Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,496 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    Yes, I agree with your consideration.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dear dott Rossi,I think that the matter “snake” is a good sign;when the enemy becomes clumsy,means that you are winning.Good job!

    Regards G G

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    Now I explain a tragi-comic behaviour of the Snake: since now everybody knows that “Gary Wright” is the Snake, he changed mask: now he is Charles Branson !!!! With this name he contacted a licensee of us and saying he was making a due diligence to buy a plant, he obtained instructions manual and various information: basically, he is making espionage for the company that pays him, using the name of Charles Branson !!!! Of course all this magnificent falsification has enriched the Attorney Docket we are preparing. We have been able to bind the name of the snake to this operation , we got evidence of it by means of our intelligence system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    p.s. Maybe Charles Branson has to be informed that the snake is using his name to make industrial espionage. We can give to his Attorney the evidence of this.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dear Dott Rossi,please don’t offend snakes! 😉

    regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    I received some emails asking what can I say of a site of a guy who says his name is Gary Wright, who is an appassionate attacker of the work of mine and of our employees: as most of you know, we have very good intelligence, for obvious reasons, therefore here is the information:
    Gary Wright is not a person, it is a pseudonym of….THE SNAKE !!!!
    This coward knows that we are preparing a suit for him, therefore has invented the pseudonym Gary Wright to continue his work, which consists in getting money in change of the attempt to discredit out work. If you search Gary Wright, you will easily discover this, as our intelligence friends did. He is paid full time to discredit our work because his puppeteers are strongly worried about our work.
    And they are right. Their mistake has been to pay an imbecile like this: there are around much better puppet-snakes. For a fee I could suggest tens of them.
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland,
    I understood, thank you very much.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    In September we will publish a sinthesys of the validation report. The work is going on very well.
    Thank you very much for your constructive comment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear Engineer

    if, as I believe, you’re now at the stage of energy production at high temperature by means of cold fusion, by delivering the proton of the isotope of hydrogen within the nickel, exploiting the electromagnetic activation which i think is with the radio frequency and resonance well-defined,
    The importance of your project is truly historic.
    In a few words i think that your energy will supersede completely any other method of production for a few fundamental reasons:
    1) The cost of raw materials;
    2) the simplicity of construction;
    3) the very low ratio of the energy consumed to produce said raw materials and the obtainable with your process;
    4) the very low rate of environmental pollution;
    5) no need for storage of radioactive materials;
    6) the Absence of mechanical parts, such as burners, boilers and auxiliary members of blowing-in subject to deterioration, into the production phase of the thermal energy, which is needed for driving turbines or the special motors;
    Hey … there is little to say … IT IS an energy revolution that could change the economic status of future generations. Without counting that disclosure of the physical process would facilitate research to achieve progress in the introduction of the protons H into the nickel that would improve yields (COP).
    I, like so many of your admirers anxiously await the results of your latest experiment hoping to understand something more but, more than anything else, we expect a rapid dissemination of the product on the market to reap the benefits in a direct way if this happens unto thine own fields.
    Good work ing. Rossi.

  • I thought you might have some problems with US certification of the domestic units, and I was trying to cheer you up.

    The work has got to be exciting.

    I was reminded of “Atlas Shrugged” and the difficulty of producers working with slow moving and adversarial establishments.

    All the best.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    What counts for me is only my work. We made momentous progresses working during the last weeks. Let the snakes-with-an-agenda and the clowns talk. They talk, we work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • American engineers have a phrase that keeps them going when things get rough:
    “Don’t let the bastards wear you down.”
    in English
    “Non illigitimus carborundum”
    in an engineer’s Latin
    or “Non lasciare che i bastardi si affievoliscono”
    in Bablefish Italian

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sammarcelli:
    I am sure the Revolutionary Spirit of France will never die. As for sceptics and media, I do not feel myself as a victim: victimism is the essence of cowardy: all they need is to see plants in operation. The rest is chattering.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ecat- ering:
    As I said, for the domestic apparatuses we will not have soon the certification. You are welcome to stay in touch with our Italian Licensee Prometeon for detailed developments.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ecat-ering

    Salve Rossi nell’ attesa dell’incontro con Proia spero che tutto prenda luce prima dell’inverno , sarebbe un’ottimo aiuto per molte famiglie italiane.
    Le auguro buon lavoro con la speranza di riincontrarla a Bologna.
    Hi Rossi in ‘pending encounter with Proia I hope that everything takes light before winter, would be greatly helping many Italian families.
    I wish you good job with the hope of riincontrarla in Bologna.

