Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

Direct Download

Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

Direct Download

3,546 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gediminas,
    With the help of God yes, that is the roadmap.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi

    Reading Your answers in blog and interviews in internet I created preliminary schedules of You main works for 2012 :)
    1. 2012 March, April – start of improved 1 Mw plant.
    2. 2012 from February till November – building of robotized plant for E cats.
    3. 2012 November – test production for 10 kw home Ecats.
    4. 2012 December – successful start of sales 10 kw home Ecats.

    Maybe You have some remarks for this schedule ? Could You tell us more about others important tasks and dates for Ecats production ?

    Good luck !
    Gediminas

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guido Chiostri:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alonzo Mancini:
    The E-Cats are not convenient to warm a room if you have to stay there few hours, it is convenient if you have to heat a house or a room continuously. In the Bologna Lab we have only the E-Cats subject to measurements.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alonzo Mancini

    Sig. Rossi,
    I ask you this in good faith, yes?
    Sometimes what you say does not make sense and snakes can use this against you.
    So please explain this:
    ==========
    “Dear Bob K,
    Good question. As a matter of fact, we use the Bologna Laboratory only for experiments and tests, not

    every day but only now and again. When we open the laboratory after some day of closure of the same, in

    this season it is very cold (between 2 and 5 Celsius degrees). The Laboratory has a surface of 1000

    square meters ( about 10000 sq. ft.) and a height of 6 m ( about 18 ft) for a total volume of 6000 cubic

    meters. To heat a 6000 cubic meters room from 3 Celsius degrees ( the temperature of Bologna on the

    morning of that day) to a temperature of at least 15 Celsius degrees with a 10 kW heater like the E-Cat

    takes many hours, so we needed the help of additional heaters. The E-Cats we test 24 hours per day are

    installed in rooms that are used in continuous, not now and again.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.”
    =========

    The snakes will say, “if you needed more heaters why not just use more the one 10 kW E-Cat”?
    Please explain.

    Grazie mille,
    Alonzo Mancini

  • Guido Chiostri

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
    is it possible to see pictures of the rooms where E-cats are tested 24 hours per day ?

  • The United States Navy is the largest user of energy in the world. It your E-Cat technology could be applied to powering ships it would be a gigantic leap forward and away from oil.

    Personally I would prefer that half the fleet be moth-balled but that is not likely to happen.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andreas:
    Thank you!
    A.R.

  • Andreas

    “By the way: so far we received about 50,000 pre-orders and counting, which is not bad, for a product that has still to be described in details. Our 10,000 target has been burnt rapidly.
    The E-Cat will be offered in details by tis Autumn and the shipments will start probably within the next winter, if we will have not delays for unforeseen problems. Surely we will start the shipments within 18 months from now.”

    GREAT to hear that!!!!!!

    all the best!!!

  • Antonella

    Dear Andrea “Hank” Rossi,

    I totally agree with Tim Harrell’s words.

    :)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob K,
    Good question. As a matter of fact, we use the Bologna Laboratory only for experiments and tests, not every day but only now and again. When we open the laboratory after some day of closure of the same, in this season it is very cold (between 2 and 5 Celsius degrees). The Laboratory has a surface of 1000 square meters ( about 10000 sq. ft.) and a height of 6 m ( about 18 ft) for a total volume of 6000 cubic meters. To heat a 6000 cubic meters room from 3 Celsius degrees ( the temperature of Bologna on the morning of that day) to a temperature of at least 15 Celsius degrees with a 10 kW heater like the E-Cat takes many hours, so we needed the help of additional heaters. The E-Cats we test 24 hours per day are installed in rooms that are used in continuous, not now and again.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob K

    Dear Andrea, I wish you the best of luck and I sincerely hope you are being honest in your replies to all of us (your devoted followers of the last year). In your last video interview in a warehouse…you are seated and to your left is a vertical heater with a diffusion cap for heating the space. If, as you say, there are ecats heating your home as well as others as test devices, why are there not Ecats heating this warehouse as well?

    http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/515/howrossiheatsthebologna.jpg/

    Still a believer……….regards Bob

  • Dear Andrea,

    Thank you for your thoughtful and correct assessment of Ayn Rand’s writing and her philosophy of objectivism. Any reasonable and educable person who takes the time to read and consider her works, particularly as they apply today, could not miss the parallels.

    Anyone who understands the potential your E-Cat holds and loves the idea of the E-Cat, but would in any way or at any time deny you the billions of dollars it stands to earn you is a hypocrite. He is the the evil Ms. Rand spoke about in Atlas Shrugged, Part III, Chapter VII, “THIS IS JOHN GALT SPEAKING.”

    Thank you also, for being that industrialist, materialist, the “Hank Rearden” that Ms. Rand Champions. I’ve been watching, cheering and promoting your work for a year now. I find it interesting that as I’ve been reading Atlas Shrugged again during the past month as a refresher on objectivism, that these comments about Ms. Rand would show up here. My hope is that your E-Cat will not only give us a cleaner, “warmer” world, but that your work will help inspire a new generation of producers and a new industrial renaissance driven by the men of the mind.

