Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,497 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stipus:
    1- Nothing, in case of black out the safety control system will switch off the E-Cat and will switch on it wnen the power will return
    2-no risk at all
    3- no variations in the maintainance period, which is based upon operative hours, indipendently from the intervals
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear The Plumber:
    This is one of the possible solutions, anyway we are resolving this problem.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roberto Vatteroni:
    We will put for sale at the same time in all the World the E-Cats
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Roberto Vatteroni

    Dear Mr Rossi, how and when do you intend sell ecat in Italy?

    Best regards
    Roberto

  • I know you have already stated that the e-cat is not suitable for domestic (potable) hot water. However, some home heating boilers systems will stop heating the house and dedicate all the heat to making domestic hot water in a storage tank. When that demand is satisfied, the system returns to heating the house. This delay is short and is not really noticeable in a house that is already warm. If the e-cat needs much more time than a boiler then why not make the domestic hot water at night when ocupants are sleeping. A 200L storage should be enough for most homes. Electric elements could still be used for backup during a large demand. The same could be adapted for e-cats running with forced air heating.

  • Stipus

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I have a question about the home e-cat you are preparing: once it is in self-sustained mode, what would happen in case of primary energy cut ?

    – the main is cut, the water flow through the reactor suddenly stops.
    – the reactor is running in self sustained mode
    – what about the control system ?

    Did you find a way to shutdown the reactor quickly in such cases ?
    Is there a risk of overheating the reactor ?
    You said that if overheated, the nickel would start to melt and this would stop the reaction as nickel in powder form is needed.

    In such cases, what level of maintenance is anticipated on the e-cat ? Simple swap of the the ni cartridge for a new one ? Other ?

    Thank you for your efforts on bringing this technology to the world !

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roberto Cerri:
    Our work with National Instruments is in progress with great results. The sales of the 1 MW E-Cats are already in course in all the world, while the domestic will be put on sale hopefully starting from next autumn, and will be delivered starting from next winter, all over the world.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco:
    It is probable that we will enhance a competition.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    Of course!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • If I can buy a household unit for $500 and 20 power sticks for another $200 that will heat my house for 10 years for one month’s present heating bill, I can surely afford the upgraded e-cat electric generator when it becomes available.

    If I have already signed up for one household unit, may I increase my order?

    Keep up the good work, Mr. Rossi.

  • Franco

    Egr.Dott Rossi,
    Vedo che molti rivolgono domande sull’E-Cat domestico e sulla possibilità di applicarlo ai sistemi di riscaldamento e di produzione acqua sanitaria preesistenti.Ma se il sistema funzionerà, come ci auguiamo, vi sarà una tale riduzione dei costi di produzione dell’energia elettrica che in breve sarà più conveniente costruire centrali che distribuiscano elettricità a bassissimo costo per ogni utilizzo, compreso il riscaldamento/ raffrescamento domestico e la produzione di acqua calda sanitaria.O mi sbaglio?
    Cordiali saluti.

  • Roberto Cerri

    Caro Sig. Rossi,
    sono un suo estimatore e le faccio una proposta.
    Faccia certificare il funzionamento del suo E-cat dalla National Instruments, in modo che anche gli scettici abbiano da ricredersi. Se non credono a lei, dovranno credere alla NI. Inoltre, se l’ E-cat ha gia’ ricevuto il brevetto in Italia, perchè non iniziare a venderlo nel nostro paese ? un abbraccio ,Roberto Cerri

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Victor:
    We will scalew up combining 1 MW plants.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paceme:
    The first generation does not make electricity, but it will be possible to apply the electric generator when it will exist.
    Overheating automatically turns out the E-Cat, because in case of overheating nickel melts, so is liquid, no more powder, then the E-Cat cannot work. It is therefore intrinsecally safe. Nobody can temper the E-Cat, which is robust stainless steel, unless he makes it on purpose, but, again, in this case the E-Cat can’t work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • paceme

    Is it possible to sell the E-cat Home Unit with electric output or will it be 6 months to a year after the original E-cats? Also, will there ever be danger of explosion or overheating under an input power surge, self-sustain, climate conditions or a customer somehow tampering with the device?

