Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,497 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Claudio

    Auguri per domani!!!

  • Monducci Marco

    Ciao Andrea Rossi, perdona il messaggio un poco lungo e fuori argomento ma devo trascrivere quel che ho in testa, non riesco più a trattenerlo.

    Questa mattina facendo la doccia pensavo al primo bacio,
    il primo bacio che ogni uomo da nella vita,
    le sensazioni nate inaspettate dall’attesa di quel primo bacio,
    che meravigliose reazioni chimiche all’interno del nostro cervello.
    Poi, come spesso mi accade negli ultimi 2 mesi, mi è venuto a mente l’eCat,
    come prima scelta le ho affidato il ruolo dell’adolescente in attesa di quel bacio
    ma qualcosa non tornava,
    qualcosa non calzava e soprattutto
    il palcoscenico risultava stretto, romantico ma stretto.
    Poi ho capito.
    Il ragazzo brufoloso in attesa del bacio siamo noi, il mondo.
    La ragazza e le sue labbra tanto agoniate è il futuro, un futuro migliore.
    Il suo ruolo, signor Rossi, è cangiante e molteplice,
    è quello dell’amico con cui ci confidiamo e che ci ha spinti a farlo,
    è quello dell’amica della ragazza che l’ha convinta a dire si,
    è quello dei ragazzi che ci scherniscono e insieme quello di chi ci supporta,
    lei Signor Rossi interpreta alla perfezione il destino.

    Grazie di rendere le nostre vite più interessanti.
    Si riposi questa sera e si diverta domani!

  • M. De Riso

    Following your adventure since the starting.
    I wish you the best for tomorrow.
    Caro Andrea, mi duole dirlo (e faccio le corna e mi gratto pure le p.lle), ma spero che lei abbia preso le giuste precauzioni per non far perdere nel nulla questa tua scoperta nel caso lei fosse “impossibilitato” a divulgarla.
    In questo caso le ricordo che può sempre programmare un server a diffondere la sua scoperta su una spam list, ad esempio in un anno nel futuro con conto alla rovescia. Nel caso esso non venga fermato (da lei), appunto perchè impossibilitato, allora tutti riceveranno il segreto che diventerà di dominio pubblico.
    Ancora AUGURI PER DOMANI!

  • Kim Patterson

    Godspeed Andrea Rossi

    Send us good News!

    Kim in Tucson

  • AB

    Where will the live stream of the 1 MW demo be published?

  • Please keep all of us and our best wishes in mind tomorrow.

    You know that we will be hungry for word from you, perhaps when the 1MW has been fully fired up.

    I am so excited for your success! Mother Nature needs your help in carrying the burden of seven billion people while lightening the load on her forests, land, water and air.

    Godspeed!!!

    JLMGeo

  • mauro melis

    Caro Ing. Rossi
    Le sono veramente grato per quanto sta facendo per l’intera umanità. un grande in bocca al lupo per la dimostrazione di domani.

    mauro melis Oristano

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The 167 kW electric power requirement for heaters represents a significant cost.
    I estimate the 6 month cost of nickel at $242 and hydrogen at $63 for a total of $305.
    But 6 months is 180×24=4320 hours so 167×4320=721440 kWh. At 10 cents/kWh that is $7214 which is 23 times the cost of the fuel.
    This becomes a problem in generating electrical power. If a steam plant is only 19% efficient then only 190 kW of electricity is generated. If 167 kW must be used then the net output is only 190-167=23 kW. Too bad because otherwise it would be very nice to retrofit boilers in existing steam power plants.
    Hopefully future designs will be able to use the electric heaters only during startup.

    Such details will be easily improved in the future but at this stage I understand that safety and simplicity is top priority. I am really excited to see your successful demonstration tomorrow. It will change the world. Congratulations in advance.

  • Dario

    In bocca al lupo per domani !
    Dario

  • Thank you for staying the course Mr. Rossi. May your diligence and single mindedness be greatly rewarded as your invention helps lift humanity out of the mire.

    Warm Regards and Godspeed!

