Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,496 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Stuart Sanderson:
    It is absolutely impossible for us to make anything illegal.
    We cannot accept any trialist: Guinea Pigs are not in our philosophy.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Stuart Sanderson

    Hi A.R.

    I’ve been following you for a few years now. I am very pleased to hear of your latest achievements.

    Just a thought. Despite all the certifications you require for making a commercially safe household product, is possible for you to sell home units with no legal tie in?

    Or another thought. Would you consider a silent trialist in NZ to assist with your case for home use?

    I would be very happy to consider both approaches.

    Kind regards

    Stuart Sanderson

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lars (AfreeAfrica.org):
    Yes, Arthur Schopenhauer was right.
    His phrase has been paraphrased also by Mahatma Gandhi.
    We will help your organization.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • “All truth passes through three stages:

    First, it is ridiculed.

    Second, it is violently opposed.

    Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.”

    Arthur Schopenhauer

    We look forward to implementing the LENR technology at our “House of Health & Green Innovation”, to bring light at night, for people who wish to be able to, for the first time, read books and study before bedtime in Africa.

    Keep up the good work!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Richard M Wilson:
    Our 1 MW plants in opeartion will be visitable in short term.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Richard M Wilson

    Dear Andrea, I have followed your efforts from the beginning of the first eCat demo in 2011. I am an avid cheerleader and of course want to see you be successful in your efforts. I hope you make tons of money because you have persevered despite all the negativity and scorn of skeptics. At this point I have a question.

    When do you think the Hot Cat will be available to produce steam to run a turbine? I would propose to petition the likes of major CEOs of the largest innovative companies in the US to purchase a Hot Cat system to generate electricity for their company. Surely they can afford the price of a Hot Cat system and demonstrate it functioning for all to see and to do so without divulging the trade secret of your device. Many of these CEOs talk about their desire to contribute to the benefit of humanity. I can’t think of a better way to make a major contribution than to prove the validity of your invention through demonstrated use. I would also think that such a demonstration would move your efforts to commercialism forwarded aggressively. If anyone of them were to agree to this petition, would you be willing and able to deliver a system for this purpose? If so, at what point in time would this be possible?

    Respectfully,

    Richard M Wilson

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tommaso Di Pietro:
    I suppose several weeks, but at this point it will not depend on us.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • tommaso di pietro

    Dear eng. Rossi,
    when the 1 mw plan installed in usa will be operative?
    Weeks?Months?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    I am not an expert of geothermic cycles, but I think that the importance for Mankind of this technology is indipendent from that.
    Thank you anyway,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Andrea Rossi,

    If some recent scientific predictions are right that we are at the very end of our own very special 11,000 year intergalacial warming period, you could not have had better timing for your e-cats. You may not be able to keep up with demand.

    Sure glad I got my order in.

    Of course, this is all speculation until we find ourselves ankle deep in snow in May….. Hey wait! Some of us are already.

    Charlie Sutherland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tommaso Di Pietro:
    Installing the 1 MW plant which is going to enter in operation in the USA in the factory of the Customer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • tommaso di pietro

    Dear eng. Rossi,
    Could you tell us about the next step of your business plan?

    Thanks and Regards!

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Very good news today….

    Congratulations

    Charlie

  • Martyn Aubrey

    Dear Francesco Toro,

    I think that you may be missing out on the latest comments pages of Dr. Rossi’s blog.

    Please go to the front page: http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/
    There you will see links to the other comment pages.

    The most recent page gives very important news which will make you much happier.

    Warm Regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear Andrea
    Glad to hear you and thank you for your prompt reply.
    I’m not was referring to you personally because you almost always responded to the questions put, but it is the lack of new questions that alarmed me!
    I hope this is not the prologue which will disregard your job to be eventually forgotten as other discoveries of the past.
    For example, remember myself the famous water-car, forgotten in the mists of time, without knowing if it was a fake or anything else that was hidden in the tray oil interests.
    Bah … we would see later.
    Sincerely
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    I do what I can, considering that my work is increasing very much in this period.
    I privilege, obviously, questions regarding new issues, to which I have not already answered. If you do not find answer to some comment, the reason is that the answer has already been given recently to a similar question.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear Andrea are a somewhat alarmed by the strong decrease in correspondence and questions on this site. What happened? There is a fall of interest or maybe you respond to your fans in any other blog?
    Warm Regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Toro:
    Thank you for your comment. Probably new series of photos will be published. Maybe, no guarantees.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Toro

