Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,

Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,496 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • TH-minneapolis

    Andrea Rossi

    I agree with “Alan The Brit” that some of your supporters would be willing to “self-fund the training necessary to run and maintain our domestic ecat units…” As you already know happy customers and good reviews is key to successful marketing.

    I suggest installing Beta “Mini e-Cats” that will provide hot water and heat for homes that have radiant floor systems now so that when you are ready to go to market with the electric version (in 2 years) you will have already worked out the bugs and will have a better product to sell to your new customers. (Maybe a free upgrade to the electric e-Cat for the “Beta Testers”?)

    Since we would be considered “Beta Testers” I think it would be “legal” to have a “Mini e-Cat” in our basements. An article about a man who built his own nuclear fusion reactor in a Brooklyn workspace stated: “Reactors of this kind are both legal and safe. It uses no fissile materials like uranium or plutonium that are associated with nuclear weapons, and it produces no pollution or other byproduct, other than heat.”

    Also Kelly T or Roger?? Thanks for creating the petition page. I support your effort and it was easy to do. All they want is your full name, email address and zip code. They only need 24,872 more “signatures”… then we’ll see if this administration will help Rossi get his stamp of approval so we can have domestic e-Cats in our homes quicker. Let’s do our part so Mr. Rossi can finish his work! Email this link to your friends and family:


  • Matthew

    Rossi’s right in one way…The customer(if respected within society)coming out and confirming this works is the best way forward for the e-cat. Then we can move onto the next customer and the next, ect. Until the entire scientific field is wondering what the heck! By that time they will be the ones in the hot seat.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    We make GREEN detergents and are growing even in these dangerous economic times.

    My company relies on GREEN technology and a GREEN aware customer base. Our customer distribution reaches all 50 states and several countries in Europe and the Far East

    I have a mfg plant and warehouse to heat. Not only would your e-cat devices save me money, but the advertising value of our using your technology would greatly increase our sales and spread information about your company to many parts of the world.

    We hope we can afford to get involved at this early stage of development.

    Charlie Sutherland
    Sutherland Products, Inc.
    Mayodan, NC USA

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear RH:
    You are right.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alan C.:
    I must respect the law, anyway.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greg Leonard:
    I do not think absolutely that we are fit got airships, at least in the middle term.
    Warm Regards,

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Alan: Great post, since Mr. Rossi’s friends on this site probably live in many different parts of the world, the E-Cats would get early local news coverage, the best way to advertise, “word of mouth”. Of course, I want one too. (:

  • Greg Leonard

    Dear AR
    Another application for the e-cat might be in an airship.
    Imagine a central column (or two may be better) of air being heated by e-cat, with vectored nozzles on the lower intake and the upper exhaust. When the intake points forward and the exhaust point rearwards, the effect will be to propel the airship forwards.

    If the intake points downward, and the exhaust upwards, then the airship will be pushed towards the ground.

    If intake and exhaust point in the same direction, then the airship will have little or no propelling force. Two columns will allow the pitching forces to be cancelled too,

  • Alan C

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    “…I will be delighted to offer them at very cheap conditions to the Friends of this blog. But I cannot put on the market a product that is not yet perfectly legal.”

    Oh, go on, we won’t tell anyone :-)


  • RH

    I can understand why skeptics and E-Cat’s enemies make a big deal out of the undisclosed nature of the first customer.
    But I don’t understand why supporters are also so intent on uncovering this.

    Quite possibly the customer sees the purchase a potential PR risk, so asked for confidentiality until he is ready to reveal himself. If Rossi is not able to protect his customer’s confidentiality that will only make the next sale more difficult.

    Of course we are excited to hear news about how happy the customer is and how well the E-Cat is working, but hounding every company that might possibly be the customer to try to bet them to confirm is really not helping.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Slan The Brit:
    Once the household E-Cat will have obtained all the necessary approvals, I will be delighted to offer them at very cheap conditions to the Friends of this blog. But I cannot put on the market a product that is not yet perfectly legal.
    Warm Regards,

  • Alan The Brit

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Why don’t you keep a list of all your cheeleaders from this website and consider us for use as pilot sites for your first production run of the domestic units. I suspect that many of us would be prepared to self-fund the training necessary to run and maintain our domestic ecat units until such time as you have developed a worldwide maintenance network, and the market is primed and ready to accept the technology. We could also help to promote Ecats in the domestic market through feedback and endorsements. By the time the domestic units are ready to ship I suspect the world will be beating a path to your door, so my suggestion may be a bit self-serving (I want one!).