    Best Regards,
    Tim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    1- I HOPE within 1 year to reach 400 Celsius
    2- USA, Sweden
    3- You have been precious, sincerely, with all the contacts you have suggested and all your ideas. I get the occasion to say that I read analitically all the comments I receive.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea,

    I read that the most recent generations of the E-CAT can operate at higher output temperatures than previously – and/or have achieved increased stability – which leads to longer duration in the self-sustained mode (electric heaters turned off).

    What is the typical output steam temperature for the 1-Megawatt Plant now and what output temperature may be achievable over the next 12-18 months?

    ( “Under-promise and over-deliver”, as they say! )

    Home E-Cats (Heat-only) probably do not need to achieve temperatures much above 120-140 degrees C, since 120-140 degrees Centigrade is about 250-280 degrees Fahrenheit which should be hot enough for residential heating/hot water. The 1 MW plants, of course, need to achieve higher temperatures for efficient electricity production.

    In which country do you think Certifications of the Home E-Cat will be achieved first? That is, in Europe (e.g. Sweden, France, Germany etc.), in the USA, in Russia, China et cetera.

    Also, have any of my earlier comments and suggestions been helpful? (You don’t have to say which ones.) You have made a lot of progress recently. As I have not made many comments in the last few months, I am worried that you make greater progress when I say less. ( attempt at humor )

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mario P.:
    I cannot give information regarding the operation of the reactor.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mario P.

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I read that the melting point of Nickel = 1455° C.
    At which temperature melts the nickel in the E-Cat.
    Melts the nickel “powder” faster?
    (taking into consideration the pressure / magnetic field or radio waves used in the E-Cat)
    Is there outside the E-Cat electromagnetic radiation?
    Are there in the e-cat photons released during the process?
    Kind regards,
    Mario P

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Christian De Coninck:
    Please read Ayn Rand, altruism has nothing to do with we talked about. It’s a deeper issue, which translates to REAL and not hypocrital altruism.
    Love the E-Cat lovers, anyway.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    Thank you, I will click also through this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Guido galeotti,
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Guido Galeotti

    Dear dr Rossi, I would like to order one E-cat for home use. Best regards.

  • Pietro F.

    Forse, se ancora non lo conosce, potrebbe esserle utile per produrre elettricità:

    http://www.marnochthermalpower.com/Marnoch_Thermal_Power/TECHNOLOGY.html

  • Christian de Coninck

    Ayn Rand was full of shit and ignored every bit of social science data ever collected. Altruism DOES in fact produce positive results.

    Love the E-cat though…

  • Hughd

    Dear Andre Rossi

    E-CAT Application Note:

    Using the limited specifications available at this time on the heat E-CAT (HE-CAT) and the electricity E-CAT (EE-CAT) I have made some assumptions which I would like to have your comments on.

    My solution is to use two EE-CATs to provide a self sustaining heating system for my 2,200 square foot house located in Denver, CO.

    The EE-CAT_1 would be hooked to the grid via a 120V 20 amp circuit. This circuit would supply the 1.66 kW power required to start EE-CAT_1 and act as a back-up control source. The output of the EE-CAT_1 generator would supply 3.5 kW to supply control power to EE-CAT_2 and to feedback electrical power to EE-CAT_1 to provide self sustaining EE-CATs.

    The waste heat of 6.5 kW from EE-CAT_1 and the waste heat of 6.5 kW from EE-CAT_2 would be used to heat the house and the hot water needs. The 3.5 kW 120V 30 amp output from EE-CAT_2 would be used to drive the fans, pumps, lights etc for the heating system. Once started the system would be self sustaining until shutdown.

    Best regards,
    Hughd

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mats Heijkenskjold:
    We are working on this and on the materials to stand 400 Celsius.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ingumar:
    Your pre-order has been accepted.
    Thank you also for the suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Christian Bistriceanu:
    Thank you!
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jose’ Augusto Guimaraes:
    We are working on the electric poer issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • José Augusto Guimarães

    Dear Rossi,

    I am amazed by your work and would like to congratulate you for the great achievement.

    I wonder if it is possible to create unit to produce electricity, in between 100KW and 1 MW and also between 1MW and 10MW, to be marketed?

    If yes, when it would be possible to start marketing these units?

    I am Brazilian and would like to work selling these units in Brazil.

    We could develop this idea?

    I believe this would be the way to a rapid growth of your project.

    Let me contribute to the success of your project.

    With high esteem and consideration,

    Sincerely,

    José Augusto Guimarães

  • Christian Bistriceanu

    Thank you very much for your response Mr. Rossi. I would also wish to congratulate you for this tremendous work that brings hope to this world. I would like to wish you all the best for 2012 and long live the E-CAT!!

    Best regards,
    Christian.

