Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,503 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marc Fouchi:
    Contact me at the end of November.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Insight:
    To raise the temperature the E-Cats must be connected in series, not in parallel.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sverre Hanch Haslund:
    Thank you for the info.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Sverre Hanch Haslund

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Have you had a look at the GRANEX(TM) technology for electric power production?
    It seems (at a first look) to suit your invention.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gpXjVkkAqio

    http://www.granitepwr.com/

    Warm regards,

    Sverre Haslund

  • insight

    Dear A.R.
    I would like to know how water can reach higher temperature when it passes through more than one E-Cat module, instead of just one. Maybe you mean that the water flows at a higher speed so it exchanges less heat with each module, but the overall flux is bigger. In this way a bigger amount of water would be heated, not a higher temperature reached. Sorry if I misunderstood something. Could you explain?

  • Marc Fouchi

    Mr. Rossi,
    I first learned of your work and technology from the Forbes.com article. Now i find that i cant stop thinking about it. I am having a hard time describing my fascination and excitement that I am witnessing one of the greatest advances of mankind. For some time now, I have been looking for a way to contribute my time and energy to a worthwhile project. I can’t think of any project more worthwhile than this. I’m not sure how I could contribute – since I live in New Orleans, LA, USA and got my degree in Computer Engineering from Tulane University 13 years ago, but I wonder if you could use my enthusiastic help in any way?

    Incidentally, my great grandfather came to America from Sicily, so I wouldn’t be opposed to visiting that part of the world! :)
    Kind regards,
    Marc Fouchi

  • Bob Dingman

    Signor Rossi:

    To clarify, What gave you the idea that Hydrogen gas combined with nickel could produce a low energy nuclear reaction?

    Thank you for all your endeavors,

    Bob Dingman

  • Chris Beall

    Mr. Rossi,

    The E-Cat is about the size of a breadbox (if anyone can remember what a breadbox is…). By arranging E-Cats in parallel you can increase the total power; in series theoretically increase the output temperature.

    Are there any theoretical limits on how SMALL an energy catalyzer can be? A 3cm cube? A 1mm cube? Smaller?

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I would like to send you a case of champagne that I made in France as a gift for you to celebrate with. Please send me an email with where you would like to have it delivered.

    Thanks for all of your efforts in helping to make our planet a better place. I hope for you the best, and wish I could be there to help celebrate the launch of your amazing invention.

    Sincerely,

    Dustin LeBleu

  • R. Breathnach.

    Yes, also wishing you every success on the 28th the BIG day. I find it difficult to see what real engineering problems you could be encountering in preparing a home size system (other than the fear of all things new)? In comparison to current home energy systems based on highly volatile energy storage technology (gas, oil etc.)the E-Cat principle would seem highly secure. I doubt a china syndrome situation is realistic. Are there practical technical challenges to be solved ?

  • Andreas

    Dear Signor Rossi

    As I read you demanded patents for Europe, USA, etc.
    Only Italy has been approved so far – true?

    Are there any estimations how long the other patents (especially USA) remain pending? Do they inform you about the desicion-making progress?

    P.S You are doing a great work for entire humanity!
    Hope everything goes right – spero bene 😉

    Salute

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claudio:
    We are not ready for electric power production.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • claudio

    Gent.mo Ing. Rossi,

    approfitto della Sua cortesia per chiederLe un’informazione di carattere pratico. Vorrei verificare la convenienza economica nell’acquistare un e cat da 1 Mw da installare assieme ad un convertitore di energia (turbina a vapore?) per produrre energia elettrica da immettere in rete. Energia che verrebbe pagata al produttore dall’ente preposto (che attualmente paga circa 0,22 € al Kw l’energia prodotta da idroelettrico).
    Ho seguito recentemente una Sua previsione sui costi di installazione dell’e cat (ca. 2,000.00 $ per Kw installato- quindi 2 milioni di dollari per una centrale da 1 Mw ) cui vanno aggiunti i costi della turbina a vapore. Lei riuscirebbe a quantificare il costo totale di questa mini-centrale chiavi in mano? Il discorso è molto appassionante anche perchè l’installazione di alcune migliaia di queste mini-centrali risolverebbe sia il problema dell’occupazione sia quello della produzione di energia elettrica pulita.2 mila mini-centrali produrrebbero tanta energia quanto una moderna centrale nucleare a fissione ( ca. 2Gw). Molto utile a questo proposito sarebbe anche poter conoscere la previsione di durata di un impianto e cat.

    Sperando di non averLa annoiata, La saluto con cordialità e stima.

