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Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,458 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Antonio Ingarozza

    Salve Ing.Rossi ,complimenti per il suo C.V. e la splendida invenzione che sarà l’E-Cat.La sto seguendo da un pò mi sono anche iscritto sul sito web Svedese che si occuperà della commercializzazione dei prodotti ,ai quali ho posto alcune domande alle quali non ho ricevuto risposta .
    Rappresento me e un Gruppo di Investitori che crediamo molto in questo “nuova tecnologia” anche se la storia ci insegna che a causa di motivi economici-politici per molti anni, indirettamenti a voi Scienziati è stato quasi impedito di diffondere i risultati delle vostre ricerche in tale ambito.Ma fortunatamente oggi sembra non essere più così e volevamo saperne di più ,proprio per questo le chiedo se chiederle direttamente su questa pagina oppure preferisce che la contattiamo su un’altro indirizzo e-mail?
    Ing.Rossi Hi, congratulations for his C.V. and the wonderful invention that will be the E-Cat. I’m following in a while I did some writing on the Swedish web site that will handle the marketing of products, to which I posed some questions to which I have not received a response.
    I represent myself and a group of investors who very much believe in this “new technology” even if history teaches us that because of political-economic reasons for many years, scientists indirettamenti to you was almost prevented from disseminating the results of your search ambito.Ma that fortunately now seems to be no longer the case and wanted to know more, just ask if I ask for this directly on this page, or prefer that we contact on another e-mail?

    Cordilai Saluti
    Ing.Antonio Ingarozza

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Emily Sutton:
    The E-Cat will be certified: this means that it will be perfectly safe in any environment which will respect the product application requirements.
    We know perfectly the operaton of the E-Cats, and its intrinsic safety (about which I gave redundant informaton on this blog) is at the base of our guarantees on the safety issue.
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Emily Sutton

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    I am the Appalachian State student interested in a pilot project for the E-Cat at our university. Without a connection to the electrical grid, the administration is weary of its practical application. In brainstorming uses for the thermal energy, a few things came up. Since we will be experimenting with this device for your research and giving our suggestions, I wanted to run a few things by you.
    Would an E-Cat be safe to leave outside to heat chicken coops or greenhouses? The areas would be sheltered, but not guaranteed to be dry and room temperature. In the greenhouse setting, the radiation is a huge concern. The University’s Sustainable Farm is organic, so plants exposed to even small amounts of radiation would be out of the question. I hope I am safe in assuming the radiation particles will be contained in the reaction chamber. Also, could this be practical in a hydroponics system? The device would be used to regulate temperature of water. In previous posts, it was mentioned that water would be used to regulate the temperature of the device, so I think it could be used for this application in water. Please correct me if I am wrong.
    We also mentioned using this device to make our current energy systems more efficient, both solar and geothermal energy. For this suggestion, I thought your intent was to experiment with the device and its capabilities on its own, not as a booster to our current systems.
    One concern of the administration is if something goes wrong with the reactor, none of us know enough about it to assess or repair the damage.
    While you are in the states, if you come anywhere in the Southeast, especially North Carolina, I would love to attend a discussion. Please know that Appalachian State would be happy to host you in a talk on your technology. Without some sort of communication, it is unlikely the administration will be in favor of a pilot project in this region.
    Thank you so much for keeping an open discussion with all of us on this site. Each post addresses a new concern, and is extremely helpful.

    Emily Sutton

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alexander:
    Thank you for the information, I will go through it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • A.Rossi, I want to help you make change to E-CAT for produce electric current and without money. E-mail – shadrinmephi47@mail.ru.
    Dr. Shadrin.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Joseph Fine:
    Yes, you will be welcome. I will invite you as well as I invited you in October.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea,

    When you demonstrate the 1 MW E-Cat in the US in the near future, may I attend? I wasn’t able to get to Bologna last fall. Perhaps, the demo should be held at a university setting rather than at a customer site or your factory. From a cost and security standpoint, it would probably be less of a problem to demonstrate only a single module rather than an entire E-Cat ensemble of 50+ E-Cats. Perhaps, you could demo at several sites on different dates (e.g. East Coast, Midwest, South, Southwest and West Coast) – an E-Cat Caravan. I am not naming specific locales or Universities because this is an idea, not an itinerary.

    Even a demo may not make much difference to the Mass Media, but in this case, I hope I will be proved wrong.

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear G. Singh:
    Interesting. Yes, an integration is possible, as soon as they have a product ready for sale.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • G Singh

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Hoping for your continued success.

