • tj

    Andrea — In an earlier post today you indicated that E-Cat prices could be reduced by an order of magnitude if millions of units are produced.

    As you know there is a big debate in the US about building a $7 Billion dollar pipeline to take Canadian tar sands oil to the Gulf.

    If you are able to reduce E-Cat prices to $200 per kW then you could build 7 million 5kW E-Cats for $7 Billion…. ie ($7 000 000 000 / $200 per kW)= 35 million 1KW or 7 million 5kW E-Cats x 24hr x 365days x 20years = 6,132,000,000,000 kWh heat energy… If these E-Cats produced power continuously for twenty years.

    Its much better to build millions of E-Cats than to build the KXL pipeline.

  • Joseph Fine

    This may be how future motorists drive to the store to buy groceries.

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/hampshire/8209288.stm

    I suppose this future steam car could be called an “E-Cat-illac”.

    This assumes that drivers are more skilled and courteous than they are now.

    Joseph Fine

  • Giovanni

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    can you tell us how long will be the time in self-sustained mode planned for the 28/10 test? A long duration of this state will dramaticallyl rise the power-in/power-out ratio, then eliminating any skeptical issue.
    Best regards
    Giovanni

  • Italo

    Dear Ing. Rossi, may I ask you something about the near test of the 1MW plant?

    1) – Have you a water tank to supply the Plant? Or the water will be get from the city water pipe?

    2) – The steam that will be produced, will be put out directly to the atmosphere?

    3) – Will each E-Cat module completed with individual instruments? I.e. thermocouples, flow meters, pressure gauges etc.

    4) – I have read that the output general pipe for the steam could be too small and weak. But surely your engineers have well designed all things for safety reasons.

    Kind regards,
    Italo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Nichols:
    1- very wide, we will use diathermic oil in the primary, toallow a wide range of choices
    2- yes
    3- up to 450 Celsius so far
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Neil Taylor:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mr. Rossi,

    It appears that the US media is now catching on to your wonderful invention as per this newest article:

    http://news.idg.no/cw/art.cfm?id=2419105C-1A64-67EA-E4564591D0CF1371

    Good luck with the starup of your 1MW unit, I pray that it all goes well for you and our world…

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Can you give us any insight into why big industrial companies are not knocking your door down to get the chance to make and market your great invention?

  • Bill Nichols

    Andrea…

    Since the E-Cat is a heat device, we know Carnot Efficiency essentially states greater efficiency is achieved with higher temperature differences.

    Four questions…

    1.) Have you finalized the exact temperature range(s) you will use in the E-Cat commercially?
    2.) Will the output (temperature) be different depending on the commercial application of the E-Cat?
    3.) Can you provide this value or range of values for each commercial application?
    4.) If not, when?

    Thanks and all the best,

    Kind Regards,

    Bill Nichols

    In your pursuit of options toward commercialization in various applications their are trade offs with other devices thermal specifications.

  • FrancescoToro

    Dear ing. Rossi
    Thank you for your kind response.
    I am very sure that a clean energy such as E-Cat will be a huge success and the demands of the market will be enormous.
    The reduction of costs for a ‘order of magnitude’ also favor a widespread penetration around the world.
    I think your invention, over time, you will be much improved in order to further reduce energy intake for the initial startup of the reactor.
    If you have good partners, investors, also I think you can improve the engineering so as to minimize the costs of industrial production, thus favoring the use even in the poorest countries.
    I see an epochal revolution on the horizon, MAY NOT ‘BE OTHERWISE.
    Thanks again for what you have done

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    It will take time to get the authorizations in Italy. Prices will drop if numbers will raise. If we will have to produce millions pieces the price will drop by an order of magnitude.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear J.Allard:
    Heat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Neutrino Enthusiasts:

    This just in. There is an explanation on the superluminal measurement of neutrino velocity. I just read this ten minutes ago. It has to do with GPS measurements. Enjoy.

    http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/27260/

    Joseph Fine

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