Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,496 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Antonella

    Dear Andrea,

    someone is thinking of possible military application of your technology.

    http://ecatreport.com/andrearossi/possible-miltary-applications-ecat-technology

    I think that Science Fiction authors will soon write about the possible future of the E-Cat technology and the social changes that will come along. Of course it is possible that they think of a story about USA conquering the world, but I would prefer the anticipation of a future when energy is so abundant that no war will be necessary anymore.

    Thank you for giving me this hope.

  • Andrea Rossi: You say that you now understand the reason for the high temperature instability. This is wonderful news! And a reactor/amplifier may now be able to achieve quite high temperatures!

    The little cat might become a Lion. Good news indeed. pg

  • Hergen

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    one further question i forgot to ask:

    with your new achievement is it possible to increase the COP?

    Thank You

  • Hergen

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I follow your blog nearly daily since January 2011. Congrats to your new success. My question: Will it be possible to run the
    household e-cat with a higher temperature, too, in order to produce electricity?

    Thank you for your answer in advance.

  • Robert Tanhaus

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Great!
    Do you think that improvement could influence the 1st generation products?

    BR
    Robert Tanhaus

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    In its response to Dr. Joseph Fine you write:
    “”we have stabilized it at very high temperatures””
    But … then the dream to produce steam for the traction is approaching?
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    I agree.
    It’s Saturday, but today and tomorrow we will work 24 hours a day on the reactor we have made here in the USA: we have stabilized it at very high temperatures…and when I say very high I mean it. We understood the reason of the instability, so now the work is going on hard.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Ing. Rossi:

    Glad to hear the very good news about your achievement in reaching a sustained increase in temperature: “a revolution in the revolution”.

    Congrats. If you get to 360 degrees, that would be a complete revolution. ;^)

    As you know, ‘Success’ comes before ‘Work’….only in the dictionary.

    Thermal regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Russell Scott:
    It has been among the most interesting interviews I made.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi Hellò
    I posted this comment in the journal of new energy Green Style which I hope will be acceptable to you.

    “”It’s true, it seems all fiction … but it’s not a dream. Rossi has already made demos trusted enough in the face of such physical Focardi and others scientific journalists that they could check if there were tricks. And then … Who stands to gain with the tricks? I see only a high form of protection on industrial secret finch will not be initiated a massive production and sale of found. From a scientific point of view well explained Focardi, during a television broadcast, that a Proton hydrogen, under the stimulus of an electromagnetic field and an increase in temperature induced penetrate the nucleus of the atom of nickel ‘ up ‘ (note the quotes) inside and turning it into pure copper. All accompanied by a powerful release of heat energy that can be used in our radiators. It would seem an alchemy of yesteryear but is a reality already demonstrated although not explained thoroughly. Even Marconi when studied the propagation of radio waves was not, himself, fully aware of the mechanisms; mechanisms that have been duly explained later with subsequent generations of scientists. Now you just wait for the industrial process of Rossi starts massive order for evading and domestic Cats with COP-6, which is given to know, would cost only 500-600 Euro per piece.I really think the pessimists will be proven wrong in disbelief … won’t be just a personal satisfaction, but a huge happiness for the good will of humanity.””
    See: http://www.greenstyle.it/e-cat-quali-possibili-applicazioni-militari-9244.html#ixzz1tz5MRc2P

    Warm regards
    F.T.

    Caro ing. Rossi buongiorno
    Ho inserito questo commento nella rivista di nuove energie Green Style che spero sia a Lei gradito.
    “”Si è vero, sembra tutta fantascienza…ma non è un sogno. Rossi ha già fatto delle demo abbastanza attendibili al cospetto di fisici del calibro di Focardi ed altri giornalisti scientifici che ben hanno potuto controllare se vi erano trucchi. E poi…a che prò fare trucchi? Io vedo soltanto una forma altissima di protezione sul segreto industriale finchè non verrà avviata una produzione e vendita massiva del ritrovato. Dal punto di vista scientifico ben ha spiegato Focardi, durante una trasmissione televisiva, che un protone dell’idrogeno, sotto lo stimulus di un campo elettromagnetico e di un aumento di temperatura indotto penetrerebbe il nucleo dell’atomo del nichelio “installandosi” (notare il virgolettato)all’interno e trasformandolo in rame puro. Il tutto accompagnato da una potente liberazione di energia termica che può essere utilizzata nei nostri termosifoni. Sembrerebbe una alchimia dei tempi andati ma è una realtà già dimostrata anche se non spiegata a fondo. Anche Marconi quando studiò la propagazione delle onde radio non era, lui stesso, pienamente conscio dei meccanismi della stessa; meccanismi che sono stati puntualmente spiegati più tardi con le successive generazioni di scienziati. Ora bisogna solo aspettare che il processo industriale di Rossi venga avviato evadendo il massiccio ordinativo di E-Cats domestici con COP 6 che, a quanto è dato sapere, verrebbero a costare solo 500-600 Euro al pezzo.
    Credo proprio che gli increduli pessimisti verranno smentiti…non sarà solo una soddisfazione personale, bensì una enorme felicità per il bene che trarrà l’intera umanità.””