    -Tim

  • Andrea Piccoli

    Dear Mr. Rossi, one of the things I have thought from the beginning of your experiment was that i was worried about the difficult you’d have met in these months.
    I’ m talking about the people who create obstacles, sabotages and other bad things. I wish to you good health (and also good luck !) but I’m asking if your secret would be safe also in case of your death. I wish to you good health, don’ t misunderstood, but there are many people that could damage you and your Invention. Many creative scientist in the past, like Tesla, have been hampered for their innovations. Good luck, we always hope for a better future !

  • Francesco Toro

    Caro Ing.Rossi

    In bocca al lupo.
    Sincere cordialità

  • Italo

    Dear Ing. Rossi, I think that the Consultants will apply their supplemental instruments like electric power meters in input to the Plant , thermometers, manometers and flow meters.
    Can you confirm this? Thank you
    Italo

  • Giuliano Bettini

    Rossi.
    In culo alla balena.
    This hope is not for you, but for the rest of the human species that does not even know what’s going to happen.

  • Ercole Di Iorio

    Egregio ing. Rossi,
    innanzitutto vorrei fare a lei ed oserei dire all’intero pianeta i miei piu’ fervidi
    auguri per un futuro reso migliore dall’ECat.
    Ho seguito, sul web, con attenzione e speranza sin dall’inizio l’attivita’ svolta
    da lei e dal prof. Focardi, sul reattore. Hocercato, forse non troppo attentamente,
    trai post un dato che mi incuriosisce molto: l’efficienza termica del E-Cat da 1MW.
    Cioe’ a fronte di 1MWh termico prodotto dall’ECat quanta energia termica equivalente occorre fronire alle resistenze elettriche d’innesco?
    Supponendo che l’efficienza di conversione da energia termica ad elettrica (usata pre le resistenze) sia del 60% e nell’ipotesi che le resistenze restino sempre accese (nel caso peggiore), l’efficienza dell’ECat risulterebbe essere ~278%. Cosa impedisce dunque, per il momento, di andare in autosostenimento?

    Carissimi saluti
    Ercole Di Iorio

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear RockEye:
    Thank you: now it’s 4 p.m. of the 27th, and we are finishing the cosmetics of the plant. I think tomorrow we will make, with the help of God, a good job. My work, basically, is finished. Within one hour the Consultants of the Customer will arrive to start the check of all the parts of the plant and prepare all their stuff for the test of tomorrow. Until some hour ago I felt a strong pressure, now, at the eve of the battle, as usual, I am recovering all my coldness and calm. We are ready.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • RockEye

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I just want to wish you good luck and go change the world tomorrow!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lu Fong:
    Should be stable,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jorn Erik Ommang:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- OK
    4- Just a case
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gio:
    Tolstoj
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kevin reilly:
    Only the enclosure,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • John DiRico

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I would like to wish you all the luck in the world as you approach the Eve of the big test on the 28 of October,
    and may the Big Cat function as designed so that the skepticism can be put behind and focus on the future and the many more energy applications that I’m sure will evolve to benefit all mankind and not just a select few people and corporations.
    I know you have a huge weight on your shoulders just take a deep breath and relax I’m sure everything will work out fine.
    Its getting cold here in Boston the Weatherman is predicting snow in the next few days boy I wish I had and E-cat right now.
    We are all cheering for you success good luck and Best Regards, and May the Heatwave be felt around the world.

    John D

  • Kevin Reilly

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    In regards to your public request for a design for the e-cat, are you seeking a design for only the enclosure or the entire boiler assembly? I have seen the pictures of the pipe placement and if this is the boiler to be used, how would it be supported within the enclosure?
    Thank you,
    Kevin

  • gio

    Caro ing.Rossi
    in bocca al lupo per venerdì.
    πάντα ῥεῖ ὡς ποταμός.

    gio

    p.s.: una curiosità: qual’è il suo scrittore preferito?

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Congratulation from Norway, Spain & UK!

    1.0 Is it correct that Your 1 MW E-Cat Container will require a maximum of 167 kW in el-power to run and generate the 1 MW of heath (a minimum 1 to 6 energy gain) (1 to 6 energy gain = 167 kW el-power in and 1 MW heat out)?