    Claudio Prati

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Anders ferm:
    We put strong attention to safety.
    You can mail your proposal to: info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Anders Ferm

    Dear Rossi, I hade a very bad nightmare that you were injured during testing. Please be very careful do not take risks in the testings, be safe.
    And I have also a “crazy” (may be not even working) idea for a way to make electricity from steam. It is a very simple solution but not evaluated, is there a e-mail address where I can send a sketch of this idea.
    Again be safe and good luck!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fausto Iannotta:
    1- yes
    2- up to 450 Celsius
    3- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gerard Cruz:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear A. Molinari:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • A. Molinari

    Dear Ing.Rossi,
    I’m a mechanical engineer and, even operating in a different field, had been trusting LENR possibilities since Fleischmann and Pons discoveries;
    you have picked up a heavy burden choosing to pursue what will be for sure the century’s greater development, October 28th will be a date to remember for life and I rally wanted to post my best wishes for the test and, as a consequence, for all the humanity.
    A. Molinari

  • […] Ecatworld summarizes Rossi’s latest remarks, the first products to go to market are going to be the 1 MW plants (or variants thereof) which will […]

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Yesterday I thought about your question about design ideas for multiple energy catalyzers. I am not a physicist or scientist, but the concept of using an egg carton design jumped into my head. Each e-cat would be as an individual egg protected in its own casing (shell) and placed in rows similar to eggs in a carton. As in an egg carton, there would be ample space for interconnections, tubing and the like. The top of the carton (hood) would offer easy access and security. Well, there is my idea. You probably have thought of it already.I realize this may seem simplistic, but it just jumped out at me. Good luck with all of the tests.
    Peace,
    Gerard

  • fausto iannotta

    La sua invenzione è meravigliosa e suscita in me sempre più entusiasmo e interesse.
    Mi ha già risposto che nella centrale da 1 Mw i moduli sono in parallelo e che la temperatuta di uscita è di 101-115 gradi Celsius. Inoltre usate piccoli miduli per ragioni di affidabilità e sicurezza.
    A questo punto la mia curiosità è la seguente:
    1) Se i moduli si mettono in serie è possibile accrescere progressivamente la temperatuta da un modulo all’altro?
    2) Ovvero, la reazione esotermica avviene solo in un range di temperatura iniziale oppure può avvenire a temperature più alte?
    3) In caso affermativo, ci sono problemi di sicurezza se si immette nel modulo vapore a 300-400 gradi?
    La mia curiosità nasce dal desiderio di capire se è possibile ricavare efficientemente energia elettrica.
    Grazie per la sua gentilezza e disponibilità nelle risposte.
    Cordiali Saluti e in bocca al lupo per tutto.
    Fausto

  • FrancescoToro

    Yes, I think it’s time that the good Lord will give you back what you took away the snakes and perhaps you will add so much more. Go ahead Andrea…

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    Should my life have been different, probably I couldn’t be now working on this: let the Will of God be made.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear DaleG. Basgall:
    What you envision is a fascinating perspective, but it’s too soon to make it real. We are industrially ready to manufacture heating systems, cooling systems; soon we will produce electric power. This is real . In future many other application can be developed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi:
    Thank you for answering my questions, and one of the questions I had asked;

    Will your fuel mixture operate other types of reactors for example; if one was made by General Motors or John Deere or any huge American Based company?

    You replied; 2- I do not understand what you mean

    An example is that many companies in the U.S. make automobiles, they do not supply the gasoline or oil, that is the fuel. So I looked at your mixture as a fuel to cause the reactor to work.

    In general automobiles are common so I just compared the reactors to be developed that use the Rossi fuel close to that scenario. Andrea Rossi supplies the fuel and many others build the devices that use the Rossi fuel.

    Would you consider allowing a manufacturing company that is willing and has the potential to build and offer for sale a reactor that specifically uses your exclusive fuel by agreement?

    Thank you for spending the time in answering my questions, we remain

    cordially,
    Dale G. Basgall

  • FrancescoToro

    Dear Dr. Rossi
    Just today I read of your adventures, during the eighties, with the factory fuel Petroldragon and Omar, obtained by converting the waste cycle.
    I realized fairly what happened, your luck and you have suffered as a smear campaign.
    I want you to know that you have my deepest sympathy.
    Warm Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Don Witcher:
    We give an extended warranty for 20000 (twenty thousand) hours of operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Don Witcher

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Assuming that the acceptance tests go well for the one megawatt plant are you providing an extended warranty for the Product. If so can you tell us what the duration of the warranty is.

    Best wishes for the Test.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greg Leonard:
    First of all, we have to complete the certifications necessary for the household E-Cats.
    After that we will outsource the manufacturing of the non confidential parts. We are organizing already the system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    I strongly respect the work of all my competitors, in every field they work, but I never comment their work. To cooperate is very difficult, due to the obvious confidentiality. It is like to ask to the engineers of Ferrari and Mercedes to cooperate during a race. Besides, we are already arrived to an industrial product.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Dr. George Miley is doing interesting research into LENR, 1) Are you in contact with him? 2) Would you consider joining forces with him to find out what is going on?