    Congratulation on your first sale.


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dario:
    I do not know these Gentlemen, never met them, never spoke with them.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Matthew:
    You are right.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carl H. Dahlberg:
    The one of the October 28th test made by our Customer.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Norman:
    Thank you for the suggestion, but the problem is: where are these turbines on the market?
    Warm Regards,

  • Roger

    I have created a “We The People Petition” asking for a review of the Energy Catalyzer by the White House that you can sign by going to . I suppose you would have to be a citizen of the U.S. to be counted.

  • Bob Norman

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    In your quest for solving the electrical problem, have you looked at a Tesla Turbine. They run on low temperature and are very reliable. They are old and fell in disfavor because of material inadequacies at the turn of the century. With today’s material this may be a viable solution.



  • Carl H. Dahlberg

    What has been the longest sustained operation of any of the E Cat tests?

  • Matthew

    Dear Rossi,

    In the future once you get this producing electricy, maybe you could power the fans, pumps, stabilizers, ect off the output. Once it’s in sustain mode this could more or less feed off of its self in the future.

    I hope for the best for you Rossi. Warm regards.

  • Andreas

    Dear Mr. Rossi, here is a picture that shall explain where the reactions inside the e-cat takes place…
    Auxiliary menas the primary heating until it is in self-sustaining mode?

    But I wonder what is this?

    Thank you,


    P.S. Non vedo l’ora di poter comprare un e-cat 😉

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F:
    We use English to be globally understood and not to be confined .
    About your question if the 1 MW plant is in operation yet: not yet, it will take a couple of more weeks to set up the plant on the proper site.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Yes, we are working on this issue with the same Customer that made the test of October 28th and I am totally sure that we will be able to accomplish this target in matter of less than 2 years.
    Warm Regards,

  • Pietro F

    Mi scuso se utilizzo l’italiano. I miei complimenti innanzi tutto, sono contento che sia italiano. Una semplice curiosità: il primo cliente sta già utilizzando la centrale da un MW?

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr Rossi: Recently you were asked if the E-Cat could replace the coal fired turbines in coal power plants, your reply was “We are working on it, it will be possible, yes.” Can you give us any kind of time frame for when this will be possible? Are you giving this development top priority?

    This development alone could create an economic boom, which the whole world needs desperately.

  • Daniel De Caluwé


    1. The energy consumption of the (peristaltic) feed water pumps (from the water reservoirs up to the container-plant) must be taken into account of the 1 MW container plant.

    2. The energy consumption of the resistors, necessary to start the reaction (but not necessary during self-sustaining mode) also must be taken into account of the 1 MW plant.

    3. But the energy consumption of the electrically driven air-ventilators to cool and condense the steam (during the test done with air to steam heat exchangers) may NOT be taken into account of the 1 MW plant, because in normal operation, the steam is used by the client, and does not have to be cooled in that way. (The steam is used as process heat and/or to generate electricity (later)).

    4. The (eventually) energy consumption of the (eventually) condenser-pumps, that bring back the water (condensed steam) back to the water reservoirs, eventually must be taken into account of the 1 MW plant, because that also is not useful energy for the client.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Falcon:
    Both ways we are testing.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Simon Basovich:
    Other gases instead of hydrogen did not work, so far. But, you know, as Heraclitus wrote “the water of a river is never the same”.
    Warm Regards,

  • Simon Basovich

    Dear Mr. Andrea Rossi,

    What do you think about using heavy gases instead of hydrogen?
    Probably, it may help to produce energy plus precious metals by transmutation.

    Best regards,

    Simon Basovich

  • Falcon

    Dear  Doctor Rossi,

    I have a question concerning the direction you will take to achieve the production of electric power. Do you plan to use turbines that could use low temperature and low pressure steam, or do you think you will have to increase the temperature and the pressure of  steam on your future E-cats?

    Kind regards.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Matthew:
    We are working on it, it will be possible, yes.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mateo:
    The genset had to power the resistances of the reactors, during the non self sustained mode, AND the electric motors of the water pumps and the heat dissipators. It would have been illogic to put 2 power generators, one for the electric motors and one for the resistances, so we have taken one for all. Of course, the power of the power-generator was regulated on the base of the energy consumed. All this has been necessary because in the workshop where we made the test there is only a small power from the grid, because it is not used normally for high power consuming duties. Useless to add that the person who made the test for the Customer has checked carefully also the power consumed from the power generator. By the way: this person is an engineer who has spent his life testing thermal systems in military concerns, and has been chosen for his specific experience in thermodynamics.
    Warm Regards,

  • mateo

    Oops, posted my question too fast. I see your answer was:

    “The power generator had a power of 300 kW: it has been used not only to power the resistances of the reactors before they arrived to the self sustaining mode, but also to power the accessory electric motors: the water pumps and the heat dissipators and this is the reason why the power generator has been turned on also during the self sustained mode of the reactors.”

