Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,497 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear ing. Rossi
    For me too ‘ feature ‘ is a great prospect.
    If you’ve said clearly something you have ‘ noticed ‘ throughout your experiments. We expect every day (ahimè with his tongue out) the publication of tests on Mw 1. Ecat2.
    Courage engineer…never still we takes too long on tenterhooks!
    Warm regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro,
    Good question.
    I said “possibility”, not “guarantee”, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear ing Rossi
    In respect to ECat2, in the official site ECat.com, you declare:

    “”The high temperature E-Cat reactor currently in test also opens up for applications with Stirling Engines. The new reactor is smaller in size and has a charge of 1.5 grams and more shielding than the original reactor. The new progress also gives the possibility to increase the COP for industrial applications””.

    Contrarily to your preceding declarations done in this newspaper, for a middle COP not superior to 6.
    Would you be able explain us for which motive?
    Warm (600°C)Regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco:
    We will give all these information with the report that we will publish.
    I am not allowed to release any further information until the report is published.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Franco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    two question:

    1) I undersood the last tests have been performed together with the Customer. Is this Customer a Military Customer like in past or not?

    2) I read that tests have been performed at high temperature (600 Celsius). Is this the temperature of the reactor body or the temperature of the producted steam?

    Kind Regards

  • […] July 1st Andrea Rossi made a comment on the Journal of Nuclear Physics which seems to have escaped much discussion here so far. […]

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    As I always said, we learnt from them and they have been very generous.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Antonella

    Dear Andrea,

    I think you know that Stefano Concezzi has stated today in Rome that NI is sponsoring the research on LENR at the University of Bologna. That was great news for us followers!

    Best,
    Antonella

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    I want to make clear that:
    1- if I say that I make a thing, I make it before or later.
    2- If I say a thing, it is it, as far as I know.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mr. Rossi,

    I didn’t want to hold on to that guess without asking for more information.

    Thanks for setting things straight.

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    I certify that Robert Curto is not associated with me, nor with Leonardo Corporation, directly or indirectly. What he says and writes of us comes from his heart, without personal interest.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Robert Curto,

    No problem….

    My posts should either be objective, helpful, substantive, or encouraging. The post in question was none of these.

    My engineer friends ask for news. I share what little I have understood. It is fun to speculate, but I have little to share. Can’t wait till you can safely let us know more.

    I know what it is to have to keep secrets. Our laundry products are beginning to annoy the competition, and the “green” folks want us to give up our formulas or lose their business. Our formulas are all we have, so we can’t give them up and still stay in business. Catch 22. The world can do without my detergents, but not without Andrea’s e-cats.

    I’m guessing here… Are you associated with Andrea and his work? If so, give him my best.

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen:
    The certification of the domestic apparatuses will demand times that do not depend on us, unfortunately… I can’t answer.
    Thanks for all the other consideratins,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    Your recent responses to most questions have more enthousiasm in them.
    Comments with hints that could be confidential (but are often misunderstood) and suggestions from some people that are posted, are being answered with some “smile” that may be visible a little better for people with european mothers languages.

    It just seems that you are having more fun because of the success with Ecat-II, but also have chosen to limit your responsability to produce the BEST ECAT EVER, and let others build boilers, turbines, stirling engines and ovens, or a campfire around it. That is what I meant with openness. NDA or not, the information will have to flow to the people who will build thes devices and maintain them.

    The competitors can come with what they want, they will never beat Ecat-II. In fact, your succes makes it allmost pointless to compete. Why should I buy Nickel and Hydrogen and lab-stuff and work so hard and do dangerous experiments, as Andrea Rossi has the best and cheapest fusion-heater ? It was not mentioned yet, but I think Ecat-II also wil be able to (re-)launch in seconds or minutes and can be turned off at that same rate.
    The next big improvements will be in the applications.

    Now something else: next september, my oldest daughter wil be in her last year of middle school. (17-18yrs) She has to make a practical science (chemistry) project, and after the october visit last year, I hoped that a project on LENR would be possible. I remember that you wrote that some demo-reactors would be available. So instead of an expensive high-theoretical level conference as there are kept these days, by competitors of yours, it would be nice to make a cold fusion BBQ. There are a lot of ideas and sub-ideas in this approach. Doing some de-scientification would not be so bad. Make people feel the heat (infrared) of the e-catII may be as impressive as a campfire. No words needed.

    Is that feasible ? Or is it too early ? The certifications should be there soon, or it could be done in a safe place or faactory where experiments can be done as a research project.

