Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,536 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Helmut H.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    will there be the possibility to upgrade the 1st generation e-cat to a unit generating electric power for self sustained mode?

    The reason i ask is, that with a COP of 6 and electricity costs of ~0,17 EUR/kWh (Austria), the savings would be almost 0, compared with our current wood-gasifier heating system.

  • […] This post from Andrea Rossi deserves its own thread. […]

  • DEAR DCTR.ROSSI

    I HAVE GOT YOUR CONFIRMATION FOR PREORDER OF E CAT,WHEN THE PREORDER WILL BECAME AN ORDER ,YOU WILL INFORM ME BY E MAIL,OR I HAVE TO KEEP IN TOUCH ????
    I IMMAGINE THAT YOU WILL SEND THE BANK DETAIL FOR THE PAYMENT.

    WAITING YOUR ANSWER

    MARIO GOTTARDI

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear The Plumber:
    1- If you like, yes
    2- Your pre-order has been accepted.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Renè Vega:
    1- no
    2- yes
    3- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rene Vega

    I was asking my questions because I am trying to determine how to best use a thermal output-only e-cat. There are several scenarios I have in mind for my house: hot water heating (120-130F, 49-54C), hot tub (101-104F, 38-40C), and house hydronic heating (120-150F, 49-66C). All of these applications are below boiling and 1. would it be the case this may prevent the e-cat from ever enter self-sustain mode?

    My main interest is not about the reactor operation but of its control interfaces. Different price points change how heating units are acquired. If inexpensive enough people would buy a unit each dedicated to an application. When the price is higher, then one unit would be multiplexed across several applications. With the e-cat projected at $5000-$10000USD, that price is high enough to sugest multiplexing its usage. That in itself is not a big problem – valves and control systems not much more complex than my multizone hydronics system are relatively easy to set up. But, my next question is 2. will the e-cat have a customer accessible control interface? For example, an embedded http server and ethernet connection would be ideal. Then a controller can tell it to turn on/off perhaps set a desired temperature (the internal e-cat logic overrides to maintain safety etc.). In this way, a house controller could then control valves to direct heated water to the different applications at temperatures specific to each application.

    Also 3. how long is the time from the e-cat being off to generating hot water? Is it still 15+ minutes? I ask because for use in domestic hot water applications, that would mean a storage tank is needed (again, not a problem, but something that must be considered for that scenario).

    Thank you for your response.

  • As an expirienced HVAC guy, I will likely install the e-cat for what I hope will be many thousands in my area. I have also put my name on your e-cat pre order for myself. Will I be buying directly from your company? If not, will my pre order put me at the front of the line at your distribution outlet? I would prefer the second option. Lastly, how can I get on your prefered contractor list?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear TH-minneapolis:
    Before we will be able to produce electricity it will take more time, but we are on our way.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • TH-minneapolis

    K.D.

    Rene Vega’s asked (Jan 3 @ 4:48 AM) “I assume worst case with a COP of 6 is that a 10KW thermal output requires 1.67KW of electrical input?.” So I was trying to ask if you ran the “H-Cat at 50% would it take half of the elect input to run it or will it always consume 1.67kW when it’s plugged in and turned on? Andrea answered: for heating “The excess heat will be regulated.” but cooling & the future electric E-Cat would be “precise” which by definition means; being exactly that and neither more or less. Guess I’ll find out how much when I get my first electric bill.

    TH

  • K. D.

    TH-minneapolis
    January 8th, 2012 at 4:09 PM

    1. If my home requires 5kWh for heating or cooling at night will the “H-Cat” only need half the electric power to run than it does when running at 10kW?

    2. If you set the “H-Cat” output water temp to < 120°F (<50°C) will it be able to run in self-sustain mode continuously after it’s powered up without further electrical input for 6 months?

    Mr. TH
    You were asking about self-sustain mode, and got unswer
    "2- the COP will always be 6"

    What I understand, many peoples are askink about self-sustain mode, but Mr. Rossi already stated from the begining that to keep its secure working, and have full control of the reactor it will be nesessary to supply some external electrical power.

    Of course if in the future, it will be producing electricity too,
    it will power it self.
    Some peoples might be misleded, that the October 28 test was running as self-sustain mode.
    But it was done by customer, and for security reason reduced to 1/2 of the ful 1MW power.
    If I am wrong, somebody can correct me.
    KD

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear eCatNow!:
    I did not say absolutely that we had to go through any legal hurdle! I just said that our Customers want not to be exposed to the tsunami of contacts and emails that usually rain upon our Partners of any kind when we give their names: therefore we had to sign “non disclosure agreements” regarding anything we do with them.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr Rossi,

    I know I have asked you this question before, but I wondered if the situation has hopefully changed over Christmas and New Year. Are you able to publicly name the company who is the second customer of one of your 1MW eCat systems?