  • Sammarcelli

    Mr Rossi,
    The world you will be certainly liable for your work. Much scepticism still nonetheless. Traditional media, many in France, are orders. It is unfortunate to see the decline of the revolutionary spirit in this country. A believe that 1789 was only a matter of belly and not spirit. I am therefore afraid that your energy revolution must first go through the cycle of hunger. In the light of events, strong increase of unemployment, I believe this soon.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    Thank you for the link, interesting indeed.
    All the rest: within September.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    ecco il sito di una società che potrebbe interessarla per la conversione diretta da calore a produzione elettrica:
    http://www.mtpv.com/
    Dovrebbe avere a breve periodo una risposta riguardante il brevetto, puo’ anticiparci qualcosa?
    Quando potremo finalmente vedere il super-e-cat? anche in video, sarebbe un bel regalo per i suoi fedeli sostenitori.

    Buon lavoro e grazie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivan:
    No, it is not.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ivan

    Dear Dr Rossi, I have asked a too detailed question before, but I will like to put it in a more generic way. As initial energy could be supplied in different ways, Is electric input absolutely necesary for the ecat?

    Kind Regards.
    Ivan.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivano:
    Please contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    By the way: the law forbids free work in the context of an industry.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ivano

    Spett.le Sig. Andrea Rossi,

    è da molto tempo che sto cercando di mettermi in contatto con Lei.

    I would like to cooperate with you, absolutely free, to develop your product and build it here in Italy.

    Please contact me–> tecnico@omas-to.it

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    Siemens, that produces also steam turbines, is trying to buy Ansaldo Energia from Finmeccanica… This could have something to do with your (industrial) E-Cats? If it succeed in this acquisition, do you envision a better collaboration with it?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear jan srajer:
    Maybe.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • jan srajer

    Mr. Rossi
    You have the excelent bussines dilligence. It is great. Situation in the energy industries today is how in the times when information technology discoveries the big hall computers. How that continue we known. Real start begin in the somwhere garage.
    Question: You envisage about some tighter co-operations with some prestigious big multinational enterprise?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    The operation will never be stopped, but for some day to make checks.
    Thanks for all the rest,
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    A.R.

    How many days will the current Hot Cat test last? I think you said the test would run for 90 days or about 13 weeks. Is that still true, or are you going to run for 100 days to show that the Hot Cat can run even longer?

    In the likely event of a successful test, what wine, if any, do you plan on drinking to celebrate? The usual cautions apply: If you drink, don’t drive.

    And please remember to take a day or so off before going back to work. And you better start writing your speech now – please don’t wait to the last minute!

    Keep on keeping on!

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    All the declinations will be determined after the tests on the Hot Cats ( which are going very well) will be completed. Anyway, the Hot Cats will be fit for the power production, while the E-Cats will be better for heat and cold production. The domestis apparatuses have to be certified first in the low temp version.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The 1st Generation 1 MW E-Cat provides a 120 degrees C (approx) output intended for heat production only while the E-Cat2 @ 600 degrees C (now under test) is intended for electrical generation or higher temperature process heat.

    Do you plan to introduce intermediate industrial systems that can produce heat in the range of 300-450 degrees C, either for Heat or combined Heat & Power (CHP) purposes (and perhaps for cooling devices) even if it would used less efficient (20-30%) turbines/generators?

    Or would it be possible to use the E-Cat2 and control it to operate at temperatures below 600 degrees rather than design an entirely different system.

    Best regards,

    Joseph

  • Joseph Fine

    M.B.

    I found this on Nickel-Phosphorus Aerogel. I’m not sure it’s the same thing.

    http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2011/November/17111103.asp

    Maybe a combination of the two would have interesting properties. A material lighter than air would be interesting except it would need to be painted.

    An interesting time to be a materials engineer.

    Joseph

  • M.B.

    Speaking of aerogel, this kind aerogel might be more interesting

    http://www.aerogel.org/?p=549

    nickel oxide

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    He,he…thanks!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea,

    Here is the latest example of the versatility of Carbon. It is an aerogel made out of graphite (or graphene). It has a density of 0.2 mg/cc. I suppose it is an excellent conductor of electricity and heat despite being almost nothing at all.

    A cubic meter of this material, if I did this right, would weigh 200 grams.

    http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2012/07/ethereal-aerographite-is-light.html

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201200491/full

    Maybe your group may find use for this material.

    Joseph

  • I can only handle about 50 for steaks, but you all are welcome. However, I may have to commandeer some of the neighbors to put you all up for the night.

    Charlie

  • Sorry about that….. I meant “no news”!

    I’m all ready to install two e-cats onto my existing gas furnaces….

    Gonna be a cold winter… and I want to only have to use my supply of gas to light up my grill.

    You are hereby cordially invited over for a nice thick juicy steak with all the trimmings when you get some time and want to hide out. Just let me know.