    See this link:

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120329171607.htm

    and this:

    http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/20110311/isobutanol-biomass-transformed-directly-into-gasoline-replacing-fuel-energy-secretary-chu-excited-ab.htm

    where it talks about electricity and carbon dioxide used to generate a biofuel.

    Perhaps when you get the industrial E-cat perfected they will have scaled up the process for production of isobutanol.

    They are talking about using sunlight to generate the electricity but I think the E-cat would be a better and cheaper means.

    So maybe in 5 years or so we could have a roadmap to get out from under the dependence on oil.

    Good luck in all your endeavors.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Joseph Fine:
    Thank you for your useful, as usual, information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernhard K.:
    I am not interested, at the moment, to air and space applications: I am convinced that these kind of applications are very far in the time. For now we have, as a priority, the production of electric power, after the thermal power, which we are already making.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernhard K.

    Dear Andrea Rossi, dear Bernie Koppenhofer,
    as I understood this Illinous build reactor is on the deuteron process while A.R. LENR is a nickel based process. If I am correct, the deuteron process is expected to exhibit a large amount of neutron radiation, which in case is very harmful, while the nickel based process is not radiating this way at all. Therewith it looks that there is a big advantage for the nickel based process.
    Question to A.R. (may be he has already answered in a former discussion)
    - can you confirm that no radiation (aside heat) is released ?
    - do you need lead as shielding?
    - I can understand that building up the production plant binds your personal power to a large extend. Nevertheless are you interested to support space application with you technology? In case would you like to be contacted ? or are you already in contact with NASA or ESA.

    Best regards,
    Bernhard

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea,

    On March 18, I commented here about ternary ceramics or MAX-Phase materials. They are called ternary because these metallic-ceramics are made up of three elements. I thought the structure of Ti3SiC2 (“312″), was octahedral, since the elements have a valence of 4. There are repeating octahedral layers (‘MX’), but the overall structure is not a pure octahedron (as it is in some diamonds). I bring this class of materials to your attention due to their unique properties – especially at high temperatures – as might be found inside an Energy Catalyzer.

    There are also 2 Dimensional analogs (flat sheets) that resemble Graphene, and which are called “MXene” (pronounced ‘Maxine’) materials.

    http://max.materials.drexel.edu/mxene-%E2%80%93-a-new-family-of-2-d-transition-metal-carbides-and-nitrides/

    There are many unusual properties that can – or might be obtained – with the right materials. One is machinability, resistance to oxidation and strength at high temperatures and high (or at least high enough) thermal conductivity either as bulk material or as coatings.

    Some of this work on Max-Phase materials is being done at Linkoping and Uppsala Universities in Sweden as well as at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (and many other places.)

    http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:303552/FULLTEXT01

    http://ceramics.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/symposium12.pdf

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=youtube%20maxthal%20maxphase&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCIQtwIwAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DKyudJipNYq8&ei=9MdzT-aGMIGA2wWGh8DHDg&usg=AFQjCNF9I014-g5MdnyMcnuR4Tr1KSgHvw&cad=rja

    Sorry for the long link. This is the shorter tinyurl version: http://preview.tinyurl.com/7x5ggty

    If you try, you may be able to get above 260 degrees Celsius. Say to 360 degrees C.

    (That’s a complete circle.)

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    As you know, I never comment on our competitors. If their theory is right, we will see their product on the market competing with ours and in that case we will study it to better compete. If not, there is no reason to care about it: there are thousands of laboratory trials in course, I really have no time to care of them. The difference between a plant that works everyday and produces MWhs (as the E-Cats are doing) and a lab apparatus that produces some whs is the same difference that exists between the drawing of a house of a first grader and the Empire State Building. Nevertheless, I totally respect the work of the researchers, whatever they do: a first grader that today designs a house in future can grow up as a star architect.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giorgio:
    Thank you. My DNA is boiling …
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giorgio

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Here below you will find a link to english translation of italian parliament question on LENR ad ecat. This parliament question is based on a document that i have prepared for D. Scilipoti. I work at University of Palermo (Industrial Engineering Dept.)
    I hope this will help.
    Warm Regards

    Giorgio

    http://www.lenrforum.eu/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=102

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: What do you think of George H Miley’s comment at the Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space conference: “While there are similarities between ours and the Rossi E-Cat gasloaded kW-MW LENR cells that have attracted international attention, there are important differences in nano particle composition and cell construction……….. Neglecting unlikely chemical reaction contributions, the energy gain is virtually unlimited due to negligible power input with gas loading!” Sounds like they are going to use your invention to power space probes.

