Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,496 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear M.B.:
    Of course when I say I cannot give information about what happens in the reactor, I mean with exception of the information already given.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.:
    Thank you, but remember: we are working on it, hardly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Ing. Rossi, it is really great for all of us the making of 1 million of E-Cats to reduce their cost to the point for useless copy!
    So I hope that I’ll be able to receive soon my pre-ordered 10kW E-cat.

    Then I suppose that you have already solved (at least for Italy) the bureaucratic problems about authorizations for safety and so on.

    Kind (or better: warm) regards,
    Italo R.

  • M.B.

    “Dear Andreas:
    As you know, I never approach discussons about what happens inside the reactor, either per inclusin or per exclusion.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea”

    Not entirely true, you did answer my concern about sub-copper LENR by-products explaining the iron found as degradation of the steel casing.

    That leads to a further question on the cobalt concern

    Do you assume the iron came from the casing or have you also found carbon and other alloying traces.

    Either way I’d expect that traces from cobalt OR traces from the alloying elements would be present.

    Just iron would be strange as you’d most likely find close to 1% carbon to iron traces.

    I’m sure you understand my concern and you did present the initial answer.

    Best regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pachu:
    I am telling that we are working 16 hours per day to reach the target to make 1 million E-Cats to put the price so down to make it at disposal of everybody and to make useless the reverse engineering. We have to make this, I think we will make this:
    Yes, w E-cat!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pachu

    Mr. Rossi:

    Are you really telling that you can make 1 million e-cats in a year (2740 per day)?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Craig:
    To give the name of a Customer of ours means that within 1 day he will receive hundreds of mails, phone calls, letters, most of them from snakes, creating a lss of time. To avoid all this meaningless noise, we will give the reference only in due time. For now t is premature.
    The sale of our E-Cats will not depend on tis factor, believe me. We will put for sale 1 million E-Cats at price lower than normal heating systems.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dr. Carl-Werner Oehlrich

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    and I am engineer. Let me first express my congratulation to your work. Looking at a lot of available material in the internet I am now convinced that your system works. During my studies I found that the output of energy of your system during self sustaining mode is not constant nor stable.
    I guess this comes from a a non-uniform allocation of the Ni particles in your reactor. Probably thre are zones with more or less distance between the NI particles. This also means with more or less H for the reaction!
    My hint for you is to experiment with fluidization (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluidization). If you will establish a circular flow of H throut the Ni powder the powder will convert to a dynamic fluid-like state. With this the reaction will be more uniform and probably even much stronger. The construction of a reactor with a H flow should still be simple enough for mass production. The amount of energy produced in self sustaining mode should be well controlled by the speed of the H circulation.

    Best Regards
    Dr. Carl-Werner Oehlrich

  • Dear Mr Rossi Sir.
    Do I glean from the most recent comments,
    that the home E-cat unit may have electrical generating capacity.
    This indeed does make my heart race if so.
    Annum Faustum.
    Bob Mapp

  • Dear Mr Rossi,

    Are you yet at liberty to say who the North American 1MW ecat customer is that you talked about a few weeks back? Are they willing to have their name identified at the moment?
    I think the announcement of a verifiable happy customer would help sell many more of your reactors. Hopefully you can tell us now who it is.

    Thanks,

    Craig

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andreas:
    To you!
    A.R.

  • Andreas

    Yes of course,

    It’s ok. I just wanted to tell you, maybe it could help.

    Buonissimo natale,
    Andreas

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andreas:
    As you know, I never approach discussons about what happens inside the reactor, either per inclusin or per exclusion.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • Andreas

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I read an article sometime ago about hot fusion, where they included nitrogen to the fusing hydrogen and anyhow the energy ‘yields’ (yet negatively of course) were higher. It could be another catalyst

    Maybe this could be true for cold fusion too. Maybe you could get even more energy from the ecat?

    Yours

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    Same to you!
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Daniel Zavela:
    Your pre order for Thailand has been accepted. In any case: to pre-order an E-Cat from all the World, just go to:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    That is good news.

    A Very Merry Christmas and A Very Happy New Year to you and yours.

    Charlie

  • Merry Christmas, Dr. Rossi and best wishes for a happy and successful 2012.

    I’ve pre-ordered an ECat 10kw home unit from ecat.com for my California home.
    Whom do I contact to pre-order a unit for installation at a home in Thailand?

