Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,496 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro:
    He,he,he…thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • Caro Ing.Rossi augurissimi per il 3 giugno.Spero che sia per lei un compleanno “spumeggiante”in tutti i sensi.

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    ¸.•´¸✬⋰.•*´¨)✬⋰
    (¸✬⋰.•´ (¸.•` * ¸.✬⋰•´¸.•*´¨)
    ……\~~~~~/…..\~~~~~/
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    ……..\~~~/………\~~~/
    ………\~~/………..\~~/
    ……….\~/………….\~/
    ………..||……………||
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    ……./****\………./ ****\.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    Thank you very much,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,

    Happy Birthday tomorrow !

    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    Good question.
    This is the question I could have asked for, should I have been in your position.
    Before I answer, please consider my position: I cannot so far disclose my theory and I cannot disclose, until the international patent is granted, how the reactor exactly works. Therefore I have to answer within the boundaries allowed from my former considerations.
    1- the analisys are made upon samples which are always different, due to the difficulties to make omologous samples when you deal with a matter where a tiny percentage of matter reacts within the total charge.
    2- impurities are always possible
    3- We enrich the Ni with the 62 and 64 isotopes, which are the sole to work really: if they had not worked and therefore if Cu had not been born, an excess of 62 and 64 Ni had to be found: therefore the fact that we did not find a percentage of Ni outside the relatively wide band of the isotopes is normal. Should not Cu have been made, we would have found an excess of 62 and 64 Ni
    4- Our theory is deeply changed during the last 2 years of experience and tests, and we have understood clearly which is the transmutation role, so that all the considerations of your Collegue are perferctly explained
    5- Remember that our goal is not to produce copper, our goal is to produce energy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andrea Manganelli:
    Thank you fort the suggestion: I checked through it, but there is not an apparatus ready to be tested. I am very practical: I am not at all interested to theories of “gurus” who explain theories more or less TCL ( time-consuming-and-losing). I am exclusively interested to apparatuses able to work. In our field we are too much filled up with theorists who write stupidities of which they are not liable because they have not to produce something that actually works. Take for example the ridiculous theories coming from the “papers” of Widom, Larsen and accolites: they suppose groundless behaviours of virtual particles just if they could behave like Fermions, and they simply ignore the leptons’ conservation law: this is ridicolous, but the “theoretical gurus” are all around this pure loss- of- time- theory, just because none of them has the anxiety deriving from the necessity to make the money necessary to refund the expenses of the research : they just ask for money of the taxpayer, like the other (Italian) guru who is using since 20 years the taxpayer’s money to make ridiculous research on the cold fusion electrilytic processes. This is also why we count on our Customers to repay ourselves, while they ask for Taxpayer’s contribution. Some imbecile has written that we are sellers, not scientists: well we are scientists who want not to steal the money of the taxpayers, therefore we have to sell our (really working) products. While they make mental masturbations with ridiculous theories totally groundless, we are working 16 hours per day to make real working products. With our money, not with money of the Taxpayers.
    All this is not from your comment, but your comment has triggered this answer after I read from a blog a letter of an imbecile who says we are not scientists, but sellers. I got the chance to repeat that to “think” without to be able to make anything useful is a loss of time, if made without money, and is a fraud if made with the money of the Taxpayer. In Italy we have a paradigmatic example of this, specifically in the LENR field.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Manganelli

    Caro Ingegner Rossi,

    Seguo da sempre con entusiasmo (ed una totale ignoranza) il suo lavoro.
    Ho capito che lo scoglio per la produzione di energia elettrica da e.cat è la temperatura e non solo.
    Mi permetto di segnalarle un prodotto suo vicino di casa : Cyclone Tecnologies che si trova a Pompano Beach FL..
    Puó darsi che io mi sbagli ma forse no, ci spenda due minuti sul web, potrebbe essere risolutivo.
    I miei migliori auguri

  • Antonella

    Dear Andrea,

    a user in the forum where I have opened a thread on the E-Cat has made some considerations. I wish you can help me giving an answer to his implicit question.