  • Victor

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    Will your technology be scalable to greater than 1MWh for use in energy intensive industries like major power plants or metal ore extraction and foundries? I can certainly envision a “bottom-up” energy revolution taking place with this technology as e-cats are rolled out to small business and homes all over the world, but major power requirements have to be met as well? Could you please comment on your vision in this area?

    Many thanks and all the best luck going forward!

    Kind regards,
    Victor

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roger:
    Another “rumorist” has written somewhere that our Customer has given us back the 1 MW E-VCat: this is another stupidity, totally false.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Atkinson:
    We can fit in heaters without boilers.
    WarmRegards,
    A.R.

  • good morning eng. Rossi
    Do you think it will be possible to buy a complete ” standalone ” unit such as : e-cat + heat exchanger w or w/o fan to utilize like a normal wood stove, for example in a mountain hat ?
    Besides, connecting : main (230v ac)–600watt battery charger–battery bank (capacity depending on the autonomy i want)–230v ac inverter–e-cat, it will be possible to constantly drain about
    500-600watt/h without overloading the consumption of the counter of the house.
    in fact the battery during the 6 hours of self sustained mode will absorb 3kw from the charger, releasing them during the e-cat on time.
    it would be nice , at this point to have an ac and dc input for the
    e-cat in order to avoid the final 230v inverter lowering the accessories cost.
    the Lord Jesus Bless you with your family and collaborators.
    Greetings from CREMONA.

  • Roberto Vatteroni

    Caro Sig. Rossi, seguo con profondo interesse lei e la vicenda ECat da più di un anno.
    Sono veramente contento che si cominci a parlare di applicazioni concrete.
    La strada è ancora lunga e in salita. Quì si sta parlando di una svolta epocale.
    Energia pulita a basso costo per tutti. Le implicazioni sono enormi.
    Purtroppo non sono un esperto, altrimenti le chiederei di poter collaborare in qualche modo.
    L’unica cosa che posso fare è esortarla a non fermarsi davanti a niente.
    Un grosso in bocca al lupo.

    Roberto Vatteroni

    PS: io non ordino nessun ECat…lo acquisterò al grande magazzino sotto casa!

  • John Atkinson

    Mr. Rossi,

    I have ordered your e-cat a month or so ago and can not wait for its delivery. I do have a question which will address the situation many customers will be facing in the southern USA. Many of us have central air and heat with gas heat or a heat pump system. Whether it be a heat pump or gas heating system there is no boiler involved. Will it be necessary to remove the heat pumps and gas central heat and replace them with a boiler?
    In addition until such time as the e-cat is fitted for power generation I presume it will be necessary to be attached to the grid for ordinary electrical needs as well as power the fans to move the air in the heating and air conditioning system? Thank you dearly for your time and hard work.

    John Atkinson

  • Michael

    Andrea,

    Forced air gas furnaces are common in my part of the US. Few homeowners install their own furnace as the gas hookup is dangerous and low voltage controls and too complicated for the average homeowner. Labor costs are high, so the cost of integrating an e-cat may cost more than the e-cat itself. These costs are out of your control but may affect adoption of the e-cat.

    Resistive electric heaters with a fan start as low as $15; almost everyone is comfortable with plugging in this appliance and turning it on. But this is a very expensive way to heat your home.

    While I understand the e-cat will not produce heat instantaneously like a traditional portable space heater, by marketing your own optional heat exchanger that is simple to attach to the e-cat, you can control more of the cost and help bring the e-cat to all; the world’s first 240V portable nuclear space heater with a COP of 6!

    Thanks and good luck with your work.

  • I apologize Dr. Rossi for bringing up rumors but I am just a simple engineer who has become overly excited about what you are doing and wish you and your associates the very best.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michael:
    Interesting. Can you explain better?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roger:
    I am not a rumorist, so I do not care of rumors. Our E-Cats are perfectly stable up to 200 Celsius degrees, while we are resolving the problems to raise the temperature of the primary fluid to 400, to be able to make electricity. The reasons of instability at higher temperature are different from the rumors you heard about and we cannot give information about this issue, because is related to confidential data. National Instruments is helping us to resolve the issue.
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dario:
    We are resolving also this problem.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dario