    Best Regards,

    Daniel Zavela

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    The E-Cats will be serviced from our nearest agency. We will be closer to our Customers than you can imagine, with the system we will use.
    Merry Christmas,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roberto Nolè:
    La ringrazio e sono interessatissimo alla Vostra attenzione.
    Se posso aiutarVi,
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Buon Natale,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jed Rothwell:
    Sorry for my mistake, thank you for the correction.
    And one billion of wishes to you and your wife.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Gianni Saba:
    In the 2012 we will put in the market the E-Cats at a so competitive price to eliminate economically the competition, I hope. We are working in this direction, to overcome the obstacles. We are ready with the production of heat and very close to the production of electric power.
    Merry Christmas,
    A.R.

  • Gianni Saba

    Caro Ing. Rossi:

    Sono un docente di chimica di un istituto superiore di Sassari. Io e i miei colleghi seguiamo con molto interesse le sue ricerche che possono realmente rappresentare una svolta epocale per tutta l’umanità. Il petrolio potrà essere finalmente utilizzato a fini più nobili e non certamente come combustibile. Ci dispiace un po’ vedere ancora lontana nel tempo (due o più anni) la produzione della caldaia domestica (3-10 kwh). Non vediamo l’ora di liberarci dalla dipendenza dal gasolio e dalla combustione in generale.

    Le auguriamo buon lavoro ed un felice Natale.

  • You wrote: “. . . specialized in moke ups.”

    I believe you mean mock-ups or mockups.

  • Roberto Nolè

    Saluti e auguri per la gigantesca opera iniziata da lei e dai suoi collaboratori, parlo anome della “Libreria Il Laboratorio” che da sempre segue le notizie su le novità in merito alla fusione fredda, ed è quasi un anno che seguimo le vostre dimostrazioni, pur essendo non dei tecnici ma dei letterati, la sua scoperta ci ha entusiasmato, sia sotto l’aspetto umanistico che quello sociale dove il suo E-Cat è in grado di portare profondi cambiamenti epocali. Spero che possiate tener conto di un punto di divulgazione imparziale, nel caso abbiate bisogno di divulgatori nella nostra zona di attività. Ancora grazie e a risentirci presto.

  • I have a 20 hp HONDA,10,500 watt, 40 Amp (continuous output) emergency generator for my home. The waste heat from this unit is wasted. It is capable of running my entire home electricity needs except it does not operate but one of my air-conditioners at a time. If fitted with a heat exchanger, could most likely provide seasonal needed heat as well.

    By my cursory observations, your 10KW unit would provide all the heat I need, but even if properly connected, might not produce enough electricity for my present needs.

    That does not discourage me in the least. However, I am curious as to how your units are to be serviced each 6 months.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Valeria:
    Thank you,
    Wishes to you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dava Cline:
    Too low efficiency,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo A. Albanese:
    It is a standard E-Cat module making 10 kWh/h. We make also tests of new materials, in a productive area where we make works we want not to give trace of. Anyway we are thinking to this, also if it is not very interesting: the clowns, specialized in moke ups, can make the same with the usual empty box. There is nothing that could be useful in such operation, because you can make a moke up , video it, put the numbers you want, so what? Initially I thought it could be nice, but, thinking to the clowns that will make a similar moke up and take credit from it, I decided to cancel. Only working plants in the market will give evidence of the difference between words and facts.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo A. Albanese

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    could you provide some more information about the e-cat heating your factory? Power, cop, running time, temperatures? It would be interesting to have, if not a webcam, a continuous log of these measures.
    Best regards, merry Christmas and happy new year.
    (If you’ll have a great 2012, the world will be a better place)

  • Dave Cline

    LENR might be a great source of heat for direct conversion to electricity via thermoelectric generation. This company has chips that do this directly,

    http://www.powerchips.gi/

    http://www.powerchips.gi/technology/overview.shtml

  • Valeria

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    I would like to wish you a merry and peaceful Christmas.
    God bless you all and grant you peace

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guido Chiostri:
    You are right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Richard Eldred

    Hi Mr. Rossi, Thinking the e-cat is a “Continuous Heat alternative new green energy Technology or CHange Tech. wish you well, Rick Eldred

  • Guido Chiostri

    Gentile dottor Rossi,
    ho letto la sua convincente risposta ad Alby : l’energia prodotta durante il test del 28 ottobre supera di 166,6 volte quella massima accumulabile chimicamente in batterie dello stesso volume dei reattori utilizzati durante il predetto test. Anche io come Alby non voglio apparire irriguardoso ma potrebbero essere utili per fugare in modo definitivo ulteriori dubbi ( e nessuno meglio di lei , filosofo della scienza, puo’ sapere quanto sia utile al progresso un atteggiamento non strumentalmente dubbioso) sue considerazioni di analoga efficacia e semplicita’ volte ad escludere l’ ipotesi di fonti di alimentazione occulte .