    The last I heard from you was that it had to go through some legal hurdles first.

    Thanks,

    Craig

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ray Winkler:
    Your pre-order has been accepted.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivan Idso:
    Nice! Anyway: we are designing to make the E-Cats fit to be applied to any existing heater, your circuit is fit too.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear TH-minneapolis:
    Your questions are absolutely not stupid, I just missed them, sorry… here are the answers:
    1- The excess heat will be regulated. It will be precious for cooling and for electric power, when ready
    2- the COP will always be 6
    3- if you will have an excess of production, that can be a solution, but there are many others, depending on the specific situations: we will give free consulting to our Customers for this issue.
    Thank you for your questions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • TH-minneapolis

    Andrea Rossi,

    I didn’t get an answer to my questions (Jan 6 @ 11:44 AM): (I’ll reword a little and hopefully they not stupid questions)

    (to keep it less confusing I suggest that the first generation domestic E-Cat be named H-Cat and then use the E-Cat name for the second generation add-on unit that produces electrical power)

    1. If my home requires 5kWh for heating or cooling at night will the “H-Cat” only need half the electric power to run than it does when running at 10kW?

    2. If you set the “H-Cat” output water temp to < 120°F (<50°C) will it be able to run in self-sustain mode continuously after it’s powered up without further electrical input for 6 months?

    3. Do you think the electrical power the future E-Cat will generate could to be stored into batteries like solar powered system do for those of us that want an off the grid home in case of long power outages?

    Thanks for your hard work!
    TH

  • Ivan Idso

    Mr. Rossi,

    I am excited to incorporate an E-Cat into my home. I have attached a link to my Blog that has a diagram of how I would like to incorporate it(click on the pic to enlarge). It is a closed system with thermal storage and a heat exchanger. This is the same system that I installed with my Solar Thermal panels, which the E-Cat would replace. Does this look like it will work?

    http://hopeecovillage.blogspot.com/

    Thanks much and good luck in 2012.

    Ivan Idso

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I can already order for Germany e-cat?
    Warm Regards,

    Ray Winkler

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fyodor,
    I undersdtand. I always answered to the questions I could answer to.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guido Chiostri:
    We will do the presentation as soon as the certifications will be completed. Perhaps September.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Guido Chiostri

    Egregio Dottor Rossi,
    ho letto su questo stesso blog che Lei si appresta a produrre e a mettere sul mercato un milione di E.cat per uso domestico. Se non ho inteso male l’inizio della commercializzazione è previsto per l’autunno 2012. Dato che nessun prodotto , soprattutto se destinato ad un mercato di massa di privati utilizzatori, può essere venduto ” a scatola chiusa ” cioè se prima non è stato pubblicamente presentato e descritto nella sua forma definitiva , sarebbe interessante sapere per quando , nel periodo intercorrente tra oggi e l’autunno 2012, è prevista la presentazione ufficiale al mercato del prodotto in questione .

    Cordiali saluti
    Guido Chiostri

  • Fyodor

    Mr. Rossi

    My interest is purely academic curiousity. I am a technology enthusiast and am very interested in your invention. I spend a lot of time reading about new scientific improvements. I think that this is the case with most of the people who post on this site.

    Fyodor is a nickname that I have used on internet discussion boards and forums for a long time. I use it on numerous sites, including fiction discussion forums, consumer electronics forums, and other things that relate to my personal interests.

    I do this because I do not want my employers or business relations to be associated with my personal comments. For example, I post on AVSforum, in which people discuss computers and display equipment. I do not want to have to worry about criticizing a Samsung television under my own name and then have my comments cause professional problems with Samsung later on.

    I did not think that giving general information about the nature of the improvement would be commercially harmful. Is it cheaper materials? Improved factory processes? More mechanization? Does it relate to the kernel or some other part of the system.

    I understand that your participation on this site is a courtesy and it is of course your discretion how much you share, but I wasn’t asking for trade secrets, just some understanding of the general nature of the improvements.

    Best Regards
    Fyodor

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Piero:
    No, it is not possible, because the 1 MW plants have substantial differences. Putting together 100 E-Cats of 10 kW will not make a 1 MW plant, because now the E-Cats are completely different.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Piero

    Dear mr.Rossi,
    Your answer to K.D. leads to believe that there is the possibility that a second generation 1Mw plant could be built at 1/10th of the current price (if nothing else by connecting in parallel 100 domestic units – just kidding…). Keep up the great work

  • TH-minneapolis

    Andre Rossi,

    After Rene Vega’s question (Jan 3 @ 4:48 AM) & your answer I now have 3 more questions.