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    Sorry, I do not understand.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    Do I sense some 180° turn in openness?
    Kind regards,
    Koen.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    I suggest to wait for the report we officially will publish for the validation in course, made by our Customer. Please be patient. Mills has talked of “rumors”, but I am not a rumorist.
    I thank you very much for your uncontainable enthusiasm, but I have to stay with the feet well planted in the earth, since if I say a thing I have to do it.
    Thank you for your persistent and kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    Yes, we will put them in thr report.
    Warm ( incandescent indeed) Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    have you found the optimum “dimensions” yet?
    Incandescent Regards ?
    Koen

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear Ing Rossi
    I quote an aphorism of Schopenhauer
    All truth passes through three stages:
    First, it is ridiculed;
    Second, it is violently opposed;
    Third, it is accepted as self-evident.

    Currently we are placed between the second and third situation and we’re trying to fall quickly in the third.
    Meanwhile, within the limits of lawful, we try to make her the following question:
    Reading on the online magazine P.E.N.S., Hank Mills today we say that you, with E-Cat2, is capable of reaching a temperature up to 1000° C without damage to the nickel electrode (t. 1455° C melting). At the moment, we know that E-Cat2 reached 600° C without stability problems. Are the true that written by Mills?
    Thanks
    Warm Regards
    F.T.

  • Robert Curto

    Dear Charlie, let me also offer my sincere thank you.

    I just like the way we all get along on this blog.
    Trust me, I have some that are a disgrace to the human race !

    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie
    Thank you
    AR

  • Dear Mr Curto and Rossi,

    Apologies…… I meant no criticism of Mr. Rossi or his efforts to complete the daunting task to finish his work and to satisfy the regulators. Perhaps my prodding was not appropriate. Offering him one more thing to think about was not much help.

    The governments of the world may soon be crashing about all our ears, rapid climate change may be a reality but toward rapid cooling – not warming, and still Mr Rossi has to satisfy the bureaucrats as well as to perfect his ever evolving invention while critics and crooks nip at his heels.

    And, I sit here without the means to help him.

    Hang in there…. Andrea.

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco,
    We are completing the validation of the higj temperature ECats and the publication will be made withib weeks. The industrial plants are in construction and for the domestic we have to wait the certification.
    Warm regards
    AR

  • Francesco Toro

    Carissimo ing. Rossi

    Dopo l’appassionante avventura in video su You Tube delle prime
    dimostrazioni del funzionamento di E-Cat da 10 kW e la altrettanto
    entusiastica prova con E-Cat da 1 MW seguita su twitter grazie alla buona
    volontà di Daniele Passerini, noi aspettavamo il boom da un momento all’altro
    e invece sono seguite alcune scarne, anche se entusiasmanti, sue
    comunicazioni sulla nascita del E-Cat 2 che Lei sostiene essere stabile con
    temperatura in uscita di 600°C.

    Tutto benissimo ma noi restiamo sempre legati ad un ritrovato tecnologico
    per ora abbastanza “virtuale” nel quale crediamo discretamente per quanto
    visto sul video mentre per i rimanenti dubbi ci ha sostenuto la fiducia in
    Lei. Mi spiego meglio utilizzando un parallelo con la storia di Cristo e i
    suoi apostoli. Gli apostoli venivano rinforzati nella loro fede per mezzo
    dei miracoli che il Cristo faceva. Questi apostoli NON pretendevano di
    sapere COME il Cristo riuscisse a fare i miracoli ma intanto i miracoli
    erano fatti lì, davanti ai loro occhi, e ciò li confortava e rinforzava
    nella fede. Nel nostro caso, noi lettori e, per certi versi, anche redattori
    del Suo Blog, cominciamo a perdere un certo entusiasmo in quanto assistiamo
    ad altalenanti promesse di sensazionali rivelazioni scientifiche che poi
    vengono puntualmente rinviate sine tempora per motivi a noi del tutto
    ignoti.

    Ora Le chiedo cortesemente soltanto di fare un altro piccolo “miracolo”
    facendoci vedere un altra centrale in funzione per riaccendere la nostra
    fede in ciò che Ella ha inventato.

    Cordiali saluti

    F.T.

    Dear Ing Rossi

    After the exciting adventure in videos on You Tube of the first
    demonstrations of how E-Cat from 10 kW and equally enthusiastic test with
    E-Cat from 1 MW followed on twitter thanks to the goodwill of Daniele
    Passerini, we were expecting the boom at any moment and instead have
    followed some meager, although exciting, its communications on the birth of
    E-Cat 2 she claims to be stable with output temperature of 600° c.

