Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,497 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Rene Vega

    Mr. Rossi,

    I submitted my preorder via the other web site. I hope you have received it.

    Earlier (31 Dec) you replied to Jimmy A. about the e-cat with “[you] will need nothing, because the E-Cat will incorporate all necessary. Like a TV set, you will have just to connect it and plug it.”

    My home is solely powered by a 7000W photovoltaic array (no external mains power), generates 48VDC and with sinewave inverters it generates 120/240VAC. It is an offgrid system and so batteries store energy for night operations. My backup heating is hydronic and an e-cat would be a very good heating system. I assume worst case with a COP of 6 is that a 10KW thermal output requires 1.67KW of electrical input? How long can the to-be-delivered e-cat run in self-sustain mode. If they can do so for 12 hours then this system would work very well with photovoltaic electric input. Or, another way to ask is how many KWh of electrical input is required to keep the 10KW thermal output going each day?

    Thank you and Happy New Year!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    No, the Customer, National Instruments and us are still working on the re-engineering of all the control systems. The partnership with National Instruments is revolutionizing and tremendously improving our plants, and this work is also useful for the domestic E-Cats, which will have the same control system. We are really learning.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Buongiorno sig. Rossi,

    negli Stati Uniti anche i politici si stanno interessando alle Lenr.

    Le volevo chiedere se un suo impianto da 1mw é gia in funzione da qualche parte nel mondo, grazie e auguri.

  • Vladimir

    Mr. Rossi,
    Potential buyers should be confident that ecat will work 6 months on a single Ni load.
    Do you plan to make public long-term experiment before autumn?

  • Sofia Astori

    Gentile dott. Rossi, anch’io sarei felice di poter installare il suo E-cat domestico in casa mia ma ho il timore che non sia adeguato alle mie esigenze: la caldaia a metano che ho ora dichiara 25 kw. Come posso fare?
    La ringrazio se può darmi una risposta, Sofia Astori.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michael Kelly:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    We are working as hard as we can.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo

    Dear Ing. Rossi:
    I’ve found that someone is selling your image…funny.

    (Note: in the following link I have cut out the address of seller)

    http://www.tortebomboniere.com/public/Rossi_T-shirt.jpg

    Kind regars,
    Italo R.

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear ing Rossi
    Work, work and still work! Today we have all heard the latest report on global temperature. Needs to be done very soon! We must stop or reduce the use of oil or earth MOM will pay our indifference.
    Warm Regards
    F.T.

  • Michael Kelly

    Please add me to the waiting lists for both domestic and industrial units.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roger:
    Thank you and best Wishes to you!
    A.R.

  • Roger

    I predict that 2012 will be the year of the snakes and puppets turning belly up. Best wishes to you Andrea Rossi and your endeavor in the new year.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Adam Maitland,
    Happy New Year.
    Your pre-order has been accepted.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Atkinson:
    Wonderful 2012 to you.
    Yes, we will count on the trusted heating and cooling companies of the Customers to install and assist. The Customers will give us the names, we will give the necessary instructions. This way we will rapidly set up an efficient network, which also will expand the sales.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • John Atkinson

    Mr. Rossi,
    Happy New Year, I understand your goal is 1 million 10 kw e-cats in the very near future. The installation of these to private homes or businesses will be a very large undertaking. Will technicians have to be trained for there installation or will you rely on current heating and cooling company s to accomplish the installations? I am thinking of the lead time necessary to train those techs and where this will be done. Best regards and keep up the hard work, the world is watching.

    John P. Atkinson

  • Adam Maitland

    I would like to wish you and your team the very best for the New Year.
    Also please put me down for an E-cat pre-order.
    Thanks for all your hard work.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roberto M:
    I assure you we are making our maximum efforts: by the way, it is 2 a.m. of Jan 1st, I am working.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gary:
    We will make with the first generation only head and conditioned air, not el. power.
    To become an agent of us, please sned a detailed description of your activity to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gary

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Please tell me how I can act as an agent for a local utility company that wants to buy and test an e-cat for possible integration into their natural gas fired electrical generation system.

    They do not want any direct contact with you or your company at this time, (until after the installation and testing of the first unit), for reasons I understand but cannot disclose at this time.

