Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,497 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • ShaunVW

    Hi Mr Rossi
    3 questions:
    1. How far are you in making your 2nd 1MW unit for your customer
    2. You say 3 months before finished, but if you want to ramp up to 30-100 per year, how long to make you 3rd unit? Surely not another 3 months, this equates to 4 a year.
    3. Have you considered South Africa [eventually the whole world will know :)] at all? Every year our electricity goes up 25-30% because of no infrastructure planning.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steve Robb:
    I perfectly agree with you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob Norman

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Congratulations on your ever expanding business. I hope you are production limited for many years and have much reward.

    Many of us are dreaming of products we could build if we could get an E-Cat to integrate into our designs. Do you plan to sell stand alone E-Cats or cores that we may purchase at some later date? If so, it would be great if you could publish a Black Box type of specification, so that we could start on our designs using your device. It takes time to figure things out and get them production worthy, so any advanced parameters or guidelines will go a long way. Most systems can be prototyped and tested by conventional means if we know what the usage details are.
    Thanks for your consideration on this matter.
    Best regards,
    Bob Norman

  • Steve Robb

    Dear Ing. Rossi

    Please continue on the commercialization path you are on and forget any new “proofs” of concept. The October test satisfies this Mechanical Engineer as I know an adequate energy balance when I see one. Moving the thermocouples about and such is a silly waste of time and of no more use than carrying five significant figures in a calculation when only three are sufficient.

    At this point the hard core of the unconvinced will remain so until they are driving about in an e-cat powered auto or they die.

    Thank you

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luke Mortensen:
    1- to order
    2- daily constant and stable operation of the 1 MW plants in the concerns of the Customers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Luke Mortensen

    Dear AR,

    Three questions today that I hope you can spare time for.

    Business question:
    Do you “build to order” or “build to forecast” for the 1MW plants?

    Upcoming Events Question:
    October 6th was a big day. October 28th was a really big day.
    What other big days are coming up that are important to you?

    Follow the Money Question:
    At the moment, are the commercialized 1MW plants bein sold as customers of Ampenergo or of Leonardo?

    -Luke Mortensen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    The E-Cats can be stopped and started. To modulate is possible by a proper heat exchanger.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daniel De Caluwé:
    1- Yes, we are working on this, within 2 years we will produce also electricity
    2- Unfortunately, our robot spams many good comments: it should only spam comments with viruses, advertising, but many times it wrongly spams good comments. I can do nothing: it spams about 1000 comments per day, in which are dispersed 2 or three good ones… Just check that you have no viruses, or links that can be taken for ads.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear PiersD:
    Thank you for the suggestions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear UClaimExcessEnergy:
    Again lecturing about tests !!! We receive 5 to 10 proposals per day to make tests around the world, most of them from competitors, of course. Please, read carefully:
    1- we made all the tests we had to make
    2- no more public tests will be made, the phase of public tests is over for us
    3- we now are no more making test-prototypes, but industrial products
    4- the tests of our E-Cats from now on will be made exclusively by our Customers
    5- all our next work with Universities (Bologna, Uppsala) will not be public, but restricted and confidential Research and Development activity.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear M.T.:
    Thank you for the suggestions, I pass them to our informatic.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • M.T.

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I like to make a short note to the “new” readers of your Blog.
    The Blog itself has of today 28 publications – see upper left side link: “Publication (28)”.
    On the right side column “Recent Posts” only the last 20 entries are listed.
    To read the initial Blog entries from the start, you have to enter the “Archives” Links: “March 2010” and “February 2010”.
    There I found your initial articles by the Authors: Sergio Focardi and Andrea Rossi.

    Further note:
    to read all the new Comments which are posted each day (by Andrea Rossi and by the readers) you have to click through each article.

    Best regards
    M. T.

  • UClaimExcessEnergy

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    At first – Congratulations! You convinced me. BUT 😉

    I want to suggest the following to you to convince the rest of the world with one easy test!