    Leggi tutto: http://www.greenstyle.it/e-cat-quali-possibili-applicazioni-militari-9244.html#ixzz1tz5MRc2P

    Caldi Saluti

    F.T.

  • The Andrea Rossi interview on The West Coast Truth has a new link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfcAvDwIdjc The original link no longer works. This interview answers almost every common question regarding the E-CAT. Andrea Rossi was a pleasure to interview.

    Russell

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fabio:
    Thank you for your kind attention.
    You are right: some puppett is trying to stop our work saying we cannot go on selling a producte that is not well known. Note: first they said my product was bullshit, now they have to change channel and try to raise the safety problem. But , as we always said, our product will hit the non military market only after due certification; besides, we know very well our product and how it works, so it is wrong to say we do not know how the E-Cat works. About the market: you are right again, People will vote with their money and decide if the E-Cat works or not.
    By the way: we are working very hard on the temperatures, and we have reached a tremendous goal in the last week. We are making a test which endures since a week, that could make a revolution in the revolution. It will go ahead for a month.
    For now, just working.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • fabio (squille)

    egregio ing. Rossi, la seguo da un pò e ritengo che l’Italia dovrebbe aggrapparsi a cervelli come il suo, dovrebbe tutelare e sposare in pieno il suo progetto magnifico. Ma ahimè temo che non sia così, il nostro sistema politico/economico non prevede la crescita, tantomeno se si tratta di investire nella ricerca. Bè, sappi che in Italia c’è gente che crede ancora in un futuro migliore, che farà di tutto per avere un futuro migliore, e disposta a tutto affinchè progetti rivoluzionari come il suo non finiscano nel cassetto delle attese “logistiche e strategiche” per salvaguardare questo o quel mercato delle solite lobby di potere. Restiamo in attesa di sviluppi e crediamo davvero di poter utilizzare il suo e-cat al più presto nelle nostre case. Quando sarà il momento, saremo in prima linea a pubblicizzarlo, a diffondere parola, a creare una rete commerciale e distributiva, perchè purtroppo non credo che troverà tantissimo spazio nè in tv nè sui giornali di stato. Con stima infinita e orgoglioso di essere italiano come lei e tanti altri maestri illustri della scienza che l’hanno preceduta, Fabio.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    Very interesting, congrats!!!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    http://www.xtranormal.com/watch/13365662/introduction-to-the-e-cat

    My first on-line video.

    What do you think?

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    We are waiting the end of the certificators’ work to write the manuals, which will be based upon their requirements. Yes, we will publish them on
    http://www.ecat.com
    as soon as we will have them ready.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    Waiting to see your activity in reactor directly in my house, given that you’re setting up two factories already, I think you definitely have a technical manual for the user already ready, wher have the scope of the product, the possible connections in the network and the heating system recommended maintenance.Well, notwithstanding the trade secret, given the nerve-wracking wait for gi worn my trust and that of your supporters, you publish this manual at least on line?
    Warm regards
    F.T.

    Caro ing. Rossi
    In attesa di vedere in attività il tuo reattore direttamente in casa mia, considerato che tu stai allestendo già due fabbriche, io penso che tu avrai sicuramente un manuale tecnico per l’utente già pronto, dove potrà vedersi il campo di applicazione del prodotto, le possibili connessioni nella rete di riscaldamento domestico e il sistema di manutenzione consigliato.
    Ebbene,fermo restando il segreto industriale, data la snervante attesa che già logora la mia fiducia e quella dei tuoi sostenitori, non potresti pubblicare il suddetto manuale almeno on line?
    Sinceri saluti
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    In due time the non military applications will be visitable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Buongiorno sig. Rossi,
    la seguo da ormai più di un anno, ogni giorno interrogo internet con la speranza di trovare finalmente il suo reattore in funzione da qualche parte nel mondo, ma con il passare dei mesi la speranza e la fiducia cominciano a traballare. Mi aspettavo, dopo la vendita di un impianto di 1MW ad un organismo militare americano, alcuni effetti secondari quali ad esempio una sospensione dei finanziamenti destinati alla ricerca in certi settori energetici, ma cio’ purtroppo non é avvenuto.
    Le auguro buon lavoro.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Thank you. The interviewer was very good. Good questions make good answers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Congratulations on your interview with West Coast Truth, your sincerity, intelligence and competence came through loud and clear.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Thank you for the interview with West Coast Truth, your sincerity, intelligence and competence came through loud and clear.