  • Rob

    Hi,
    Awesome work, you are top of my “technology hopes for the future” list. If this works out, I’ll take at least one unit (potentially up to four), please sign me up for pre-order. Shipping will be to the UK.
    Regarding technology, I am sure you have probably thought it through already, but have you experimented with high voltages in the reaction chamber? Sufficient voltage would dissociate the hydrogen into its atomic state, whilst also making those hydrogen ions slam hard into the nickel powder due to force from the electric field. This would make for a much more controlleable reaction, and reduce or even eliminate the need for high pressures within the reaction chamber. Of course it would be a noisy environment, from what I understand of your use of radio waves this could dampen the reaction? Food for thought anyway.
    Best of luck…
    Rob

  • Mats Heijkenskjold

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You have earlier mentioned that the first units are capable of max 120 degrees.
    To be able to produce electricity with a reasonable effiency you need 400 degrees.
    You also said that the first units could later be retrofitted for electical generation.

    Now my question is: Are the first units already made with such material so they could withstand 400 degrees?
    Or will the retrofitting be a complicated process?

    Best regards

    Mats Heijkenskjöld

  • Levi Strauss

    Dr. Rossi
    Although my relatives were musicians, I’ve never worn any thing but Levi’s. I plan to be buried in them. I would be honored to have you wrap my Ecat in jean material.
    Levi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Morrissey:
    Your pre-order has been accepted. We do not foresee maintainance in the period between the refills.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Julian Cahillane:
    It is possible, but we must know well your organization.
    Please detail to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Milan,
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Milan

    Hello Mr. Rossi, I would like one unit please. To be shipped in Canada when it comes out. It is cold here

  • Julian Cahillane

    Dr Rossi

    Thankyou for all your hard work, I can’t wait until you are producing the units and I have every faith that this device will change the world. I just hope that it will achieve everything that it can, by bringing cheap energy to the poorest people of the world. I would like to help in anyway possible. I am from Northern Ireland, which is an area which would benefit with a cheap heating alternative and I could proove useful with distribution in my area. Would this be possible?

    Best Regards
    Julian Cahillane

  • Bernie Morrissey

    Andrea Rossi
    I would like to order one unit for home use. Will the unit need any maintenance between cartridge replacements?
    Bernie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nick Hall:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Very interesting to hear about the pre-order totals — all this has come from word-of-mouth and internet communication. Do you plan to do any ‘normal’ media marketing and advertising to prepare the public for the availability of the domestic E-Cats?

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gherardo:
    Your second pre-order has been accepted.
    The E-Cat pads will be able surely to be put in parallel.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gherardo

    I’d like to preorder another ecat for my brother.
    This is Gherardo but for this order I’ll adopt the nick Midas (who knows if gets delivered in gold wraps…).

    One serious question.
    If we need more than one ecat, are they already built to work in multiples?
    How? Parallel or serial?
    This question came after a previous answer that shows that easily we could need even 10 ecats.

  • Nick Hall

    Hello,

    I would like to put my name down for a preorder of 2 of the home units. Thanks!

    Nick

  • Tommaso Di Pietro(t.c.&d.)

    Gentile dott. Rossi,
    lei pensa che la sua tecnologia possa un giorno essere perfezionata a tal punto da sviluppare migliaia di gradi anzichè centinaia come adesso e rimanere stabile comunque?Ha qualche idea in merito e/o programma di sviluppo?

    Grazie e saluti

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Levi Strauss:
    Your pre-order has been accepted: you mind if we will wrap it up in jeans textile?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Christian Bistriceanu:
    Your pre-order has been accepted. By the way: so far we received about 50,000 pre-orders and counting, which is not bad, for a product that has still to be described in details. Our 10,000 target has been burnt rapidly.
    The E-Cat will be offered in details by tis Autumn and the shipments will start probably within the next winter, if we will have not delays for unforeseen problems. Surely we will start the shipments within 18 months from now.
    You will be free to buy it wherever you want and send it wherever you want. You will be also able to buy it in Internet and we will provide you all the assistance you need.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    Could be. In “Addio Kira” the individuals are seen as bearers of a specific light from God that cannot melt in a system but has the duty to give a specific contribution to the system. In her is evident the reaction to the massification demanded from the bolscevism, anyway I share that phylosophy, in a certain sense, yes.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Antonella

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    I am reading some of Ayn Rand’s works and now I think I better understand your philosophy. Could I be right?

    Best regards,
    Antonella

  • Christian Bistriceanu

    Dear Andrea,

    I would like to sign up for two E-CATs plase. What is the best way of adding my name on the list? Thanks very much in advance. As far as i read i can see you are expected to have them shipped by the end of this year? I am currenlty living in UK and I will use on of them here. However the second one will be used in Romania and I was wondering how easy will be to get a replacement cartridge from there? I imagine UK will be a much more interesting country to deploy this first so i could simply buy it here and maybe ship it over there? Thanks very much in advance.

    Best regards,
    Christian.

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>