    Here is the site: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/nets2012/pdf/3051.pdf

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Maybe I will have the permission to give this information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Can you reveal any news about the original 1mW plant sold to the military? Is it in operation? Is it performing as designed? Thanks for the information and I admire the way you are handling the snakes and super skeptics, keep up the good work.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andrea Cuccarini:
    There are many scientists in the world I am aware of who have replicated indipendently my effect. Of course I am glad of this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • The following article seems to use a LENR reaction very similiar to the E-cat reaction, is it true?!? Besides Mills described the basis of his hydrino theory in the book “The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics”, what do you think about this?!

    In the link below, there is the evidence that this reaction can produce and excess of energy that cannot be explained with “usual” theory
    http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-530712?ref=feeds/latest

    So this can be a different way to demonstrate that LENR reaction are real and that there will be many future possibilities of discover other similiar reactions.

    best regards

    Ing. Andrea Cuccarini

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Better provide a bike in the trunk…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    Let me a little joke on future.
    “”Dear …give me the water pump that my two E-Kittens have thirst …” Glu.Glu.Glu… ”OK, thanks! Now I can leave with my powerful Cat-Car”"… Wruuuummm!
    Eh …Eh … it would be just a beautiful dream to achieve …When?
    Warm regards

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    ….se posso aggregarmi,porto il sangiovese!

    Giovanni Guerrini (Lugo Ra)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ecat-ering:
    Today I am in London, tomorrow I will be in the USA, where I will remail for a long time. You can email
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ecat-ering

    Come va ?
    I salami sono a buon punto di stagionatura,per cui
    se posso rivederla a Bologna per un semplice saluto , non in situazioni di stress mi farebbe piacere?
    Saluti Ecat-ering

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    I thought so too…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mats Heijkenskjold:
    It will be possible to regulate the output heat.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mats Heijkenskjold

    Dear Mr Rossi, Victor and Charlie Sutherland,

    What I understand so is it possible to regulate the output power from the Ecat.
    If you have some regulating thermostat, not an on-off, which is sending signals to the control system of the Ecat according to the heat needed. Then the Ecat could be able to deliver heat continously at different levels, not just on and off. Of course also a water tank will help the system.

    Am I completely wrong or is it not possible to regulate the output heat power? May be there could be some intelligent thermostat for sale together with the Ecat?!

    Best regards
    Mats Heijkenskjold

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Right,e cat is not a (hot) dog named Laika !

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob Norman:
    Thank you: our factory will be a model to defeat competition.
    Why do you want to use the E-Cat at 40 kft? Our Cat is not an astronaut!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland,
    Yes, this should be the smartest solution, when possible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marcello:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marcello

    Gentite Sig. Rossi ho seguito stasera la trasmissione su Rai 2 e devo dire che non sono cosi’ sorpreso dai risultati … era solo questione di tempo ed intuizione …mi stupisco del rumore intorno. In questo momento dovremmo fermarci ad ascoltare.
    Grazie per il vostro impegno.
    Se serve una mano sono disposizione.
    Marcello

  • Mister Rossi and Victor,

    Rather than have the e-cat turn off and on frequently, if that is a problem, wouldn’t it be simpler for the household e-cat to divert its heat to a heat reservoir (perhaps a water tank) when less heat required for the house, and then both the e-cat and reservoir could be used when extra heat is required.

    Charlie

  • Bob Norman

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I am looking at several designs using your device. One such application is to heat instruments in scientific airborne applications. Will I have any problems operating your E-Cat over altitude changes. I won’t be using it over 40k feet.
    Good luck getting your factory going. I have worked on such efforts an know you have a huge task.
    Best regards,

    Bob Norman

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Victor:
    The problem you raised is a true one. We have resolved it, but with some limitation: it is true that the E-Cat takes 1 hour to be activated and 1 hour to be turned off. The convenience of the E-Cat can be more or less, depending on the kind of use is made of it. Anyway we will give precise instructins and description only after the certification requirements will have been issued.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Victor

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I am extremely excited about your technology since the Oct 28 demonstration you gave. You indicate that the first generation e-cats will provide heat only. But I am wondering how you will solve the off-to-on requirements of a home heater. This is what I mean. Today the home heater is usually controlled by a thermostat or some such device to detect ambient air temperature in the house. When the temperature drops below the desired temperature, then the heat source is kicked on by whatever control mechanism is built into the heating unit. Whether that heat source be electric or gas or oil, instantaneous heat is provided. And when the temperature rises beyond the limit desired, the thermostat gives the order to shut off the heat source, at which point the electricity is shut off, or the gas, or the heating oil, or whatever – instantaneously.