    Q “…how many KWh of electrical input is required to keep the 10KW thermal output going each day?”
    A “The timing of the self sustained mode will be regulated from the control system, consider that 1/6th of the power can be drawn anytime.”

    1. Did you mean by “anytime” that if you’re home only requires 5kWh for heating/cooling (at night) it would only need half the power to run that it does when running at 10kW?

    For example in my WI vacation home I have a high efficient electric heat pump HAVC plus geothermal radiant floor system embedded in the concrete floors and a solar ready hot water tank. I’d like to route your heated water first to the solar hot H2O tank then to a heat exchanger for the radiant floor heating system to warm the house when needed or routed to our heat pump to cool the house using our current ductwork in the summer. Since we aren’t there full time it would be nice if the E-Cat could be set to keep the house around 55deg when we’re not there in the winter to keep the pipes from freezing and hopefully use much less than 1.67kW of electricity to keep it running.

    Rene said if the E-Cat needs elect power to run continuously then he calculates it would take 1.67kW every hour of the day to produce 10kWh. If his calculations are true then it would be 1.67x24x365=14,629kW x 0.115 = $ 1683/12=$140per mo. which would be about what I would spend on the utilities for elect hot water heater & heat pump for heat & A/C pump to keep it at 70 degs year round but more than I normally spend since I lower the temps when we’re not there. If the E-Cat can auto power down when heating/cooling isn’t needed then this would bring this cost down much lower. Or if it can run in a self-sustain “reduced mode” and just produce hot water (I don’t need a steam shower:) for 6 months or more then this truly would be great savings and a big selling point!

    2. If I set the E-Cat output water temp to < 120°F (<50°C) will the 10kWh E-Cat be able to run in self-sustain mode continuously after it’s powered up without further electrical input for 6 months?

    3. Do you think the second generation E-Cat (if it puts out around 3kW of electrical power) will need to be stored into batteries like Rene has done with his solar powered system for those of us that want an off the grid home in case of long power outages?

    Happy New Year!
    TH

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear K. Dobrolecki:
    We must make a distinction between the price of the industrial plants and the price of the domestic plants.
    For the industrial plants ( the 1 MW plants) the price from 2012 will be around 1,500.00 US$/kW, moreless 10%.
    The domestic E-Cats of 10 kW will be manufactured with a different technology and with a very good economy scale, due to the fact that we have started the production of 1 million pieces; such scale, obviously, will reduce by an order of magnitude the costs. If all goes as I hope and as I am working for, the 10 kW E-Cats will cost between 100 and 150 US$/kW. This fact will:
    1- allow to everybody to buy an E-Cat
    2- cancel the competition
    The reverse engineering will be, I think, impossible, due to a system we invented for this purpose, but even if somebody will succeed to do it, it will anyway be impossible for him to compete economically. The 1 MW plants have a totally different technology and engineering.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • K. Dobrolecki

    Mr. Rossi
    On PesWiki, big supporters of you, somebady corrected me about pricing o E-Cat.

    Neil Taylor
    Wrong Casey, you have OLD information. Mr.Rossi, is now talking less than $100 US dollars per kW for the E-Cats. He stated $1,000 to $1,500 for the 10 kW to 20 KW E-Cat’s on his last radio interview 12/29/11…

    You so many times told that the price will be given at the time the home E-Cat will be ready.

    Since, the talking was about $2000/kW-now, and $400/kW at mass production. So $1000-$1500 per 10-20kW unit look for me, that it might be some misunderstanding and Mr. Sterling gave wrong numbers.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Christian Scholl:
    I will study also this.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,

    What about propelling a car with the Guy Negre’s air motor?

    http://www.mdi.lu/moteurs.php

    Best regards,

    C.SCHOLL

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernhard K:
    As I said, for the electric power small E-Cats it will take more time. We have started the activity to produce 1 million pieces to make heat and conditioned air; this first generation will be anyway able to be retrofitted with the electric power kit, when we will have it. Now our focus will be in the first generation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Christian Scholl:
    The three possibilities.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,

    What kind of heat will produce the domestic E-Cat?
    1° Steam 100°C
    2° Hot water
    3° Hot air
    4° The three possibilities

    Best regards,

    C.SCHOLL

  • Bernhard K

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    regarding my interest for a home unit: When do you expect the ecat version featuring both, heat and electricity supply, can be bought and installed. Can I hope that this first version is grid-less ?