    Dear Andrea
    has been a few months since I wrote the last post, indeed pessimistic tenor but, of course, no defeatist.
    I always kept an eye on your news sure to see more progress in the search for improvements in your invention.
    I read that Ecat version ‘home’ the average COP has switched to 6, great result!
    I also saw the report on ‘Hot Cat’, from which can be seen a COP 11.7, fine!
    While local politicians do nothing but quarrel, offering a bleak image of Italy abroad, you have continued to work preparing an invention ‘therapeutic’ for the whole world, that will shine to Italy.
    I said ‘therapeutic’ invention because over the past 150 years the man has seriously injured mother earth while you are preparing to ‘cure’ by eliminating or reducing non-renewable ‘energies’, replaced by a new technology Energy Catalizer.
    Although I will have to wait a few more years to enjoy your product always comforting to me the idea that, in a not very distant future, there will be huge benefits for generations to come and for the entire realm.
    Us, fifties generation, maybe a little less benefit, but no matter. Matter if you go ahead.
    I finally alarmed the news of Ioanna Cristescu … believe me, in 2000 I experienced personally a much smaller situation, however, reflects that illustrated by Peter F.
    Please don’t underestimate the issue.
    Warm Regards
    F.T.

    Caro Andrea
    Sono passati alcuni mesi dal momento in cui ti avevo scritto l’ultimo post, in verità di tenore pessimistico ma, naturalmente, non disfattista.
    Ho sempre tenuto d’occhio le tue notizie sicuro di vedere ulteriori passi avanti nella ricerca di miglioramenti del tuo ritrovato.
    Ho letto che nella versione Ecat “home” il COP medio è passato a 6, ottimo risultato!
    Ho anche visto il rapporto su “Hot Cat”, dal quale si evince un COP 11,7, benissimo!
    Mentre i politici nostrani non fanno altro che bisticciare, offrendo una immagine desolante dell’Italia all’estero, tu hai continuato a lavorare preparando una invenzione “taumaturgica” per il mondo intero, che restituirà lustro all’Italia.
    Ho detto “invenzione taumaturgica” perché negli ultimi 150 anni l’uomo ha ferito gravemente la Madre Terra mentre tu ti appresti a “curarla” eliminando o riducendo le energie “non rinnovabili”, sostituite dalla nuova tecnologia Energy Catalizer.
    Anche se dovrò attendere ancora qualche anno per godere il tuo prodotto mi conforta sempre l’idea che, in un futuro non molto lontano, ci saranno giganteschi benefici per le generazioni che verranno e per l’intero regno vivente.
    Noi, generazione anni cinquanta, forse goderemo un poco meno, ma non importa. Importa che tu vada avanti spedito.
    Mi ha infine allarmato la notizia di Ioanna Cristescu… credimi, nel 2000 ho vissuto personalmente una ben più piccola situazione che, comunque, rispecchia quella illustrata da Pietro F.
    Ti prego di non sottovalutare la questione.
    Caldi Saluti
    F.T.

  • F.Fabiani

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    please, find the photos of the 24H performace test of the MW1-Ecat made on April 30 – May 01 and the photos of when it has been transported from Bologna to Ferrara to pepare it for the test.

    Best regards
    M.Eng. F.Fabiani

    http://postimg.org/image/dt0nhreux/
    http://postimg.org/image/s5yotto8p/
    http://postimg.org/image/y1smh83jt/
    http://postimg.org/image/fc0n0hat5/

    http://postimg.org/image/h2jo1ysc9/
    http://postimg.org/image/6yuy5tbll/
    http://postimg.org/image/6v14pk649/

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland:
    Compare to what we made in the last 2 years, without taxpayers’ money.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Andrea Rossi,

    Thought you would get a kick out of this.

    For only £13bn Iter project makes breakthrough in the quest for nuclear fusion.

    In just 7 more years, they will start to inject heavy hydrogen into their new plasma generator……

    Whoop!