  • Joseph Fine

    New textbook in preparation. Not yet available.

    http://www.terrestrialnuclearprocesses.com/ A Handbook on LENR

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pedro Santini:
    All these works give evidence of the fact that my patent gives direction for indipendent reproduction of the effect.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    Thank you: your thoughts are clear.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Antonella

    Dear Andrea,

    thank you and West Coast Truth for this interesting interview
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ub75CoKCe9o&

    I wish you to know that I am with you in thinking that all that happened to you in the past was meant to take you to this moment. Nulla avviene per caso. As you say further on when talking about matter and energy, also in this case there was “no such thing as a free lunch” and you goal cost you more that “simple” hard work.

    You say “Not even dreams are free” and…well, I loved that!
    You grok!
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grok

    Antonella
    Ps:I hope that my thoughts are well explained; you know as I do that when you think in a language different from yours, thoughts come out a bit different as well.

  • Pedro Santini

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    In these days we can see an increasing number of researchers who reveal that they have built cold fusion devices.
    It seems that suddenly “everyone” is able to build machines that work similar to yours, using similar principles, but not identical. Also now it seems that many, even independently researcher can build fully functioning equipment, relatively easily.
    What do you think of Athanor and Brillouin technology? From your experience, these different methods of creating energy can work?
    Thank You ! Best regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mika Helsingius:
    Good point, we can also put an automatic restart, but the problem is not of ours: it has to be seen if an automatic restart can be accepted under a safety point of view. We have to study this problem.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mika Helsingius

    Dear Mr Rossi

    One comment on manual restart after electrical blackout. I think automatic restart is needed. In northern Europe it can be weeks below 0C, even under -20C or more. Typical Finnish home has heavy insulations and water circulated central heating. If heating stops for few days in winter, pipes freeze and break (also normal kitchen/bathroom water pipes). Water leaking under the house almost destroys it. Repair takes months and the typical cost is 50000-100000€; one has to break floors, use hot air&pumps to remove humidity from ground under the house and replace all wet insulations. So, there are a lot of regulations regarding this in home insurance and normal heating (oil/gas, even wood pellets) always starts automatically after the electricity is back. If one is having one week holiday away from home without mobile phone and heating goes off, it would be enough for disaster. Several hours of blackout have been very common during last winters, caused by winter storms and trees falling on powerlines. So, I think the heating system must be quaranteed to work/be able to restart 24/7 without human supervision or there would be problems to get insurance for the house.

    So, I just wanted to mention this, as in many parts of the world this is not a problem, but in north heating is critical. This is why many summer cottages do not have water pipes, too high risk if you do not visit there for many weeks in winter time.

    Mika Helsingius

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine,
    Thank you, as usual.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea,

    I just took out an interersting, and optimistic, book about the future. It is titled: “ABUNDANCE – The future is better than you think”. It is by Peter Diamandis and Steven Kotler. Maybe you and your readers will like it. So far, there is no chapter about the E-CAT. Maybe that will be in the next book.

    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/01/books/review/abundance-by-peter-h-diamandis-and-steven-kotler.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear SCHOLL:
    I suppose you mean what happens in case of a black out of the grid, so that the E-Cat remains without the drive of the electric resistance. If so, here are the answers:
    1- The E-Cat will go on in self sustaining under the control of the electronic system, until it is possible. Normally, the duration of a black out is few minutes, so it should not affect the operation of the E-Cat. In case of long black out, the control system turns off the E-Cat, and the stopping process lasts 1 hour
    2- thermosyphon, no risks at all
    3- No: we prefer the restart made voluntarily, even if to make it automatic is simple. The stop alarm and the restart can also be transmitted in remote by a cell phone.
    I hope I understood your questions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • SCHOLL

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Some questions about a loss of electrical power at full power.
    1 How long did it take for stopping?
    2 Are residual calories evacuated by thermosyphon or is there any risk of core destruction?
    3 Is automatic restart operating after electrical power return?