    * Start the E-Cat up, until it reached self-sustain mode,
    * send the output steam to an simple (auxiliary) electrical generator,
    * feed that electricity back into the machine and
    ** un-plug it from the wall.

    I am sure everybody including me will pay a 24h surveillance via webcam for the Internet!
    I would also pay for your the whole test setup as well if you could agree.

    What do you think?
    Could you agree to this?

    You can reach me at the given email address!

    Thank you in advance & warm regards!

  • PiersD

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    There is a large amount of interest in the new Leonardo da Vinci exhibition that opens today at The National Gallery in London. My guess is that you have named your company “Leonardo Corporation” after the great man.

    Taking some quotes from the Internet:
    “Leonardo da Vinci was the embodiment of the “Renaissance man”, a man who had attained mastery over all branches of art and science.”
    “ Unfortunately, Leonardo’s tendency to leave work unfinished was as characteristic of him as his artistic genius.”

    I hope the first of the above quotes is true that you have “attained mastery” over a branch of science. Many of your followers will hope and pray that you do not leave your work unfinished.

    A modern day analogy is the early years of the personal computer industry, and the battle that raged between Microsoft and Apple. Apple was probably the superior OS, but they refused to license their software to third party hardware manufacturers. So Microsoft ended up with the lion’s share of the market with its Windows based OS.

    Hopefully your business plan is for a rapid deployment of the E-Cat to the marketplace by licensing your technology to manufacturers who have the ability to ramp up production, and make LENR the primary energy source for the world market. Licensing will guarantee long term revenues to Leonardo Corporation, and ensure that you receive the scientific recognition that you surely deserve. Let engineers and scientists around the world take forward the development of the E-Cat, just as manufacturers such IBM, Dell, Compaq, and HP drove forward the PC revolution.

    Regards
    PiersD

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    1. Congratulations with the succesfull test of 28 october.

    2. Reading your blog, some people already made some suggestions concerning generating electricity with steam at low temperature and low pressure. But I wonder if there’s still engineering space to increase the operating temperature of the E-cat, so that it generates steam at higher temperature and higher pressure, which makes it easier to generate electricity afterwards? Or do you operate the E-cats already at their maximum temperature (i.e. melting point of the powder, … and so on), so that there’s no engineering space anymore to increase it?

    3. There appears to be a problem with 2 previous messages I posted on this blog. But when I posted the first of these, at that time there was a virus or a problem with the blog, and the second I posted when you had no time (during the 28 october test), or maybe there’s a problem with the link (to my blog) I included? Anyhow, via this message, I also want to assure you that I’m not a competitor, who wants to steal the secrets of the E-cat, and that I wish you all succes in your work and with the further development of the 1 MW plant!

    Kind Regards,

    Daniel De Caluwé

  • Francesco Toro

    Good morning ing. Rossi
    I was wondering if with the E-Cat household type, will be possible to modulate the power function of the temperature of the water contained in any tank, so simulating the classical thermostat, without the need to restart each time the reaction has to be increased the temperature. In a nutshell, I’m wondering if there is always on the condition of reaction at minimum power, for example, only 5% of maximum output power to compensate for heat loss of the only boyler.

    Warm greetings

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni:
    Yes this is an important issue. I know the Hydrogen-metal salts, but are not good for us. We are resolving with mini-tanks.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    looking forward to the time when e-cats will be in our homes, have you thought to a safer method to store hydrogen rather than liquid and compressed? It could also make certifications for a home usage of the e-cat more easy. For instance, I have heard about a safe method that uses “metallidruri”, metallic sponge that stores and delivers Hi.
    My best regards
    Giovanni

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco G.:
    I think you can understand that when the name of a Customer of us is known, he receives thousands ( or tens of thousands) of contacts to ask him everything. Customers need to be let to work in peace. When a plant goes in operation, a Customer can allow a reference or not, this does not depend on me. In the case of military Customers (I am not saying our Customer is military, I just am making a paradigmatic hypothesys) you can easily imagine how happy they could be of publicity.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni La Mantia:
    This is a confidential info,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni La Mantia

    Dear Andrea

    1 – Regarding the frequency generator, can you tell us the exact work frequence?
    1a- if this info is confidential can u tell us in wich range is located) (e.g. VHF, UHS, microwave…)

    2 – is the signal amplificated?
    3 – how many volts and amperes in the signal?

    best regard
    Giovanni La Mantia

  • Franco G.