    2.0 Will the cost of this el-power (maximum 167 kWh for 6 months) come in addition to the cost for fuel (10 kg nickel & 18 kg hydrogen pr. 6 months)?

    I have been working as consultant in New Energy (since 1994) for management of Oil and Energy Companies in Norway (including Europe’s larges renewable energy company) as well as work the Government. The Consultant work has included training top management in what will come in the clean new energy field and have followed Your great work for a long time. Have also long time experience as Project Manager in the Norwegian Oil & Gas Industry and as technical auditor for Shell & Statoil.

    3.0 I am interested in linking Norwegian, Spanish and UK Oil, Gas and Energy Companies to Your products to prepare for when Your revolutionary products come on the marked. Please advice how best to contact You for my contacts within these areas for purchasing MW-units and licenses.

    4.0 Have You chosen the date of 28.09.2011 for Your demo for a special reason (i.e. are You aware that this date is one of the major dates for positive changes in alternative thinking)?

    All the best with Fridays major demonstration, verification & testing

    Sincerely,

    Jorn-Erik Ommang, Engineer
    New Energy Specialist
    Enerley.com
    Spain / Norway / UK

  • Lu Fong

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If you could be so kind and tell us about the power output over extended periods of time (say 6 months) for your E-Cat? For example, is is stable, slowly declining, completely controllable, etc.?

    I wish you much success with your product test this Friday. We are all hoping the best for you and your product.

    Sincerely,
    L.F.

  • Sverre Hanch Haslund

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Are you in any way affiliated with the website http://www.e-cat.com which is currently redirecting to http://http://www.google.com/green/ ?

    Warm regards and Godspeed !

    Sverre Haslund

  • Francesco Toro

    Carissimo ing. Rossi
    Riferendomi a quanto Le ha scritto Beppi Menozzi non mi sembra che vi possa essere una così dirompente visione del futuro causata dalla commercializzazione del E-Cat su scala planetaria.
    Viceversa a me sembra che al momento il ritrovato si integrerà gradualmente nell’ambito delle energie alternative, quale “amplificatore” della energia termica o elettrica tradizionalmente prodotta.
    E’ del tutto evidente che il processo fisico dell’E-Cat, una volta che fosse da Ella stesso adeguatamente compreso, potrebbe dare spunto ad ulteriori ricerche finalizzate al miglioramento delle prestazioni finchè, a un certo punto, potrebbero vedersi sul mercato apparecchiature del tutto autonome senza bisogno di energia termica (o elettrica)di “spunto” iniziale e di “mantenimento”, magari autosostentate dalla stessa energia prodotta internamente.
    Allora si che sarebbe una rivoluzione epocale!
    Ciò è auspicabile ma credo possibile solo quando verranno raggiunti certi valori di COP, in modo che l’energia esterna “somministrata” sia molto inferiore a quella prodotta in autosostentamento.
    Una ipotesi potrebbe essere quella di utilizzare una porzione dell’energia termica prodotta in una sorta di serbatoio isolato termicamente(magari ai sali di sodio), per restituirla durante la fase critica di decadenza della reazione, ottenendo il “mantenimento” in fascia di temperatura “non critica”.
    In altre parole una volta innescato il processo non sarebbero più necessari quelli antipatici “cicchetti di energia” esterna ogni 20-30′.
    Logicamente sto scrivendo per ipotesi e sulla base delle conoscenze fin qui da Ella concesse.
    Sincere Cordilità

  • Beppi Menozzi

    Egregio Ing. Rossi,

    Lei è certo consapevole che una invenzione come la Sua, se confermata, avrà un impatto mondiale ben più importante del semplice risparmio familiare. L’economia mondiale ha il suo fondamento sul commercio dell’energia, e su questo sono state intraprese guerre. Grande responsabilità dell’attuale disequilibrio mondiale è proprio dovuto a ciò.
    L’eCat, se confermato, porterà tutto d’un colpo una rivoluzione economica di scala mondiale, un ribaltamento di questo calibro non è mai stato sperimentato nella storia dell’Umanità.
    Intere aree geografiche la cui economia è basata sul petrolio saranno destabilizzate. Intere popolazioni terzomondiste fin’ora penalizzate potranno crescere a velocità mai vista prima. Economie nazionali basate invece sul nucleare saranno completamente rivoluzionate. I trasporti saranno totalmente rivoluzionati e così sarà l’industria automobilistica.
    Insomma, l’eCat avrà più impatto sociale ed economico della bomba atomica, del nazismo, dell’elettricità o della pennicillina.