    Forse, per molti di voi, sono cose risapute, ma ci capisco sempre meno sulla questione della composizione isotopica del carburante esausto.
    Ho trovato due versioni contrastanti del medesimo articolo di Focardi e Rossi (“A new energy source from nuclear fusion”). Una prima versione, datata 5 gennaio 2010 (una bozza?), la trovo nel sito lenr-canr.org; per la precisione all’url

    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/FocardiSanewenergy.pdf

    La seconda, datata 22 marzo 2010 (la versione definitiva?) la trovo nel “Journal of Nuclear Physics” che, se non ho capito male, si tratta del blog dello stesso Rossi; precisamente all’url

    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Rossi-Focardi_paper.pdf

    In entrambe le versioni si parla di un’analisi isotopica — effettuata dall’Universita’ di Padova — dal materiale uscito dall’ECat dopo un lungo periodo di utilizzo. In entrambe le versioni si parla della presenza di Cu-63, Cu-65, Ni-64 e Zn-64. Riguardo al rapporto tra Cu-63 e Cu-65, la prima versione riporta:
    Citazione:
    the ratio Cu63/Cu65=2,25 which agrees perfectly with the value (2,24) relative to the copper isotopic natural composition

    La seconda invece afferma:
    Citazione:

    the ratio Cu63/Cu65=1,6 different from the value (2,24) relative to the copper isotopic natural composition

    In altre parole: in una prima versione affermavano che il rame, che sostengono prodotto dall’Ecat a partire dal nichel, e’ in una composizione isotopica quasi identica a quella naturale; nella seconda affermano che la composizione e’ notevolmente differente da quella naturale (anche se nella direzione opposta a quella che mi sembrerebbe conseguenza della spiegazione teorica che forniscono).

    Correggetemi se sbaglio, ma mi sembra che questo aspetto sia di fondamentale importanza per stabilire se siamo in presenza di rame *prodotto* dall’Ecat o meno.
    In presenza di una composizione isotopica diversa da quella naturale, la spiegazione nucleare sarebbe più immediata.
    In presenza di una composizione isotopica naturale, sarebbe molto (ma *molto*) piu’ complicato sostenere la produzione di rame, da parte dell’Ecat, e si dovrebbe necessariamente pensare a una contaminazione del campione (con rame assorbito da elettrodi?, presente nel catalizzatore? nelle pareti della camera di reazione?

    Nel seguente link

    http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3144827.ece

    trovo la seguente intervista, del 2011, a due professori Svedesi:

    Ny Teknik: What results have you obtained from the analyses?

    Kullander: Both measurements show that the pure nickel powder contains mainly nickel, and the used powder is different in that several elements are present, mainly 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron. The isotopic analysis through ICP-MS doesn’t show any deviation from the natural isotopic composition of nickel and copper.

    Ny Teknik: How do you interpret the results?

    Kullander: Provided that copper is not one of the additives used as catalyst, the copper isotopes 63 and 65 can only have been formed during the process. Their presence is therefore a proof that nuclear reactions took place in the process. However, it’s remarkable that nickel-58 and hydrogen can form copper-63 (70%) and copper-65 (30%). This means that in the process, the original nickel-58 should have grown by five and seven atomic mass-units, respectively, during the nuclear transmutation. However, there are two stable isotopes of nickel with low concentration, nickel-62 and nickel-64, which could conceivably contribute to copper production. According to Rossi copper is not among the additives. 100 grams of nickel had been used during 2.5 months of continuous heating with 10 kW output power. A straightforward calculation shows that a large proportion of the nickel must have been consumed if it was ‘burned’ in a nuclear process. It’s then somewhat strange that the isotopic composition doesn’t differ from the natural.

    Quindi:
    – le analisi svedesi ripostano anche una quantita’ significativa (superiore a quella del rame) di ferro, di cui in precedenza Focardi e Rossi non parlavano;
    – lo zinco, rilevato dall’Universita’ di Padova, non e’ citato esplicitamente (anche se potrebbe essere parte dei “several elements”);
    – il rapporto isotopico tra Cu-63 e Cu-65 risulta 70/30, ovvero 2,33; molto vicino al rapporto naturale; quasi certamente nei limiti delle capacita’ di misurazione, tanto e’ vero che il prof. Kullander (che pur crede che la produzione di rame sia la prova di reazioni nucleari all’interno dell’Ecat) rileva che e’ strano che la composizione isotopica non sia diversa da quella naturale.