    Ing. Rossi
    you have sold a plant to a customer who want to stay anonimous. You have written you have sold a second plant. Is this second customer also willing to stay anonimous? The sooner a customer name and consequent witness will be out, the better.
    Regards
    FG

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear ED:
    The COP remains the same in time.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ed

    Dr Rossi:

    Congratulations on your successes thus far. I had a question: The COP is guaranteed to average a factor of 6 or more for 6 months. What would be the maximum average COP a customer could see over 6 months? Perhaps a COP of 7 or 8?

  • Tim Harrell

    Dear Andrea,

    I sent an e-mail to you at info@leonardocorp1996.com. It concerns a sizable commercial venture for your consideration when the time is right. Thank you for taking time here to keep us as informed as you do, and best of luck as you build your next plants.

    Tra il dire e il fare c’e di mezzo il mare. Buon vento!

    Warm Regards!

    -Tim Harrell

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni:
    Our Customer is of that kind of organizations that make of confidentiality their essence. If they want not to give information, there is nothing I can do. The will of Customers is untouchable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Ottavio Segantin:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claud:
    Very good the article on Wired: objective .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Claud

    Here’s a recent article by “Wired” about an objective approach to the results of the 10/28 test:
    http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2011-11/06/cold-fusion-heating-up
    The circle is widening more and more.
    Good luck

  • Ottavio Segantin

    Buon giorno,
    vorrei chiedere la mail del Dr. A. Rossi per potergli scrivere.
    Ringrazio anticipatamente
    Ottavio Segantin mia mail: ottica.casazza@libero.it

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,

    you are giving us the evidence that nature hides many simple things yet.
    It’s an exciting time to live.

    Congratulations!

  • Giovanni

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    I am reportng here a question I have found in the Net:
    “”The first plant was sent from Bologna to probably US and I suppose by ship. Or is it light enough for air cargo? Has it already arrived? Has the customer put it in function already? I suppose Rossi must be in contact with him. Is the customer still satisfied? Do we have any information of this kind? Would be important!””
    I am forwarding it to you as it was.
    My best regards
    Giovanni

  • Esteban

    IMPORTANT:

    Prosf.James Richard of U.Minnesota is using ¨material martensitique phase¨as aleacion of Cu,Mn and Sn for to pass direct hot to electricity, without need of the carnot cicle.

    Look at: Physorg.com (11-08-2011).
    Thank you.

  • Patrick from Sydney

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If you accepted public investment in shares/stocks of your venture, the skeptics would scream “scam” even stronger.

    However, you don’t and should not care about the skeptics.

    So, what is the reason why you don’t allow your followers, your supporters, your believers to be part of this revolution by investing in Leonardo Corp.?

    Much respect,
    Patrick

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Peter K. Campbell:
    Thanks, I will study also this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    I prefer to leave the efficiency calculations regarding the electricity to when we will produce it.
    About your commercial suggestion, it is quite complicated.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Caro Dott Rossi,
    Lei stima una efficenza del 30% convertendo il termico in elettrico,il valore di potenza termica è inteso già al netto della energia elettrica consumata dal sistema?Se così non è,per ottenere in uscita un MWh termico quanti kWh sono necessari?
    Poi,a riguardo del futuribile apparato per produzione elettrica, mi frulla in testa una idea.Avete considerato la possibilità di costituire società con soci/clienti?Ovvero,la macchina rimane di vostra proprietà ed il socio/cliente fornisce il suolo e la custodia,dividendosi equamente i proventi della vendita di energia al gestore di rete.Questo comporterebbe anche un interesse reciproco a mantenere aggiornata la macchina nelle sue evoluzioni e data la sua struttura modulare forse non sarebbe troppo complicato.Rifacendomi alla Sua frase sulla Ford T e la formula 1,in mezzo ci saranno varie Panda etc..Certo che da un capannoncino di medie dimensioni ne uscirebbe già una bella centrale e con una formula del genere..chi più ne ha più ne metta!Perchè no?
    Non le nascondo che sarebbe il mio sogno nel cassetto alzarmi la mattina trepidante di recarmi ad ascoltare la musica delle turbine mentre si controllano i vari parametri di quello che considero essere un fuoco sacro.
    Scusi la divagazione ma tutto ciò”mi acchiappa molto”.
    Grazie. Cari saluti