    Since systems like yours would significantly reduce their “avoided cost” and since they produce electricity with a base covering parts of three states the potential market could well be over 100 one-megawatt e-cats.

    Warm Regards,

    Gary

  • RobertoM

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I wish you and to all JONP fans all the best and an happy New Year ! Pls make all possible efforts ! In this big caos now more than ever we need your Ecat.
    Roberto

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jimmy A.:
    Yoy will need nothing, because the E-Cat will incorporate all necessary. Like a TV set, you will have just to connect it and plug it.
    The problem of solar systems is that if there is no sun they do not work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • jimmy a.

    Hello Mr. Rossi,

    I have a small 12 volt solar system (2500 watt), will this be enough power to put my home ecat into self sustain mode or will I need a generator? If generator is required please tell me how many watts I will need. Thanks for your time and hard work and please let me know if there is anything I can help you with from Louisiana.

    Also you should have received my preorder 2 months ago.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear G. Singh:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- can be different versions
    4- both
    5- yes
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Panfilo Marinucci:
    Yes, I am interested to all the new technologies which can be coupled with the E-Cat to make electric power. If you have specific and real proposals, please mail to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gent.mo dott. Rossi,

    In precedenti commenti ha escluso l’uso di motori Stirling a favore di turbine a vapore con temperature di esercizio pari a 400°C e rendimenti reali del 25%.

    Ritengo che esistano soluzioni migliori per produrre elettricità sfruttando la reazione che avviene nell’E-CAT. Potrebbe essere interessato ad innovativi metodi e sistemi per produrre calore ed energia elettrica in modo efficiente utilizzando come sorgente la reazione da lei ottenuta?

    Se del caso, è possibile fissare un appuntamento per illustrarle la mia idea?

    Cordialità

    Panfilo Marinucci, PhD

  • G Singh

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Here is wishing you a Happy New and Successful 2012 Year! Some questions if you can answer and they don’t help the competition.

    Previous you said you had a breakthrough with a primary fluid, did that help stabilize the reaction?

    Do you feel you still need to ‘load’ the reaction with input electrical heat to help stability?

    You mention the output steam is now 400 C. Is that for all e-cats or are there to be different versions?

    You said the work with the Partners has allowed you to sell 10 kw E-cats at a price that will kill the competition. Is that mainly a breakthrough in E-cat design or in how they are to be manufactured?

    Is the design of the 1 MW E-cat, for all submitted orders, finalized?

    Thank you for taking the time from your busy schedule to answer some of these questions.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guido Chiostri:
    Thank You!
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Marcena:
    Thank Yu and best wishes to You!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Panfilo Marinucci:
    That is another option, not alternative, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giuseppe Vimercati:
    That is not a problem for us: we work for the People that needs our work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alex:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Alex

    Please put me in the list of preorders for a home unit!

    Regards, Alex

  • giuseppe vimercati

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    I’m following you now for a year, I did a pre order for an E-Cat, but what I really can not understand is why the politics, particularly Italian, the finance, the same official science seems to completely ignore his invention. Had I been a minister would send technicians to verify the validity and in one way or another I would have obliged you to work in Italy, of course, paying generously for having the enormous benefits that could derive in terms of national wealth and taxes on huge profits.
    Have you given yoursel an explanation for this indifference?
    I take this opportunity to extend my heartfelt and best wishes for a Happy New Year 2012, which I hope will be the year of E-cat.
    Giuseppe

  • Gentile dott. Rossi,

    Premesso che l’energia può essere venduta sul libero mercato perchè non ha pensato a utilizzare l’E-CAT per produrre energia da vendere piuttosto che commercializzare l’apparato?

    Cordialità

    Panfilo Marinucci, PhD

    (PS. ha ricevuto il mio precedente post ?)

  • Carlo Marcena

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I keep following the E-Cat saga with the utmost interest. In congratulating u for your achievemets during 2011, I wish u even more successes for the coming 2012. I am sure that, once tamed (i.e. made fully dependable), E-Cat will become the killer technology able to enforce the long awaited paradigm change in the whole word of Energy, succeeding in what Reewable Energies failed to do.