    All fine but we are always linked to a rediscovered technology now enough
    ‘virtual’ in which we discreetly as seen on the video while the remaining
    doubts there claimed trust in her. Let me explain using a parallel with the
    story of Christ and his Apostles. The Apostles were strengthened in their
    faith by means of the miracles that Jesus did. These Apostles pretended NOT
    to know how Christ could do miracles but meanwhile the miracles were made
    there, before their eyes, and this was comforting and reinforced them in the
    faith.

    In our case, us readers and, in some ways, even editors of His Blog, we
    begin to lose a certain enthusiasm in what we are witnessing waning promises
    of sensational scientific revelations that are then promptly postponed sine
    Tempora for reasons to us totally unknown.

    Now I ask you kindly only to make another small “miracle” by making us see
    another panel in function to turn our faith in what she invented.

    Cordial greetings

    F.T.

    ————————————————————————————

  • Francesco

    Carissimo ing. Rossi

    Dopo l’appassionante avventura in video su You Tube delle prime
    dimostrazioni del funzionamento di E-Cat da 10 kW e la altrettanto
    entusiastica prova con E-Cat da 1 MW seguita su twitter grazie alla buona
    volontà di Daniele Passerini, noi aspettavamo il boom da un momento all’altro
    e invece sono seguite alcune scarne, anche se entusiasmanti, sue
    comunicazioni sulla nascita del E-Cat 2 che Lei sostiene essere stabile con
    temperatura in uscita di 600°C.

    Tutto benissimo ma noi restiamo sempre legati ad un ritrovato tecnologico
    per ora abbastanza “virtuale” nel quale crediamo discretamente per quanto
    visto sul video mentre per i rimanenti dubbi ci ha sostenuto la fiducia in
    Lei. Mi spiego meglio utilizzando un parallelo con la storia di Cristo e i
    suoi apostoli. Gli apostoli venivano rinforzati nella loro fede per mezzo
    dei miracoli che il Cristo faceva. Questi apostoli NON pretendevano di
    sapere COME il Cristo riuscisse a fare i miracoli ma intanto i miracoli
    erano fatti lì, davanti ai loro occhi, e ciò li confortava e rinforzava
    nella fede. Nel nostro caso, noi lettori e, per certi versi, anche redattori
    del Suo Blog, cominciamo a perdere un certo entusiasmo in quanto assistiamo
    ad altalenanti promesse di sensazionali rivelazioni scientifiche che poi
    vengono puntualmente rinviate sine tempora per motivi a noi del tutto
    ignoti.

    Ora Le chiedo cortesemente soltanto di fare un altro piccolo “miracolo”
    facendoci vedere un altra centrale in funzione per riaccendere la nostra
    fede in ciò che Ella ha inventato.

    Cordiali saluti

    F.T.

    Dear Ing Rossi

    After the exciting adventure in videos on You Tube of the first
    demonstrations of how E-Cat from 10 kW and equally enthusiastic test with
    E-Cat from 1 MW followed on twitter thanks to the goodwill of Daniele
    Passerini, we were expecting the boom at any moment and instead have
    followed some meager, although exciting, its communications on the birth of
    E-Cat 2 she claims to be stable with output temperature of 600° c.

    All fine but we are always linked to a rediscovered technology now enough
    ‘virtual’ in which we discreetly as seen on the video while the remaining
    doubts there claimed trust in her. Let me explain using a parallel with the
    story of Christ and his Apostles. The Apostles were strengthened in their
    faith by means of the miracles that Jesus did. These Apostles pretended NOT
    to know how Christ could do miracles but meanwhile the miracles were made
    there, before their eyes, and this was comforting and reinforced them in the
    faith.

    In our case, us readers and, in some ways, even editors of His Blog, we
    begin to lose a certain enthusiasm in what we are witnessing waning promises
    of sensational scientific revelations that are then promptly postponed sine
    Tempora for reasons to us totally unknown.

    Now I ask you kindly only to make another small “miracle” by making us see
    another panel in function to turn our faith in what she invented.

    Cordial greetings

    F.T.

    ————————————————————————————

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    I work an average of 16 hours per day.
    About the stupidities put around by clowns and snakes ( and their pseudonyms like “Gary”, a ghost pseudonym used by a coward) there is no reason to take them in consideration.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Robert Curto

    Charlie, please forgive me, but I have to say this.

    I hear Dr. Rossi only works 4 hours a day, 5 days a week.
    I also hear he just returned from a 4 week vacation in Hawaii.