    I still question why you would use such a loud generator to power pumps for 5hrs when it could be done silently by plugging into the building’s electrical outlet? Leaving the generator on for this purpose seems like an unlikely choice to me.

  • Matthew

    Is it possible to scale the e-cat up to replace coal fired plants, fissle nuclear power plants, ect. Scaled up enough to take their place? That would be great.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Silvio Caggia:
    1-yes, I have tried the Seebeck effect, but it has too low efficiency
    2- I do not know if the E-Cat could operate in absence of gravity.
    Warm Regards,

  • Silvio Caggia

    gentile Andrea Rossi,

    1-Ha valutato l’idea di trasformare il calore direttamente in corrente elettrica attraverso sistemi allo stato solido invece di aderire al ciclo di Carnot?

    2-Il reattore dell’e-cat avrebbe problemi a funzionare in assenza di peso/gravità come in orbita intorno alla terra o nello spazio profondo?

    la ringrazio in anticipo per le risposte e le auguro buon lavoro!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Helmut H.
    With the 1 MW plants the reverse engineering is impossible. We have put very strong barriers.
    Warm Regards,

  • Helmut H.

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    as far as i know, you haven’t received Patents for the US and other markets yet. Isn’t there a big danger, that single E-Cats of your sold 1MW-unit are reverse engineered?

  • Andrea Rossi


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo:
    This is not our official website, contains many errors to be corrected, contains wrong names in wrong places.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alex:
    Thank you for reminding us the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni:
    We cannot disclose the name of the Customer.
    Warm Regards,

  • Giovanni

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    I have a vague idea, that is:
    – the first customer of the e-cat, whose name has been suggested starts with “N”, could be N.I…..
    – that they have purchased an e-cat to let them engineer their instrumentation “live” on the device….
    If this idea is worth to be considered, it could be a TREMENDOUS positive fact, they had the time to install and run the e-cat, if they have signed obviously the run has been successfull.
    PLEASE Ing. Rossi, tell us if this idea has a minimal possibility to be the truth..!!
    (vote from 0 to 10…!)

    With my best regards and hope

  • Alex

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Ghandi once said about his enemies:

    First they try to ignore you
    Then they try to ridicule you
    Then they fight you
    Then YOU WIN.

    Your (our) enemies are in the last phase of trying to fight you. They will lose the fight. In my opinion they have already lost it. It’s more like a mortally wounded, dying dragon kicking with his tail before he expires completely. God be with you.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    N.I. has made the best proposal and has a huge experience in the matter.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Optimistic Skeptic:
    We do not use any vacuum compression in our heat exchanger.
    Warm Regards,

  • Optimistic Skeptic

    Andrea Rossi,

    Are you positive your heat exchanger isn’t employing vacuum compression evaporation techniques. specifically steam injection? All heat generated can be recaptured and used to heat the input stream from the output stream
    with minimal losses.

    This style of heat exchanger works by charging a metallic thermal store using a material such as steel, which has approximately the same volumetric heat capacity as water, substantially more thermal energy may be retained than in a similar tanked volume of water.

    If you are calculating the heat as being 100% discharged it will look like massive over unity.
    In actuality 99% of the heat of the exit stream is captured and recycled pre-heating the incoming stream.

    Observations from an Optimistic Skeptic

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear ing. Rossi good evening
    I read this post: @ Italo “National Instruments signs to do E-Cat controls”
    If, as seems to be, it is true I ask kindly because it was not possible to Commission the control system to an Italian firm.
    You know … with the crisis of our economic system to me sorry that Italian take flight abroad.
    Don’t forget about us and if you can keep as much as possible the production cycle of the E-Cat in our beautiful Italy with much needed new technologies to make breathe the industrial fabric and give work to our young people.
    Thank You

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Shaun VW:
    1- Just started
    2- to make 100 units does not omply the need of 100 times of manhours! We have already prepared a chain of outsourching and a scale up of production system that will shorten exponentially the delivery time per unit. For example: the time to make 1 plant or 10 plants is nearly the same.
    3- South Africa is a very important market, but we are not ready, yet, with electricity production (we will in a couple of years).
    Warm Regards,

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