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    1- We will have indipendent manufacturing lines, able to make everything, in the USA and in Europe (Sweden and Italy)
    2- The industrial plants (E-Cats and Hot Cats) have prices that depend on their characteristics, very difficult to generalize. The domestic will be around 1 000 US$, after the certification and deoending on the requirements of the certificator.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    3 days , total 46 hours of work ( also if it is Saturday and Sunday). But not just me: all of us at Leonardo.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • What’s up? 3 days of nothing?

    Charlie

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear ing Rossi Hello
    I try to ask you some information of an economic nature:
    1)The production of E-Cat 1 Mw/ 600 °C and domestic 10kW will be managed with factory Leonardo Corporation owns?
    2)If this were true you might say the cost of industrial production planned for the two models?
    Thanks
    Sincere Greetings

  • […] Heinäkuun ensimmäinen päivä Andrea Rossi kirjoitti Journal of Nuclear Physics -sivustolleen kommentin, joka on hieman päässyt lipumaan huomion ohi. Liittyen tuloillaan olevaan korkealämpö-E-Cat […]

  • Franco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    I’m aware that this isn’t a quiz.
    The aim was to avoid to subtract to You too much times to reply to these group of questions, so short answer would been a solution.

    Anyway if You prefer not talk about the contents of the Report, it’s OK.
    Good work.

    Kind Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco:
    We will make the report. Now it is absolutely useless to put questions about it. This is not a “quiz”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Franco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    if You allow I would ask some questions.
    Answer can be given in “Yes” / “No” form, quick form that I think You prefer.
    Questions are about the contents of the Report of the E-Cat tests ongoing that You now are preparing:

    1) Will be included in the Reports also measures of the produced thermal energy (heat) by means of calorimetry (not only temperature values of some points like walls/body of the E-Cat)?
    2) Will be included in the Report measurements of the electrical energy consumption?
    3) Will be also included in the Report radiations measurements like:
    a) Gamma rays?
    b) X-rays?
    c) Beta rays?
    d) Alpha rays?
    4) Will be included in the Report measurements of Neutrons emission?
    5) Will be given the complete list of the instruments used to perform these tests?

    Thank You.
    Kind Regards

    Franco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nixter:
    Do not worry, I will anyway continue this dialogue with the Readers of the Journal Of Nuckear Physics. I am learning from this .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greg Leonard:
    We will give all the possible information about the high temperature E-Cats in the Report.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Greg Leonard

    Dear AR,
    There have been references to the newest Ecat (600C) models as ‘solid state’.
    I have great difficulty in imagining how micro/nano particles of Ni in an H or H2 gas could be regarded as ‘solid state’.
    Do you regard the Ecat2 as solid state?

    I am, as always, full of admiration for your innovation and hard work
    Greg Leonard

  • Engineer Andrea Rossi,

    The time is near, when the world will finally know what you have been working on so hard, soon we will see some qualitative data released concerning your E-Cat work, then some months later I expect to see that E-Cat owners are operating them without complaints or problems. When this page in history is turned, I think that it will no longer be possible to communicate directly with the engineer behind the E-Cat,(A. Rossi), so I wish to say now, (While I still can.), that it has been very fun watching your story unfold and I hope that you are not finished with researching and developing the E-Cat, and that it will continue to be improved.

    I made a poster for you to depict how I see your work.

    https://picasaweb.google.com/114923850380470444693/LENRECatRossi?authuser=0&feat=directlink

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    You are right, anybody can buy a 1 MW plant and make all the tests he wants and obviously anybody is free to give information to anybody regarding a property of his.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Antonella

    Caro Andrea,

    qualcuno si sta chiedendo come mai gli scettici potenti non abbiano acquistato un impianto per avere subito la prova che cercano. Ho sentito due ipotesi, entrambe poco consistenti, secondo me.

    La prima è che la tua società abbia loro negato l’acquisto, ma non vedo il senso, intanto perché a Dick Smith avevi offerto un impianto in cambio del milione “per vedere”, e inoltre perché suppongo che un cliente rifiutato ti avrebbe già fatto una pessima pubblicità.

    La seconda ipotesi è che i potenziali clienti non siano rimasti soddisfatti, ma non parlino a causa di un NDA. Ho difficoltà a credere che un NDA riesca a impedire che vengano fatte girare voci anonime.

    Puoi parlarne? Grazie e cari saluti,
    Antonella

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    You are right: a lot of work has to be done.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R. ( lavolale, lavolale!)

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear Ing. Rossi
    Lavolale,lavolale lavolale!!! (Work, work, work!!! )
    The Japanese are restarting the nuclear power plants despite the lives already being sacrificed to this terrible technology.
    Think about it!
    Tanks
    Warm Regards
    F.T.

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