    The thing I don’t understand about the e-cat is that one does not simply turn the heat on, or turn it off as required. One must wait for the core to be activated, and conversely to be inactivated when shutting down. This takes time – presumably minutes as opposed to less than a second for traditional systems.

    How do you intend to overcome this latency?

    Sincerely

    Victor

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    Very interestoing. Thank you for your, as usual, important information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dr. R.

    I recently learned about MAX-Phase materials (Ternary Ceramics).

    Could future E-CATS be made of this MAX Phase Stuff?

    It looks interesting as a method to increase operating temperature.

    Let me know if it could be useful.

    The work is being done at Drexel University in Philadelphia PA.

    By the way, I graduated from Drexel University.

    Perhaps you could visit Drexel someday and give a lecture or demonstration there.

    Best regards,

    Joseph Fine

    See links below.

    Joseph Fine

    http://www.3one2.com/AmerSci.pdf

    http://www.3one2.com

    http://max.materials.drexel.edu/publications/

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    Yes, I understand perfectly that the E-Cats only produce heat … but 3.5 tonnes of firewood to burn each year cost about € 500 to 600. This money (if saved using the E-Cat) could be used to pay electricity bills ever more costly. Whereas, finally, the water is heating, heater, washing machine you go quickly to a global spending $ 900 annual … Well! … This is not little.
    Warm Regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Please remember that the E-Cats of the first generation will not produce electricity, but only thermal power.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    and
    dear Joseph
    Thank you for your reply.
    Sorry for the question put in a confusing but in essence, i wanted to know when i can have my two E-Cat, because here in Italy the cost of electrical energy are becoming very prohibitive.
    Cordiality

    Francesco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine, Dear Francesco:
    1- No, we are making the robotizes line in our factory and, also, we have to wait the prescriptions of the certificator before deciding the final version.
    2- Of course, these issues are not for the public
    3- As I said, we will start to send the offers in Autumn this year, if we will have got the certification in time, and the deliveries will start I hope within the next winter or within 17 months, I hope, of course all this will depend on when we will get the certifications.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Omega Z:
    Thank you for your attenton, we will analyze your suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Omega Z

    On increasing the E-cat fluid temps.

    I am making some assumptions here on the E-cat. I assume the primary control of the E-cat core temp is controlled by water flow rate.

    Once the Water reaches about 200`C, The thermal transfer rate drops off quickly. The core overheats. Increased water flow prevents this but at the cost of higher water temps being capped.

    By using heated water from 2 E-cats to a third E-cat would double the water flow in the third E-cat but would still have limits. More thermal transfer surface is needed.

    I don’t know the shape of the E-cat or whether you use coils or a water jacket. With a water jacket you could dimple/pit the surface & with coils you could use something ribbed like a gas flex line. Maybe spiraled. Either would create more thermal surface & fluid turbulence that would increase enhanced heat transfer. Maybe even a small increase in fluid volume around the core itself without effecting the flow rate.

    Another thought, If you use wrap around coils would be to use 2 totally separate closed loops. As an Example, if you had a 5″ long core pipe you could coil tubing at the top 2″ with one flow tube & the bottom 2″ with the other flow tube. A low conductive separator in the middle between the loops.

    The Top tube could be recirculated heated fluid bringing the temp up with each recirculating pass until you get the temp you require. The bottom loop could be used for temp control of the core then be used for your hot water needs & heating & cooling.

    This would also allow the use of Refrigerant in the top loop with a lower boil point for improved electrical generation capabilities.

    I have know idea of the actual shape or size of the core or if it can be modified to incorporate these ideas. Nor do I know if these ideas have any merit to the stability problems of the E-cat higher temps. But, sometimes an outside perspective can be helpful even if it’s not the right answer.

    Just another Rossi fan.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi, Francesco,

    I think Francesco is asking if:

    1) everything is ready for production of the Home E-CAT? Or,
    2) If not, what major issues have to be settled (certifications, manufacturing), and…
    3) When will production start and orders begin to be filled.

    I apologize for putting my words to someone else’s questions, but they are probably common questions. You probably answered these questions before.

    Energy costs continue to rise. Real problems must be addressed directly. But ‘made-up’ /(unnecessary) impediments to progress are still real and cannot be ignored.

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Sorry, I do not understand your question: can you explain in other words?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    ….effettivamente,mi sono “allargato” un pò troppo…..

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