    I wish you a great Year 2012.
    Bernhard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mario:
    When we will put for sale the 10 kW E-Cats ( presumably in Autumn 2012) the sales will be made worlwide by internet and by our licensees, the same day all over the world. Of course in the meantime we will have made all the necessary certifications.
    We are organizing not only the production, but also the logistics for the distribution with specialists.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Mario

    Dear Andrea,
    When will the E-cat Home be available in europe (Belgium)
    Could it also be in Autumn 2012? Or will the first delivery in america.
    The price setting is good news for my small purse.
    Warm Regards,
    Mario

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Piero:
    I spent the Holidays in Italy; my working time is spent mainly in the USA; nevertheless, in Bologna we have an important base.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roger:
    We will not produce electric power with the first generation of E-Cat, just heat and conditioned air.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Piero

    Dear Andrea,
    Just a curiosity: with all this us-based business you are setting up, i was wandering if you are managing it out of Bologna, or you spent christmas holydays in america.
    Have a great 2012

  • Roger

    There are a great many people here who live or would like to live off the grid but at present cannot afford a photo-voltaic system. Your device optimized to produce electrical power would be much in demand and in fact many more people would be buying land remote from the power lines with the e-cat device. The first application would be in colder climates that require no air conditioning.

    Also, have you delivered all of the first thirteen 1 Mw generators to the first customer?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Patrick Ellul:
    I did not underrate the importance of our work, I simply think that all the energy sources must be integrated.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wolf:
    We are in contact with Home Depot for the distribution of the E-Cat, but until the certification procedures are not completed the deal can’t be struck. This is a work in progress, not a work done.
    Yes, the refill will be very, very simple and we will give preference to the assistance made directly by the already trusted installer or contractor of the Customer, so that he also will become a point of force for us.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wolf

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    as we have heard recently, you plan on distributing the Ecats with the help of Home Depot. The service man which installs the Ecat in the home of the buyer, must then contact you before in order to receive instructions on how to install the Ecat. However: How do you plan on creating a service network for refueling the Ecats every 6 month? Is this so simple that anyone can do it?

    Thanks for your time and all the best!

    Wolf

  • Patrick Ellul

    Dear Andrea,

    First of all I wish you a generous 2012.

    If I asked anyone to hypothesize what impact your technology will have on the energy industry, they would probably say it would cause substantial disruption and change.

    In your recent interview with James Martinez, you seem to downplay, underrate and trivialize the impact of your technology on the world. What are your reasons for this?

    Best regards,
    Patrick Ellul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sofia Astori:
    The E-Cat will be very small. You can put 3 E-Cats to get 30 kW of thermal power. 3 E-Cats will be smaller that a normal 25 kW heater ( gas or electric powered).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Vladimir:
    We have always an E-Cat in long term operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rene Vega:
    Yes, your pre-order had been already accepted.
    The timing of the self sustained mode will be regulated from the control system, consider that 1/6th of the power can be drawn anytime.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mario Gottardi:
    For the assistance service to our Customers, please contact us in September.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear mario Gottardi:
    Your pre-order has been accepted.
    Your attitude is the best possible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • cortese Dott. Rossi

    Vorrei chiarire un punto direi fondamentle,relativamente al motivo che mi ha spinto a cecarla e acontattarla.

    Vorrei acquistare un e cat per mostrarlo ai clienti e vorrei iniziare la commercializzazione ,non appena Lei e’ pronto.

    cosa contiene e come funziona non mi interessa.!!!!!!

    Il prodotto credo sia incredibile,unico e fantastico.

    La cosa che mi piacerebbe e’ verificarne anche le applicazioni per applicazioni industriali.

    a me servono 4 dati tecnici e garantire cio che si promette……punto e basta.

    Poche chiacchere e molti fatti.

    Sono pronto per incontrarla.

    cordiali saluti

    Mario Gottardi

  • BUONGIORNO DOTT ROSSI

    SAREI INTERESSATO ALLA VENDITA DEI SUOI E CAT.

    HO GIA UNA ESPERIENZA VENTENNA LE SU MACCHINE TERMICHE ,FORNI INDUSTRIALI ECC E VORREI AVERE POTER INVIRLE E MAIL DIRETTE PER CAPIRE ALCUNE APPLICAZIONI SU MACCHINE INDUSTRIALI.

    ATTENDO SUA COMUNICAZIONE IN MERITO

    PER SAPERE COSA FACCIAMO VISITI IL NOSTRO SITO

    http://www.gpserviceitaly.com

    GAZIE SALUTI E COMPLIMENTI

    MARIO GOTTARDI

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