    Giovanni Guerrini

  • Guru Gurovic

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I am a big fan of eCAT from first moment. I understand it is very promising technology.

    However, because I am fan, I must write this note:

    Mr. Rossi, you need maximal financial secure and sober. No debt, no overinvestment !!

    Reason: Within weeks there will be competing technologies NOT related with your LENR tech. These new technologies for example (You already know): HephaHeat will extreme low-cost and extreme high CoE (40:1 and above).

    My interest is You staying fully operational, so I wrote this note.

  • Peter K. Campbell

    Dear Dr. Rossi.

    Congratulations once again on the reactor demonstration. I notice that when discussing electricity conversions you are mentioning efficiencies down around the 30% range, which indicates you’re only considering common (and outdated) thermal conversion technologies. I would like to suggest you have a look at the work of Frank Germano and Martin Dorantes who have made successful replications of Nikola Tesla’s turbine design, which should allow you to lift the efficiency to probably 50% or higher. After all, an efficient exotic heat production technology should be married to an efficient exotic heat-to-electricity technology. You can find details on some of the research at http://www.frankgermano.net/theturbine.htm, and Mr Dorantes may be contacted on the US (Texas, GMT+5) number +1-512-748-4453.

    Note that I have no financial interest at all in this technology, and the only times I’ve contacted these people is to suggest they contact you in order to get the two technologies working together. My only interest is as a Scientist who wishes to see the most efficient production of electricity using these great technologies (and, of course, this means eventually I’d be paying less for electricity than I otherwise would :-)

    Thanks and warm regards.
    Peter K. Campbell

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Malagutti Simone:
    Thank you: this makes me indebted .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • malagutti simone

    Volevo solamente esprimere il mio caloroso augurio di buon lavoro.
    La sto seguendo da molto tempo, credo che si stia muovendo molto bene e il carattere non le manca per continuare questa rivoluzione che secondo me non è appena iniziata ma è già realtà.
    Non si faccia intimorire da nessuno, siamo con lei e non la lasceremo solo.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni:
    Next step: develope the electric power production plants, while selling the 1 MW thermal plants, upgrade the industrialization of the products; within 2 years start the sell of electric power plants, start the sales of household plants.
    A lot of work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    here I come again to your blog…
    This time to ask you something that could be of major interest for everybody interested in your development and activities, we are “appassionati” (this italian word should be known also by english speaking people because of it’s usage in music writing). It could be very interesting for us to know your “next step” plans: which achievements, which dates? Of course plans that your are willing to share with us.
    As usual, please have my best regards
    Giovanni

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andreas:
    At the moment in 1 l of volume we produce 10 kW.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro:
    We can confirm only what we already did. So far we are only making thermal energy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Favaro Giancarlo:
    Thank you!
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    No danger at all, but of course it has to be driven. As a car.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Malcolm Lear

    Dear Andrea,

    It seems to me you have invented the GASER (Gamma Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) and its operating frequency simply causes fusion.

    Regards
    Malcolm

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear ing. Rossi
    In an interview with news Green Style you said that the reactor from 1 MW worked in self sustain at reduced power from 1MW to 450kW for security reasons. This would mean that in this mode, you create some danger for anyone who is close to the reactor? Or it might simply fail the inside of the reactor without damage to neighbouring operators?

    Thanks again for your helpful advice

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