    Egregio Ing. Rossi,

    In base alla sua recente intervista , sembra che l’ E-Cat sia in grado di sostituire la fonte energetica utilizzata per il riscaldamento domestico, ma non ancora in grado di sostituire quella necessaria all’acqua calda per uso personale. Mi stavo chiedendo se questa e’ una regola generale : il mio circuito di riscaldamento domestico dispone di un boiler di 200l , e quindi penso che l’E-cat sia in grado di manenere l’acqua in esso conenuta a temperatura costante. La capacita’ termica del boiler dovrebbe poi consentirmi di avere acqua calda quando richiesta. Sarei veramente lieto di poter fare a meno COMPLETAMENTE del mostro da 4500 l di gasolio residente in cantina !
    Dario

  • There is a rumor going about that you are having trouble stabilizing the e-cats due to non-homogeneous evolution of energy within the Ni powder that melts the powder locally and shuts the process down. If so you might benefit by adding radial fins extending into the chamber to provide more heat transfer area and a path to the outer surface of the reactor. In addition, the inclusion of copper beads to the power would act as a damper to temporarily absorb bursts of heat and would reduce the local temperature gradients within the Ni powder. I wish you well in your endeavors.

  • Michael

    Dr Rossi, I understand the excess heat output of the e-cat is not instantaneous and requires electricity for maintenance. That said, please consider producing an optional convection fan accessory for the first generation e-cats that a homeowner can easily attach themselves. This could greatly reduce the installed cost for users who either do not have a central heating system or do not wish to connect it in.

  • piero41

    Dott. Rossi
    Forse sarà a conoscenza di questo grande e mortale naufragio al centro del mar Tirreno. Ora dopo i soccorsi ai passeggeri le 2400 t, di gasolio nei depositi della nave stanno minacciando l’equilibrio ecologico del grande parco marino e di tutte le famose spiagge del centro Italia. Spero che la riprogettazione e la commercializzazione del suo impianto da 1Mw tenga conto anche della sua futura possibile utilizzazione come propulsore navale, sarebbe di immensa utilità per evitare enormi rischi ambientali e avrebbe anche per questo un’enorme visibilità. Vorrei sperare che questa eventuale progettazione non si fermi ai soli usi militari.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kirk:
    You can just apply the E-Cat to your usual heater. As for the electricity, is too soon to talk about.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Kirk

    to info

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I wanted to make sure my order was excepted. I also have a question. I want to build a house out in the country. The cost to bury a electric line 800 feet to the building site is $5000. That is 10x more then your E-Cat, My plan is to put my first E-Cat in my existing house for heat and build my new house when the electric E-Cat comes to market so I don’t have to bury a electric line. My question is, Will it be possible to build my house off the grid using the electric E-Cat when it come to market? Thank you for your time and God Bless. Kirk

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giorgio:
    Pre-order accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carloluna:
    what worries me is that Prometheus had liver problems.
    Pre-order accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Federico Luciani:
    The E-Cat will be regulated as well as usual heaters and air conditioners. Just not fit for sanitary water ( shower etc). The E-Cat will be connected with all the existing heaters, in a by pass, and supply heat saving gas or electric power. Same regulations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Federico Luciani

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I already submitted 2 pre-orders for your “home” e-cat. I’m very happy about the acceleration of your schedule, occurred last month. I’m also disappointed, though not surprised, by the fact that you have not been able to produce your marvel in Italy; unfortunately I know that we are the country that we know. Are you been asked by italian politicians? Does any major italian capitalist contact you? (My curiosity)

    Now, two questions. As you know, in Italy, houses with air conditioning are not very common, let alone with heat pump, and heating system usually consists of a boiler that:
    1) heats water circulating in a close plant system, with a pump controlled by a thermostat
    2) with heat exchange produces instant hot water on demand. Normally, this second mode requires the greatest number of KW, but only when there is hot water request; this second mode is also used in summer.
    Your e-cat “home”, however, must operate continuously, though – from what I understand – not necessarily at full power.
    I must therefore conclude that:
    1) we’ve to renounce the instantaneous production of hot water, in favor of a boiler of sufficient capacity, calling for a strong manipulation of the system in place
    2) In summer, the system must continue to function. How can the system dispose of excess heat if there isn’t a conditioning heat pump or any other energy consumer?