    Premesso che sarebbe stato interessante avere i risultati sulla composizione isotopica anche del ferro (e, piu’ in generale, i risultati dettagliati di entrambe le analisi), a me sembra evidente che la presenza di rame con composizione isotopica indistinguibile da quella naturale sia, se non la prova definitiva e incontrovertibile, per lo meno un fortissimo indizio del fatto che quel rame *non* e’ stato prodotto dall’Ecat.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear K.D.:
    Interesting information. Yes, the E-Cat could be coupled, but we need a working prototype to test it in reality.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • K. D.

    Dear ing.Rossi
    On Science Daily is article about Small Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
    using external steam reforming and fuel recycling. Maybe E-Cat can work with it as steam supply?

    Science News

    New Small Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reaches Record Efficiency
    ScienceDaily (May 31, 2012) — Individual homes and entire neighborhoods could be powered with a new, small-scale solid oxide fuel cell system that achieves up to 57 percent efficiency, significantly higher than the 30 to 50 percent efficiencies previously reported for other solid oxide fuel cell systems of its size, according to a study published in this month’s issue of Journal of Power Sources.

    The entire system was streamlined to make it more efficient and scalable by using PNNL-developed microchannel technology in combination with processes called external steam reforming and fuel recycling. PNNL’s system includes fuel cell stacks developed earlier with the support of DOE’s Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance

  • Francesco

    Dear ing.Rossi
    I thank you for your invaluable refinements.
    Warm regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    INFORMATION FOR THE READERS OF THE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS:
    TODAY HAS BEEN PUBLISHED THE INTERESTING PAPER
    “EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF A BREACH OF UNITY”
    BY ROSEMARIE ANSLIE, DONOVAN MARTIN, EVA ROBINSON, MARIO HUMAN, ALAN MACEY, RIAAN THERON
    JONP

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    It is not true, in fact Hydrogen has three isotopes:
    Protium, which has no neutrons
    Deuterium, which has one neutron
    Tritium, which has 2 neutrons.
    Protium is the common hydrogen
    Deuterium is contained mainly in sea water, in very small percentage respect Protium, forming the water molecules.
    Tritium is obtained only artificially in nuclear reactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    Our factories must remain unknown as long as possible, for security reasons.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Buongiorno sig. Rossi,
    sto cercando dove potrebbe essere la sua fabbrica a Miami,
    mi sono detto: certamente non lontano da dove abita!!
    ho trovato una zona industriale dopo l’aeroporto, ad una decina di miglia da miami beach,
    ci sono vicino?
    Auguri.

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    I Am I correct in that the hydrogen has no neutrons (how embarrassing!)
    As you can see i are not an expert in Chemistry , He,he!
    Warm regards

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi

    I am not a chemist but when thou hast made the E-Cat I am really fond, reviewing all my notions (indeed the chemistry school does not entranced me).

    Speaking in a rough manner, as far as we know, the process within the reactor takes place under certain conditions of stimulus energy, which allows the electrode to nickel of “consume” an atom.
    This atom, in turn, buy a proton of hydrogen, is transformed into Cu and settles, i think, in the walls of the reactor core. During this reaction “induced” is accomplished a work that is returned in heat greater than that administered with the external energy. I am now a stupid question.

    The hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table because it has only one proton, one neutron and one electron.
    At room temperature, if uncompressed, is located in the gaseous state.

    Is it permissible that with another gas it is possible to do the same reaction, but with adoption of more energy due to the involvement of more protons?
    For example, although this might be a stupid, using oxygen could be a product of transmutation different from copper as the crypto?
    Of course, I repeat, the discourse is very coarse.
    Thank you for the eventual answer.
    Warm Regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herbert Gillis:
    There are strong reasons for which COP 6 is a limit, but your insight is interesting. Of course it is not possible for me to enter in the particulars you made mention of without touching confidential issues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    If a Customer buys an E-Cat he can do whatever he wants with it, obviously respecting the manuals to preserve the safety issues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herbert Gillis