    Sincerely,

    C.SCHOLL

  • Antonella

    ok, ho sbagliato ancora…quella è la home page
    il vero link è questo
    http://www.fantascienza.com/magazine/notizie/16367/e-cat-story-intervista-con-andrea-rossi/

    (il fatto è che è stata una nottataccia, e sono sveglia da pochi minuti…)

  • Antonella

    ooops…ho messo il link ai commenti anziché all’articolo! la solita imbranata…cambia lei, per favore? questo è quello giusto:
    http://www.fantascienza.com/magazine/home/

  • Antonella

    Dear Dr Rossi, I hope you will like my work on the interview.
    Thank again for your kind time,
    Antonella

    http://www.fantascienza.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=484431

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pekka Janhunen:
    It has.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    No, the instability is not made by means of a gamma excess.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Non so se la causa della instabilità è un eccesso di radiazione gamma,ma se così fosse si potrebbe utilizzare un servo meccanismo per modulare all’interno del reattore la presenza di barre di controllo?
    Scusate se ho detto una sciocchezza,è solo una idea da profano appassionato.

    Saluti. G. Guerrini

  • Dear Andrea,
    I don’t believe, by the way, that an energetically significant amount of gammas would be absorbed by the lead. If the lead shield reduces the gamma ray energy flux from kilowatt level to undetectable (quite many orders of magnitude difference), the mean free path of the primary gammas within lead must be much less than one millimetre (otherwise some of them would come through, which doesn’t happen). But if that is so, then those gammas have a rather short (less than 1 cm) mean free path in any material, including nickel, steel and water. Therefore I would think that the majority of gammas is absorbed and turned to heat already in the powder, not reaching the lead shielding, and the majority of those that do reach it are anyway dissipated in the innermost 0.1-0.3 mm of the lead. I don’t know if this has any implications to reactor design; perhaps not.
    r:/pekka

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear G Singh:
    The situation is more complicated: we have very good stability below 200 Celsius, then we get problems, indipendently from the mass of lead. Thank you anyway for your attention and your attempt to help. Anyway, we are close to the solution, I hope.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • G Singh

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I have another stupid idea. If I understand the mechanism correctly. At some point heat is not transfered quickly enough from the lead to the water. At that point the reactor becomes unstable.

    Conservation of energy would suggest that the lead will not be able to absorbed more gamma rays until it has transfered it’s energy to the water. This might create a sort of gamma ray saturation where whatever mechanism in the nickel/hydrogen molecule that creates gamma rays is not capable of functioning and the non release of energy in that molecule destabilizes the reaction.

    If you could double the surface area of lead/gamma ray contact area you might significantly increase absorption. If you could double the surface area of the lead/water contact area you might also significantly increase heat transference to the water.

    Don’t know if this is useful. If not please accept my hope for your success.

    G Singh

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mats Heijkenskjold:
    Good question.
    The lead will not be affected, because it is not put in the area where we have 1500 Celsius and in the area where it is put the temperature remains below 200 Celsius, also if the nickel goes up to its melting point. Remember that whern the nickel melts, the reactor immediately stops its operastion, because it works onlyu with nickel powder. This fact makes the E-Cat intrinsecally safe.
    Thank you for your useful question,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mats Heijkenskjold

    Dear Mr Rossi

    I have may be a stupid question:
    What will happen with the lead shield when the reactor overheats by accident?
    If there are no cooling water flowing and no control system working. The reaction will stop because the temperature goes high and the nickel starts to change composition. There have been mentioned temperatures up to 1500 degC.
    The lead melting temperature is about 330 degC.
    Is the lead shield existing during the above described conditions? Are there any danger for the gamma rays?

    Please could you explain?

    God luck with your further work!

    Mats Heijkenskjold

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rob:
    Maybe you are right, I didn’t think about this aspect… I am not a numismatic.
    But you made a good point, though! You make me think that trashing the reactors that didn’t work (thousands of them) I made a mistake.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rob

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    If your invention is successfully released to market, then early units will one day become collectors pieces. May be interesting to consider this when applying serial numbers.

    Rob

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear G. Singh,
    There’s nothing stupid in your comment, ideas are always useful when they are honest and sincere.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • G Singh

    Dear Mr Rossi

    Please don’t publish this on your blog what may be a stupid idea. My understanding is that the nickel is at close to 1500 degC in the reactor and the gamma rays then pass through the primary fluid to heat up the lead and when the water gets too hot this causes the reactor to overheat. My apologies if I have it wrong.

    What I think might be worth a try is having hollow tubes/pipes near or surrounding the reactor. These tubes run the length of the E-cat and open to the air at both ends. This would reduce the heat density(?) surrounding the reactor but not near the lead and should not interfere with the gamma ray transmission.

    By its construction the reactor should run cooler but you can also run a fan and push air through the tubes when necessary to help with cooling.

    Hope some of this might be of use to you.

    Good luck in all your endeavors.

    G Singh

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonio Ingarozza:
    Please contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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