  • Greg Leonard

    DearAR
    I have to say again my heartfelt thanks for your inspiration and hard work.
    I am really happy and excited to be watching the birth of the e-Cat.
    I want the benefits of your technology to be in use worldwide as soon as possible.
    I can imagine a market of 10^9 for the domestic e-Cat – how quickly can you ramp up the production rate to even begin to satisfy that market?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dario:
    The CE for the business to business has been done. For household applications not yet.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dario

    Egregio Ing. Rossi,
    l’E-Cat e’ gia’ stato certificato ottenendo la marcature CE per la commercializzazione in Europa ?
    Dario

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul Gordon:
    You are right, it was a typo. I confirm what I answered you yesterday.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dale G. Basgall:
    1- yes
    2- I do not understand what you mean
    3- We gave allthe information we deemed not confidential
    4- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi :
    Was the e-cat that you invented designed after you had become aware of the excess energy possible by the mixture of elements in your fuel?

    Will your fuel mixture operate other types of reactors for example; if one was made by General Motors or John Deere or any huge American Based company?

    Have you demonstrated to the public any of your advanced models, the reason is we have seen several videos here in the U.S. that do not show equipment that is now explained “like the computer controller” .

    I am just wondering why someone brilliant like yourself wouldn’t have simply patented the fuel and then went on the the development of products to utilyze your fuel mixture.

    Are you way more advanced in the developement of the e-cat than you have allowed the public to view?

    Thanking you for your time, we remain
    cordially,
    Dale G. Basgall

  • Paul Gordon

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Thank you for your answer about planned testing time.

    As for duration of the test you wrote on this topic, page 5:

    “August 30th, 2011 at 4:07 PM
    Dear Sebastian:
    The tests will last 2 months, the scientists will have full access to all but the reactors.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.”

    Kind regards, Paul Gordon

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul Gordon:
    The 28th test will be made along the protocol foreseen in the contract: if positive, we will deliver the plant to the Customer. If negative, we will have up to two months to make corrections.
    After the delivery the plant will go in operation with no limits of time.
    I never said that a test would have a duration of 2 months. Probably there has been a misunderstanding.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul Gordon

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    A couple of months ago you told us that the test of the 1MW plant was going to last for two months but recently you said that the test on October 28 will be finished the same day. Could you please tell us the reason for this reduction of the test duration?

    Many regards, Paul Gordon

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mattia Battistich:
    1- USA; is an Entity that wants not to be disclosed, for its particularity; this does not depend from me, the Customer is not the same we supposed would have been. As Eraclitus wrote “…all changes, and the water flowing along a river is never the same…”
    2- yes
    3- yes, but a heat pump has limited deployment possibilities
    Lavolale, lavolale!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rèmi Andrè:
    God bless your pupils and you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rémi André

    Dear Mr Rossi

    I asked to all of my pupils to look on the internet for your test of the 28th. Be sure that they will do it because they were all very excited when I told them what will be the consequences of your work.

    I and all of these young people are behind you !!

    Best wishes for next Wednesday !

  • Mattia Battistich

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    1) A few weeks ago I remember reading a quote on you saying that by mid October, a week before the test scheduled for the 28th, you would have revealed the location where your first 1MW plant customer comes from, and that by then it would clear to everybody who it was. Considering less then a week separates us from the 28th are you still inclined to do so?

    2) The COP of 6 you often refer to is a minimum guaranteed value for this first model designs?
    3) an efficient inverter type Heat Pump today yields COP of up to 5, so 6 is really not that inspiring from a marketing point of view, did you consider this?

    By the way, you are making us Italians feel a little bit less ashamed about our country, so thank you and keep up the leg work…lavolale, lavolale 😉
    Kindest and warm warm regs
    Mattia

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Dingman:
    I do not understand what does your question mean exactly. Can you clarify?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • I cannot contain my excitement about the e-cat becoming available for individual home or small business use. I also cannot wait to see how world economics and politics will align themselves for the game of the millenium. I also wish I could be there to see the look on Krivits face when e-cats start shipping. The world is suddenly a much more interesting place where just about anything will be possible. So thanks very much Mr. Rossi, I hope to be installing e-cats as soon as possible.

  • Bob Dingman

    Dear Signor Rossi:

    Would you be revealing too much if you told us what it was that inspired you to pursue this type of reaction?

    Best Regards,

    Bob Dingman

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giorgio Adorni Francia:
    Thank you; actually I learn from many of the comments.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giorgio Adorni Francia

    Very dear Ing. Rossi, as far as I keep on reading the most bizarre questions that people addresses to You, perhaps trying to figure out, from the armchair in the living room, what, in work of years, You have discovered, it occurs me to think the very kind person You must be …

    Again best wishes for October the 28th!

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