    Detto tutto ciò, e sperando che ciò avvenga realmente per la liberazione dell’Umanità dalla situazione attuale, mi chiedo se Lei abbia mai seriamente parlato con esponenti istituzionali ed esperti di macroeconomia per affrontare questa situazione, e se ha mai valutato i rischi e l’opportunità di agire in maniera progressiva nella distribuzione della sua invenzione.

    Lo dico, ovviamente, da entusiasta e non da scettico: spero ardentemente che l’eCat non sia un fuoco di paglia e di poter ritrovare il Suo nome nei libri di storia dei miei nipoti, a fianco a quello di Einstein e Marconi.

    Beppi Menozzi.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stephen,
    Thanks to you all. I am under tremendous pressure right now.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Luca Salvarani

    Gentile Andrea Rossi

    1- Le faccio un grossissimo in bocca al lupo per il test del 28! Da quello che ho capito se tutto andrà bene l’e-cat andrà finalmente sul mercato, e a quel punto o la va o la spacca…
    2- Secondo me fa benissimo a non perdere tempo con altri test pubblici e a concentrarsi solo sul mercato! Tanto qualsiasi cosa faccia, qualsiasi test scelga… ci saranno sempre dei dubbi e ogni cliente vorrà comunque testarlo prima di comprarlo!
    3- Non crede che rivelare pubblicamente cosi tanti dettagli tecnici possa avvantaggiare i suoi concorrenti? Io spero che l’e-cat resti in mano sua dato che ci ha messo cosi tanto impegno e ha fatto tanti sacrifici, rischiando del suo! In bocca al lupo di tutto cuore!!!

  • Stephen T.

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I send my wishes now as I know you will be more and more busy as the day draws nearer. I think only positive thoughts, I focus on them and point them toward Bologna, I may pray as I seldom do. My friend, Jed Rothwell, I know he is your friend and I know he wishes you only the best. Please forgive those of us who worry too much and encourage us all to just think good thoughts. God speed, Andrea, God speed.
    Stephen

  • Giovanni

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    The price of Hidrogen will drop dramatically when we will be able to produce it using almost free elctric power….!! Cars powered by cheap hidrogen will be a reality. Thanks to you. At what time do you think you will start the 28/10 activity? At what time will you be able to produce news about it? Is your internet server powerful enough to face the traffic you will have that day? It will be the same as wait to watch for the results of a Italy-Germany soccer final…!!!
    My best regards and best wishes
    Giovanni

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Thomas Blakeslee:
    Grams/Power for a 180 days charge
    Hydrogen: 18000 g
    Nickel: 10000 g
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hamdi Ucar

    So far, nuclear reactions are only source of energy comparable to oxidation on environments where no oxygen and no sunlight is available. In this frame, energy generation application based on LENR would have similar status of NR on security and defense issues.

  • Dear Andre Rossi,

    I am writing an article for Renewable Energy World to be published on the day your E-cat is accepted and I have one question. How much nickel and hydrogen will it take to generate one megawatt of heat continuously for six months?
    I have already published several articles on your amazing invention and really excited to finally be able to speak in certainties. Good wishes for sweet success.

    Tom Blakeslee President
    The Clearlight Foundation

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea,

    Which website/(s) are covering the Friday, Oct 28th tests of the 1-MW ECAT?

    This website (JONP) is a good place to start, but http://www.nyteknik.se or the http://www.ecat.com site may have articles/pictures/videos during or shortly afterwards.

    We all wish you the best of luck and (continuing) best of skill.

    As to sparse media coverage, some earlier comments of Dr. Edmund Storms are interesting and may be prophetic? (On the Transition).