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F:
    Thank you again, we made a first summary check, and you are right, the Engineer who is reviewing our patent application in the European Patent Office is working with a Consulting Firm that works for a competitor of us. Our attorneys are now considering very seriously the implications. Nonetheless, I still trust in the correctness of the European Patent Office.
    Warm Regards, and again Thank you,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    Thank you for this very important information, it is already on the table of our attorney for all the necessary due diligence.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Dear Mr Rossi:
    on the internet has been put in evidence the fact that the person that is reviewing your patent application in the European Patent Office, Ioanna Cristescu, appears to be working in a German consulting firm that works for ITER:
    http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/P1250-cd/papers/cd-ii.pdf
    Conflict of interests?
    Regards
    buongiorno sig. Rossi,
    su intenet é stato fatto notare che la persona che si occupa del suo brevetto, tale Ioana Cristescu, sembra lavori anche per un laboratorio tedesco con legami col progetto ITER:
    http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/P1250-cd/papers/cd-ii.pdf
    conflitto di interessi?
    Buon lavoro

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Legovich Ricciotti,
    Thank you for the insight.
    It could be more appreciated if written in English ( 99% of our Readers speak English).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ricciotti

    Il 2013-04-12 11:39 Ricioti Legovich ha scritto:
    > Eg. Ing. Rossi: intanto mi scuso per non saper scrivere in inglese.
    > Seguo da tempo le sue risposte a tutti i quesiti che le vengono posti
    > e, sebbene il mio inglese sia scarso, qualche cosa comprendo. Ora
    > avrei un’idea, forse bizzarra, ma gliela espongo volentieri fidando
    > comunque nella sua comprensione di tecnico.
    > Lei scrive della sua creatura che necessita di una fonte di calore
    > per innescare e mantenere il reattore. Tale fonte di calore proviene o
    > da energia elettrica o da gas combustibile; deduco da ciò che il
    > reattore necessita di calore ad una data temperatura (penso a 600/700
    > C°).
    > Se quanto detto è vero, perché non utilizzare una parte del vapore
    > prodotto da Hot-Cat (se Hot- Cat lo produce oltre i 600 C°)? Avendo un
    > COP 6 sarebbe sufficiente riciclarne 1 , rimarrebbero sempre 5 ma non
    > necessiterebbe di fonti esterne di alimentazione, escluso il periodo
    > di avviamento.
    > La seconda idea è proprio relativa all’avviamento. Per poter
    > sopperire all’avviamento si potrebbe utilizzare un accumulatore a sali
    > fusori, tipo quelli di Rubbia. Il medesimo sistema potrebbe essere
    > utilizzato come accumulatore dell’energia prodotta in eccesso dall’
    > Hot-Cat per rendere il sistema più flessibile.
    > Questo è quanto. Spero le possa interessare e sopratutto che sia fattibile.
    > Ogni bene. Legovich Ricciotti.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mauro Melis:
    Thank you, and again
    HAPPY EASTER TO YOU AND TO ALL OUR DEAR READERS
    Andrea Rossi

  • MAURO MELIS

    Caro Dr Rossi
    Le invio le mie più vive congratulazioni per il positivo test effettuato dal tim indipendente. Aspetto con ansia la pubblicazione dello stesso e colgo l’occasione per porgerle tanti auguri di buona pasqua a lei e famiglia.
    mauro melis

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Omega Z:
    Not so: in every apparatus there is an activator and an E-Cat, in the same box.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Omega Z

    Dear Andrea

    In your answer to Steven N. Karels, March 25th, 2013 at 8:03 AM

    You posted in part-“Basically, we have ->no more a reactor or a cluster of reactors,<- but each reactor is coupled with an activator: let’s make this model: the activator is the Mouse, which makes the Cat run. The Mouse has his own COP which is more than 1, the Cat is a surprise."

    Is this an indication that the 1Mw E-cat
    1. No Longer has 100 cores, but possibly just a few maybe even a single core controlled by the embedded Mouse.
    2 If 1 is yes, then does the mouse provide variable output control of the 1Mw Core.

    Regards, Omega Z

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gerard:
    Thank you very much,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hello Andrea,

    I simply wish to send happy congratulations regarding the recently completed independent validation testing. I look forwards to the publication of results, and especially to see the reaction of the mainstream media to your irrefutable LENR success.

    January 15, 2011 seems so long ago…

    Auguri,

    Gerard Cruz
    Brooklyn, NYC

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Charlie Sutherland,
    Thanks to you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Dear Andrea,

    So glad to hear of your good news. All the best.