    Could you confirm my suppositions, or explain where I’m wrong?
    If I got reason, this could slow the spread of your apparatus in the temperate zones.
    So, please, tell me I’m wrong…
    With infinite respect and admiration.
    Federico Luciani

  • Dear ing.Rossi

    I also want to order two e-cat.I’m happy with this historic opportunity.
    to which scientist of the past I could you compare? Prometheus?

  • giorgio

    Gent.mo ing.Rossi,
    mi aggiungo alla lista dei suoi clienti per l’E-Cat. Per potere dire già adesso che “io ci sarò” quando sarà il momento e per dirle, comunque vada, la mia grande ammirazione per quello che sta facendo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Valeria:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paolo:
    Your pre-order has been accepted
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greg W:
    So bfar we produce heat, not electricity. When we will produce electricity we will have real experience to answer your questions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Greg W

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I would appreciate answers to the following questions and grant that any answer is given on a “best efforts” basis under your experience/knowledge-base of the present moment and not in any way a commitment to product performance in the future:

    1) If an entity could buy as many 1 MW plants as necessary and if that same entity could connect a single 1 MW Organic Rankine Cycle electricity generator [18.5% efficiency and 100% up-time] to those 1 MW plants, knowing what you now know about the efficiency and up-time of present e-cats, how many of your 1 MW units would be necessary to create a system that, after initial start-up, could run 6 months without any external electrical input [nothing outside of the single 1 MW ORC unit], such that the system would produce 1 MW of power during each moment of the entire 6 months?

    2) Taking the number of 1 MW plants that you say would be necessary for the system of question 1, what would be the minimum KWh of electricity realiably available [98% up-time] to applications outside the system [that is, outside the electrical requirements to periodically excite/energize the various 1 MW E-Cat units that compose the heat-source part of the system] during each moment of that 6 months?

    Best wishes,

    Greg W.

  • Paolo

    Gentile Dott. Rossi, una cara amica mi ha detto che è possibile fare un preordine dell’ormai famosissimo E-cat, ebbene sono disposto ad averne uno, cosa occorre fare? In attesa di una Sua cortese risposta La saluto.
    Paolo

  • Valeria

    Dear dr. Rossi,

    this morning I woke up thinking about the italian genius, remember how many incredible inventions my wonderful country was able to create within extraordinary people, often attacked and misunderstood. Sometimes completely despoiled.
    Now I really believe that it’s time to strongly defend our precious assets with our choice and our individual support.
    Too many snakes, too many competitors, too many “big one” on the scene at the same time. If we need a change, we have to change.
    I really trust in your invention and I would like to pre-order two 10Kw ECat for my mother and me.
    Thank you and congratulations!

    Valeria

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Norman:
    1- please remember that the 1st generation of domestic E-Cats does make only heat, not electricity
    2- when we will apply the electric generator it will be silenced
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Patrick Ellul:
    Yes, there is a big difference between the 1 MW units and the E-Cats, for technological and econimic issues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Patrick Ellul

    Dear Andrea,

    I would like to ask you for a clarification. Last December you had mentioned that you had a breakthrough with your new fluid selection and managed to obtain steam at 400C. However yesterday you mentioned that your current benchmark is 200C. Is it because it’s different between the 1MW and the home-cat versions?

    All the best and I’m sure your hard work will pay off. We cannot wait :)

    Best regards,
    Patrick Ellul

  • Bob Norman

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I am very excited by your new pricing and ability to add new fuel myself. I have ordered a heating unit and have uses for many more on my farm. I plan to order an electrical unit as soon as it is available. In planning the addition I realize that my furnace area is close to the family room. Will I need to build a acoustic shield to dampen the noise from the electric generator? I have plenty of room for such shielding.
    Your announcements this week are most exciting, I wish you good fortune on getting quick certification so next winter I will be heating my home with a Rossi E-Cat.
    Best regards,
    BN

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco Gottardi:
    Easy: we will send you the offer with price, description, etc; when you will receive it ( we will do it automatically, you have to do nothing) you will be free to accept and confirm or refuse.
    Just relax.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Helmut H:
    The COP 6 is not upgradable, so far, but I invite you to remake your calculations: with a COP 6 for obvious math the cost of electric power will be half of the existing high efficiency cycles, while the heat will cost 1/6th.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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