    The discussion of COP and its relationship to stability is interesting because of the heterogeneous (particulate) nature of the fuel. One could think of each particle as a mini-reactior and each one will find itself in a slightly different micro-environment (ie. some will be closer to the external heating source than others). Its hard for me to imagine how each individual mini-reactor (particle) will remain stable all the time, simply because of the statistical distribution of micro-environments. Electric heating elements have “hot spots” and “cool spots”. Moreover; each mini-reactor will be outputting heat at a different rate. Could this be leading to gradual fuel degradation, and resulting loss of overall performance, over long operating times? Would it be possible to operate at even higher temperatures if these limitations could be minimized?
    One of the themes I keep hearing is that instability may lead to fuel melting and consolidation, which kills the reaction irreversibly. What do you think would happen if the individual fuel particles (nickel) where encapsulated in a porous matrix that has a higher melting point than nickel (for example, porous silica, graphite, carbon, or other refractory inorganic matrix)? Such a matrix could at least prevent fuel consolidation if some of the particles melt, so that damage casused be fuel melting might not be irreversible. Could this possibly be a way to improve overall performance and stability even further? I agree that a COP of 6 is excellent, but obviously the higher the better.
    A few days ago someone made a suggestion about “aerosols” that might be similar.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    Good luck to SpaceX’s Dragon.
    All the kinds of energy can be integrated.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • I’m watching SpaceX’s Dragon re-entry splashdown right now. Can’t wait for your e-cats to replace the solar panels.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    If and when these 600C e-cats are available, will their uses be restricted, or will customers be allowed (outside of dismantling them, of course) to experiment with them to find other uses.

    I’m afraid I have already revealed my bent toward the fun side, so I might not even get the chance to purchase one.

    Charlie

    PS: The spelling is still “Schweizer” :-)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear francesco:
    Agreed,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    In Finland are very interested in your invention … there i think! Have very cold!
    He, he.
    @Alex, @J. Fine
    Thanks for your prompt clarification.
    Cordial greetings.
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine, Alex:
    Thank you very much for the important information.
    I apologize to the Finnish Readers for my ignorance.
    Warm Regars,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Francesco, Andrea,

    The language of “Tarkeita” is Finnish.

    However, if you use Google Translate, you can set it to detect which language is used.

    No translation is perfect, but not communicating has much worse results.

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Sincerely, I do not know. I take the chance to ask to all our Readers to write in English.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland,
    Better the Schweitzer SGS 2-33!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • You guys are having fun with your cats on treadmills and wheels. I might as well indulge myself in my own passion….. aviation.

    For the last few months, off and on, I have been working towards my glider certificate. At my particular school, it takes a tow plane to get the Schweizer SGS 2-33 up to altitude.

    I’m wondering if your 600C e-cat can heat up a small steam rocket to accomplish the task. And, just think, if I make it to another field, I can use a bit of tap water to get to my next port of call.

    Just a thought. He He.

    Charlie

  • Francesco

    Caro ing. Rossi.
    ROSSI: “TÄRKEITÄ UUTISIA”
    Scusi la mia ignoranza ma che lingua è? Grazie.
    Cordiali saluti
    F.T.

  • […] by Kylmafuusio   Andrea Rossi on jälleen kerännyt E-Cat-seuraajien mielenkiinnon eilisellä lyhyellä viestillään: “Viikon sisään tulemme julkaisemaan erittäin tärkeitä tietojaliittyen reaktorien […]

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Joseph Fine:
    Very useful, thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/8/1481/pdf

    http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/13251/InTech-Thermodynamics_of_thermoelectricity.pdf

    Andrea,

    I found these papers on the topic of Thermoelectricity and started to read them.

    Please analyze and see if they are helpful.

    It may contribute to your work – for some applications.

    In my opinion, thermo-electricity is of limited value and not very efficient.

    That does not mean there can be no progress.

    Very often, what is needed is a new idea.

    This weekend, I won’t be getting too much done.

    Perhaps, some of your readers will come up with that new idea.

    Best regards and Happy Holidays.

    (I refer to Pentecost and Shavuos.)

    Memorial day is a more serious and solemn day of remembrance.

    Thermal regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giorgio Adorni Francia:
    Thank you for your very kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • […] Rossi has got the attention of E-Cat watchers with a short statement yesterday: “Within a week we will have important news regarding the high temperature […]

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    wondeRfull

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    ….ah ah ah ah….wondelfull !

  • Antonella

    Dear Joseph Fine,

    thank you so much for the idea, my cats will love that wheel! I will try to build one for them, as it would be cheaper then buying it.