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Marcena:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Carlo Marcena

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I have just read your clear comment reporting positive results from the 120 hour test of your Hot Cats, made by 11 professor. I do not find the words to describe the importance of your announce … Thanks for everything, Andrea.

    With admiration,
    Carlo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bruce Dickinson:
    The toxicity of nickel is not an issue, because nobody has to touch it, since it is well sealed inside the reactor, that nobody has to open for any reason.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bruce Dickinson

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    If the biggest problem for the certification of the domestic e-cat is the toxicity of Nickel, why don’t try to build a “locked” e-cat, openable only by a qualified technician ?
    If you put inside the ecat a sufficient number of 6-months recharges so that functions independently for some years, will not be necessary to open the e-cat from a “non technician people”

    best regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jasen Sanders:
    We are honoured to have inspired the competition of NASA. This is a competitor we have respect of.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jasen Sanders:
    We are honoured to have inspired the competition of NASA. This is a Competitor we have respect of.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jasen Sanders

    Dear Andrea,

    I am not sure if you saw this article. But apparently your new competition is NASA.

    See article below:
    http://www.gizmag.com/nasa-lenr-nuclear-reactor/26309/?utm_source=Gizmag+Subscribers&utm_campaign=2b6259b00a-UA-2235360-4&utm_medium=email

    Best wishes,

    Jasen.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pekka Janhunen,
    Thank you for the information.
    I do not think that virtual particles can make useful work in LENR, for lack of time. In any case I agree with you about the sincerity og the Hungarian Physicists. Besides, if I am not wrong, it seems to me that their theory doesn’t respect the leptons’ conservation principle, as well as the Widom- Larsen Theory, which also, beside this, assigns to virtual particles duties they can’t perform, for lack of time. This is my opinion. If you look carefully to the Feynmann diagrams related to these decays, you will see that virtual particles are resonances between the initial and the final particles, and that these resonances have a so short life that the probabilities that they can make such work are very low.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Recently Hungarian physicists have submitted two papers on arxiv.org which attmept to explain LENR (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.1078 and http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.1262). They call it electron assisted nuclear reaction which requires both Coulomb interaction with an electron and strong interaction with two hydrons in close proximity. It looks to me that their attempt is a sincere one and the formulas are at least partly correct. However I suspect that they make some error somewhere, because their model only seems to require the presence of electrons, which exist always in any matter. One thing is that their “virtual deuteron” should, in my opinion, be off mass shell (that is, not obey the usual relation between energy and momentum) because otherwise a gamma emission would be required by momentum conservation. Well, that was a detail, but I just wanted to make you aware of the existence of those papers.
    regards, pekka

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Omega Z:
    The reason is that the energy demand is so wide and differentiated, that all the energy sources will be integrable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Omega Z

    Dear Andrea

    Please verify.
    You have repeatedly Stated that All Energies will have to be Integrated.
    The Reason IS ?

    1) E-cat type technology isn’t Capable of Replacing all Existing Energy Plants-
    OR
    2) E-cat technology will have to be integrated for the foreseeable future because it will take MANY years to replace existing Energy Plants and New Energy Demands as well.

    Regards,
    Omega Z

  • Charlie Sutherland

    I hope that this was original:

    4- this sounds like ” would you cut your balls to punish your unfaithful wife?”

    Hang in there Andrea!

    Charlie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bruce Dickinson:
    I share your hope for future.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bruce Dickinson

    Dear Andrea, thanks for the reply and for your sense of humor !

    Do you think if there will be an interest from the new politics (I’m talking about the new “movimento 5 stelle”) you could cooperate with them ?

    Many of the new politicians are just normal people, there are many technicians and good person with correct thought.
    I hope that there will be a better future for us and for our sons.
    It’s time to change this society. Your invention will could be the spark of a big change.

    Grazie mille da un suo sostenitore.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bruce Dickinson:
    1- I remain unaware spectator
    2- yes
    3- traditional science is an oxymoron. At the times of great scientists as Pytagoras “traditional science” teached that the earth was flat and that the Sun orbited around it. Science cannot be “traditional”, like the clothes of the guards of the queen of Great Britain.
    4- this sounds like ” would you cut your balls to punish your unfaithful wife?”
    A hug to you and the usual
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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