    Joseph

    http://coldfusionnow.wordpress.com/2011/10/24/edmund-storms-on-transition/

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dario:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Insight:
    The temperature depends on the mass of fluid to be heated, of course, so putting in series you raise the temperature, provided the flow is high enough not to reach the limit allowed .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marc Fouchi

    I will definitely contact you at the end of November! Hopefully I can still reach you through the onslaught of attention you are sure to get over the next month. :)
    I look forward to next month, and best wishes to you and your team this week – we are cheering you on in New Orleans!
    Marc Fouchi

  • Stephen T.

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I took the liberty of contacting Granite Power (from an earlier posting today). I asked them to e-mail particulars to your info@ address regarding overall efficiency and costs for conversion of thermal to electric in many ranges from 5kW to 5MW for your consideration. I asked them to assume diathermic oil at 450C as a hyothetical. Perhaps by the time they get around to putting this information together for you maybe you will have time to review it. God Speed.
    Sincerely,
    Stephen Taylor

  • Gordon Docherty

    Dear Rossi,

    firstly, God be with you – secondly, I believe there is one set of buildings that would really benefit from your E-Cat invention – churches and cathedrals. They are (usually) large, open, areas that require lots of heating to stay warm. Speaking from personal experience, anything that would allow them to stay warmer and/or be heated for less would be most welcome – and they usually have a “boiler room” many meters away from the main area in a locked room with very thick walls, so a good place to run an e-cat system (without all those extra restrictions that govern many secular public spaces). Although I am referring directly to churches in the UK, I am sure this case of heating (or cooling) churches / places of worship is true all around the world…

    Yours sincerely,

    Gordon Docherty

  • insight

    Dear A.R.,
    Indeed I would like to understand how E-Cat placed in series can raise the water temperature. Water temperature cannot be raised beyond the maximum temperature in each E-Cat, so maybe you mean that the water amount is bigger because it flows at an higher speed, exchanging less than maximum possible heat with each E-Cat. Am I wrong?

  • Dario

    Egregio Ing. Rossi,

    when you write that your E-Cat is not yet ready for electrict power generation , what do you mean exactly ?
    1) E-Cat devices can not be used in conjunction with turbine and electric generator because of technical limitation of the E-Cat reactor , or
    2) You are planning to deliver a compact sytsem (E-Cat Reactor + turbine + electrict generator) , and this is not yet ready ?
    Sorry for the annoying questions, but your invention is really exiting !
    Dario

  • Gabriele B.

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    I strongly hope that your E-cat is the marvellous thing it seems to be so far and you have all my moral support. My question is this: did you ever think how many interests are involved in the scenario your invention is really so good as you claim? Not only single companies should be heavily affected by develpments of your E-cat, but entire industrial compartments, even countries. I can’t figure out how this couldn’t result at least in industrial espionage, secret service involvment, in attempts to boycott your work or, in the worst case, attempts to your life. In my opinion if nothing of this happened so far is because of the low profile of your approach, but as the goodness of your invention should become clearer, some danger could come along.
    I wish you all the best, but are you considering this risk? We are talkin’ about somthing that could upset the world as we know it, and many (powerful) people won’t like this; did you take your precautions? What if something happens to your invention or to you? Are you the very only one who knows the secrets of your E-cat?

    All my very best wishes, I strongly beleive in your work even if sometimes I think: “It’s not possible, it’s too good to be true!”.
    Honored that one of the most important invention of the human kind has been made by an italian inventor.
    Best regards.
    Gabriele B.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andreas:
    You are right, only Italy granted the patent so far. Yes, our Attorney is constantly adjourned. The pending period can last up to 6 years, even if there is not a precise limit set by law.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear R. Breathnach:
    We do not use radioactive materials, do not leave radioactive material and the highes temperature we can reach is the melting point of nickel : once the nickel melts, the E-Cat stops and this fact makes it intrinsecally safe.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dustin:
    He,he,he…drink your champagne with your friends and make a toast to us!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chris Beall:
    The problem of the miniatiruzation has not yet been taken under focus.
    We will see.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Dingman:
    Actually, the issue is much more complex than this. As soon as possible I will give this info when it will be possible to disclose the theoretical bases, that for now I have to maintain confidential.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

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