  • Giorgio Adorni Francia

    Carissimo Ing.Rossi, Le scrivo dopo molto tempo ma seguo con impazienza i progressi della Sua creatura e le scelte strategiche da Lei praticate, che condivido, per quello che vale la mia opinione.
    Tanti saluti da molti dei nostri. Con affetto.
    P.s. Mia moglie è una gattara piuttosto rinomata in zona.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine:
    GREAT!
    This is more convincing.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea, Giovanni,

    I recently learned of a breakthrough in Cat power known as the MacClaw Wheel. Each revolution is followed by another revolution. At times, only a single Cat is working, but most of the time, two cats can work effectively in parallel. Some acoustic energy is lost from the working units, but this has only a minor effect on operations. No auxiliary electrical generator is used. As you see, this version produces more power than it consumes – not counting the cost of food. And when it becomes unstable, the MacClaw automatically fails safe, and can be easily restarted.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Rn_UENIVDg

    Joseph Fine

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Se l’enpa (ente protezione animali)viene a conoscenza dello schiavismo perpetrato a danno di tal nobile creatura da parte del sottoscritto e di Joseph,siamo fregati.Per non parlare poi di lei,dott Rossi,esultare a quel modo per aver portato il suo a 600 Celsius !!!!
    Dovremmo fare un esame di coscienza e vergognarci profondamente!

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    Tank you for the reply brief and precise as english gentleman.
    Best Regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Within a week we will have important news regarding the high temperature reactors.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Carissimo ing. Rossi
    Un piccolo commento alla sua risposta:
    @A.R.””I gave already evidence not to be rubber-balled.””
    Eh, he, he…
    Questa risposta mi è piaciuta.
    Nonostante noi discutiamo di una invenzione che rivoluzionerà il mondo, della campagna dei mass media negativa e dei pericoli nascosti, lei riesce a mantenere alto l’umore.
    @Antonella: ti ringrazio per le osservazioni incoraggianti e naturalmente spero che le tue deduzioni siano esatte.
    Ma vedi…la posta in gioco è molto alta e le debolezze dell’essere umano sono altrettanto alte (avidità, superbia,volontà di predominio… tutto quello che ci ha insegnato la storia del passato e che ogni volta sembra non averci insegnato niente), perchè nel mondo si ripetono sempre gli stessi errori (disastri ecologici, guerre, fame ecc.)
    Tornando a Lei caro ing. Rossi: io di gatti ne nutro circa 30 tra randagi(25) e casalinghi (5). Con questi si potrebbe fare un bel serie-parallelo appena abbiamo la Sua “ricetta”,he, he, he…
    A proposito! ci sono altre novità su E-Cat2 (600°C)?
    Cordiali saluti.
    F.T.
    Dear ing. Rossi
    A small comment to its response:
    @A.R.””I gave already evidence not to be rubber-balled.””
    This response i liked.
    Although we are talking of a invention that will revolutionize the world, of the negative campaign by mass media and of the hidden dangers, you can keep up the mood.
    @Antonella: I thank you for the encouraging comments and of course I hope that your deductions are correct.
    But see … There is much at stake and the weaknesses of the human being are equally high (greed, pride and a desire to dominate … Everything that he taught us the history of the past and that each time it seems not have taught us nothing), because the world is always repeated the same mistakes (ecological disasters, wars, hunger etc. ) Returning to Her, dear ing. Rossi: i cats nor i have about 30 between stray(25) and housewares (5). With these you might make a nice series-parallel as soon as we have his ‘recipe’…he, he, he…
    By the way! There are other news on E-Cat2 (600 °C)?
    Cordial greetings.
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    Did you separate the water from the mass of the Cat? How did you calculate the COP? I must confess you: I am sceptic.
    I observed carefully the grey Cat: only half of it worked properly for good part of the test, actually all the rear part of it was out of the proper side. It doesn’t look too reliable.
    I have the sensation that the tape was moved by a hidden electric motor: got the sensation that it is a scam.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer, Greg Leonard:
    English is the language of the World, is spoken by 2 billions persons. Italian is a wonderful language, which carries 25 centuries of culture in it, but is spoken by 60 million persons: if we want to be understood in the World, English is absolutely indispensable, and we do what we can. I know perfectly that my English is poor, but I do my best to study and practise it, and it is also a pleasure, because English too carries in it an enormous baggage of culture.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella,
    My family, luckily, is all right, we had some problem in Ferrara, but nothing respect what happened to the less lucky persons…in a certain sense, who didn’t have real damages, like me, feels guilty.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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