    Again, my Best Wishes for the New year,

    Carlo Marcena

  • Guido Chiostri

    Thank you for your kind and heartening answer about electric power production( “we are close” ) . I ‘ll carry on following this blog .

    Warm regards

    Guido Chiostri

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Guido Chiostri:
    As agreed, we will give precise communication about when we will be ready to produce electric power. We are close, but not in production yet for it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Guido Chiostri

    Caro dottor Rossi,
    ho letto la sua risposta a Roberto Rampado. Immagino che sia la domanda che la risposta abbiano implicitamente a che fare con la produzione di energia elettrica.Come ho già avuto modo di dirle , la questione mi interessa molto. I valori che Lei indica in termini di temperatura e rendimento sono già sufficienti ( o almeno prossimi ) al raggiungimento di tale scopo ? E se non lo fossero , quale è il suo target a questo fine ? Tenga conto che io non sono un tecnico ( naturalmente i tecnici interverranno al momento opportuno ma questo sarà un aspetto da trattare privatamente ) e quindi vorrà scusarmi se la domanda fosse inconferente o mal posta.

    Cordiali saluti
    Guido Chiostri

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro B.:
    Thank you,
    Best Wishes to you!
    A.R.

  • Pietro B.

    Che possa, il 2012, essere l’anno dell’eCat… :)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QM7LR46zrQU

    Best wishes and happy new year!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tomas:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tomas

    Please put me in the list of preorders for a home-unit !
    Best regards
    Tomas

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Rampado Dr Roberto:
    La Sua prenotazione era stata accettata.
    1- 400 Celsius
    2. vapore
    3- 25%
    Cari saluti,
    A.R.

  • Rampado Dr Roberto

    Caro Dr Andrea Rossi,
    Credo che tu abbia ricevuto la mia prenotazione per tre E-Cat da 10 kW, uno per me, uno per mio figlio e uno per la suocera (così ha un pretesto in meno per dover venire a casa nostra…eheheh).

    Poiché mi interesso per hobby di motori esotermici e avendo saputo che state testando il motore da accoppiare con l’E-Cat per la cogenerazione domestica, chiedo se è possibile avere qualche notizia a riguardo.
    1 – Che temperatura massima avete a disposizione ?
    2 – Verso quale tipo di motore siete orientati, gas o vapore ?
    3 – Quale rendimento siete riusciti ad ottenere finora ?

    Grazie fin da ora della cortese risposta e buon lavoro !!!

    Saluti e auguri di Buon Anno.
    Rampado Dr Roberto

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chris:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    The certifications are in course, we will have them made within Autumn 2012.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    buongiorno sig. Rossi,

    complimenti per la sua politica industriale,
    penso che se avesse seguito la via scentifica avremmo visto l’ecat nel 2050!
    Mi rimane solo una preoccupazione, le autorizzazioni e le certificazioni, a che punto siamo?

    Auguri di buone feste!

  • Chris

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Will it be possible to install the home unit e-cat instead a conventional (Gas-)Heating system and in an existing heat circuit?
    Are the home plants in the possition to produce enough constant heat for radiators and hot water heat storage?
    Are the electronic to be able automatically regulate everything needed (day and night switching) as well as with conventional heating systems?

    Best regards
    Chris

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.:
    I confirm that you already are in the pre-order waiting list.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • M.B.

    Of course, and in that same spirit could you clarify (when possible) the additional traces found:

    H0: Certainly Carbon (casing iron), other alloying elements of steel

    H1: Certainly Cobalt (LENR iron and Cobalt is in the copper/iron gap)

    Best regards

    p.s. if H0 a nickel platting of the chamber (specially with re-servicing) would be a good solution to avoid contaminants. The first plating would “suffer” a lot as some would be transformed, but at the 3rd or 4th repair you’d basically end up with an inert nickel plating and zero contaminants. It might be perfect at the second plating if you used “spent” nickel fuel to re-plate the chamber. (and if you find the idea interesting you can add me as an author to “inert plating of E-CAT and other nickel hydrogen LERN chambers” nickel is way more resistant than plain stainless steel )

    p.p.s. a thick nickel plating would sustain

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