    Con i migliori saluti

    Guido Chiostri

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alby:
    I never banned you. Probably your comment has been spammed by the robot, as it happens, unfortunately, sometimes to our Readers. When it happens, just repeat the send, as you correctly made, but be sure that in the address from where you send the comment or in the same comment there are not advertising signals.
    About your question:
    The 1 MW plant that has been tested on October 28th 2011 by the Consultant of the Customer, he has calculated what follows:
    1- the total volume of the 106 reactors (net of the heat exchangers and the water tanks): 0.318 cm (cubic meters zero point threehundredeighteen)
    2- the total amount of kWh of energy produced in 5.5 hours has been 2,585.00 kWh (twothousandfivehundredeightyfive kWh)
    3- to produce 2,585.00 kWh with the best existing batteries you need a battery volume of at least 53 cm (fiftythree cubic meters)
    Conclusion: the energy produced has been 53/0.318 = 166 times more that the maximum amount of energy you could have produced with the most energy-dense batteries existing in the market.
    I want also to add that:
    a- if you read the Focardi-Rossi paper published on this same journal, you will see that an E-Cat has worked for 180 days, 24 hours/day
    b- we made and make regularly tests which last more than 20-30 hours
    c- presently we are heating a factory of ours with our E-Cats.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • alby

    Dr. Rossi a quando una 24 ore di dimostrazione con video in diretta su internet per fugare qualsiasi dubbio che non sia una reazione chimica che produce il calore.

    Spero di non essere bannato per la seconda volta perche’ non mi pare di avere offeso nessuno.
    un cordiale saluto

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giannino Ferro Casagrande:
    We accepted your pre order; when ready, you will receive an offer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pierinadsl:
    We are studying also the low enthalpy turbines.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • pierinadsl

    Spett. Dott. Rossi
    Non comprendo perchè per una prima “temporanea” produzione di eletticità con l’impianto da 1 Mw non impiega la tecnologia e le turbine usate da tempo anche dall’Enel qui in toscana con i liquidi geotermici a basse temperature (120°-180°C.) come riportato anche da wikipedia.La vera ricerca dovrà esser indirizzata probabilmente alla conversione diretta calore-elettricità (forse ad elementi impilabili) con tecnologia a livello dell’i-pad, altrimenti sarà rapidamente superato da coreani e cinesi brevetto o non brevetto.
    tibi res secundae

  • Giannino Ferro Casagrande

    Vorrei acquistare un ECAT di tipo famigliare !!!
    Prego specificare TEMPI MODI COSTI !!!
    Cordiali saluti!!!!!!!!!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gerard:
    Auguri a Lei!!
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Piero:
    Interesting,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Piero

    Dear mr.Rossi,
    don’t know how far you are in finding a way to generate electricity from an e-cat, but you might be interested in exploring the technology some guys who spun-off from the MIT have come up with. Here’s a link:
    http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-57346047-54/a-solar-hot-water-collector-that-makes-electricity-too/?part=rss&subj=news&tag=2547-1_3-0-20
    (the idea coud be to replace the solar panel part with an e-cat generator)
    Just some food for thought. Season greetings

  • Caro Andrea,

    I migliori auguri questa stagione di festa

    Saluti,

    Gerard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tommaso Di Pietro:
    I will give this information as soon as possible. It will be possible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tommaso Di Pietro

    Gentile ingegnere Rossi,
    qualche giorno fa ci ha confermato di avere venduto un altro impianto da 1 megawatt ad un cliente statunitense che sembrerebbe non volere mantenere l’anonimato.
    Non appena il contratto di vendita sarebbe stato pronto lei ci avrebbe rivelato il nome del costumer.
    E’ possibile sapere a che punto è questa compravendita?

    Grazie ed infiniti auguri!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carloluna:
    Alchemy has been the root of Science before the eighteenth century… today we use Physics and Chemistry. To use Alchemy today is like to go to a war with bow and arrows.
    Nevertheless, we still try to turn our barbaric instinct (iron) into Spiritual Achievements (gold), but this is Philosophy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Carloluna

    Dear ing.Rossi
    I venture to ask an opinion on an idea I have in mind for many years.

    The alchemist Fulcanelli in “The mystery of the cathedrals”:

    “The oak tree has been chosen by the ancient writers, to indicate the common name of the initial subject,
    as found in the mine. The Philosophers give us the information needed on this matter, only an approximation,
    the equivalent of which corresponds to the oak. ”

    MY INTERPRETATION

    for the ancient authors who wrote in Latin the name of the raw material was phonetically
    equivalent to that of the oak

    QUARTZ = QUERCUM

    The transmutations in LENR are triggered by electricity.
    The quartz subjected to heat produces pyroelectric phenomena…….

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jim B.:
    Yes, the shielding is designed to sustain the temperature.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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