    The truth is he works 16 hours a day, 7 days a week,
    (including Christmas Day)
    The last time he sw Hawaii was in his dreams.

    So your suggestion:
    “just maybe you should step up your timetable”

    Is a little over the top !

    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale

    Charlie, please forgive me, but I have to say this.

    I hear Dr. Rossi only works 4 hours a day, 5 days a week.
    I also hear he just
    returned from a 4 week vacation in Hawaii.

    The truth is he works 16 hours a day, 7 days a week,
    (including Christmas Day)
    The last time he saw Hawaii, was in his dreams.

    So your suggestion:
    “just maybe you should step up your timetable”

    Is a little over the top !

    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

    Charlie, please forgive me, but I have to say this.

    I hear Dr. Rossi only works 4 hours a day, 5 days a week.
    I also hear he just returned from a 4 day vacation in Hawaii.

    The truth is he works he works 16 hours a day, 7 days a week, (including Christmas Day)
    The last time he saw Hawaii was in his dreams.

    So your suggestion:
    just maybe you should step up your timetable”

    Is a little over the top.

    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I tend to be intrigued by outlandish possibilities and love to speculate on any number of what-ifs. I wouldn’t be following your career if that were not true. Your particular endeavor shows great promise, and I am glad to follow it to its conclusion.

    On that note, If the premise of either of these two following websites are anywhere near correct, just maybe you should step up your timetable.

    http://www.landscheidt.info/
    http://www.iceagenow.info/

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alessandro Stupa:
    The certifications are in course. We will give information as soon as we will have it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alessandro Stupa

    Dear Mr Rossi, in this period we talk much about the new e-cat, but I would ask you about the “first” version. We know you’re wating for the certification to beginnig the production. Have you got news ? Do you think we could buy your n° 1 ecat in 2012 ?
    Thank You Very much.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dennis Lynn:
    1- Seven
    2- yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dennis Lynn

    Dear Mr.Rossi,

    Just curious. How many researchers/scientists are you currently employing to develop/fine tune your ecat devices? Additionally, have any television networks and or cable stations in the US or elsewhere, contacted you directly or indirectly requesting an interview and or a peek at your ecats?

    Dennis Lynn

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco:
    To the test will participate only the parties and their consultants. Once the plant will be in regular operation for at least some month we will invite visitors.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Franco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    will third party observers admitted to follow (or to participate) to the tests of the 1 MW plant next delivery, or these tests will be held only with the Customer?
    Kind Regards

    Franco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    The Stone Age did not end for lack of stones.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • A new twist….. for fun.

    What if it turns out that there is not enough fossil fuel being burned to maintain an adequate amount of CO2 to sustain the new agriculture produced by e-cat desalination plants?

    We can use e-cat robots to cut and pile up fire wood for our rustic old fireplaces.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco:
    The contractual issues are confidential. Anyway, obviously, a test has to validate the efficiency of the plant.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Franco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    Could You explain technical main steps of how the testing of the 1MW plant, of next delivery, will be conducted (before or in conjunction) with the Customer?
    Thanks.
    Kind Regards

    Franco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    Our military Customer has nothing to do with our commercial policy.
    Our I.P. is protected as well as we can, but to make an omelette you must break the eggs.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Franco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    why did You (or your customer) not measure also the heat (the thermal energy) dissipated by the big heat exchangers in atmosphere during the test on 1MW plant last October 2011?
    It seems to me that was not a difficult check to get at least an approx. value.
    Thanks.

    Kind Regards

  • Pietro F.

    Buongiorno sig. Rossi,
    come concilia la protezione della tecnologia dell’ecat con la vendita a civili di un impianto da un Mw?
    I militari hanno dato il benestare all’operazione?
    Puo’ metterci al corrente delle utime novità riguardo la ricerca e l’industrializzazione del suo reattore?

    Grazie e buon lavoro

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    1- yes
    2- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    With all this effort to perfect the 600C reactor, will the original lower temp units still be available? Or, are these original units going to be scrapped and replaced by the newer 600C units?

    If your predictions are right, it wouldn’t take too many of the 600C units to totally power my small detergent mfg plant. We are looking forward to bragging to all our “green” grocery customers that we have drastically reduced our carbon footprint.

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Fine:
    We are always open to test prototypes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    We are just working to make something useful.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea,

    It appears that you are really making progress. I have enjoyed watching this unfold. The psychological effects of the first units coming off the line will be much greater than the commercial value. There is likely to be panic in the political realms and euphoria in ordinary folks.

    Charlie

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