Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi
Msc Solid state Physics, Gujartat University, Gujarat, India
MS Computer Engineering, Univ of Lowell, Lowell, Mass, USA

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Abstract

Review of the periodic table and existing research on isotopes of the various elements of the periodic table is conducted and the attempt is made here to visualize the process of element formation.

The role of Neutron in element formation is investigated and found to be vital for existence of elements . In the new light, the new model of nucleus is proposed which explains the stability of the  nuclei and reason for multiple stable isotopes of elements.

Review of the Periodic Table

The inspection of the periodic table of elements reveal an interesting fact that for all elements other than Hydrogen, for element to be stable, number of Neutrons are always greater or equal, to the number of Protons in the nucleus.  The periodic table is analyzed with respect to the abundance in nature for the elements.

The fusion of Hydrogen to produce Helium can be envisioned as follows:

1H + 1H + 1H + 1H →  2H + 2N + 2e+ (1)

where 2e+ later annihilating to produce additional gamma radiation.

Since tremendous force is needed to keep four protons together during the formation of helium and emit 2 positrons, it is unlikely.  The mass of neutron is more than the mass of proton and this fact  alone negates the likeliness of the above scenario.

In another scenario, the formation of helium may be envisioned as four neutrons coming close together to form a stable nuclei of Helium as follows:
4N → 2N + 2P + 2e (2)
Here the mass of Neutron is higher than the Proton.  The Neutron releases electron to form proton. Also justifies the reason for the  Proton to be lighter than the Neutron.
Thus it is assumed that
  1. Neutrons are the building blocks for elements in nature.
  2. In the elements , other than hydrogen, neutron and proton form a pair (np) and keeps distinct identity.
  3. Excess neutrons stay at the center of the nuclei but keeps their distinct identity.
Using the above assumption the periodic table is analyzed by finding excess neutrons for all  stable isotopes of elements as follows:
Excess neutrons = Atomic mass – 2P where P is the number of Protons for the element
The relative abundance of Isotopes is obtained from the research papers and wikipedia and is included in the Table 1, 2 ,3. The relative abundance is indicative of the preferred state for the element (nuclei) in nature.
The following facts are found as a result of analysis:
For Odd atomic number nuclei:
  • Abundance of isotope is close to 100% when excess neutrons are odd count.
  • If the excess neutron count is even, the isotope is radio active.
  • Majority elements have only one Isotope.
  • Only Potassium has three isotopes, the one with 2 excess neutron is radio active with 0.001 relative abundance.
For Even atomic number nuclei:
  • Elements He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S are close to one in abundance with no excess neutron and maximum three isotopes.
  • Element Be has one excess neutron and one isotope, 100% abundance.
  • All other higher elements require four or more excess neutrons for the element to be abundant in nature and has up to 10 stable isotopes.
  • Element Ca is exception with 0 excess neutron and 97% abundance. However it is unstable with >E+21 a Half life.
Atomic number 43 (Tc) and 61 (Pm) has no stable isotopes in nature.
Thus from the above analysis, it looks like that all nuclei, stable or otherwise,  prefers to keep at least one neutron at the center of the nuclei from its excess count. The remaining excess neutrons stay very close to the center keeping its own identity. The other neutrons pair up with each proton and stay close together to the proton (like heavy hydrogen) but maintains its separate identity.

The nature prefers, for more complex nucleus, more neutrons than protons and creates a delicate balance to form a stable nuclei.

This balance of forces is so critical that in case of element F (the stable isotope is with  9 proton and 10 neutrons) The isotope 18F with 9 Protons and 9 Neutrons, with in 20 minutes decays and forms 18O which is stable with 8 protons and 10 Neutrons and gives up a e+ positron to convert proton to neutron and e+ and e- reaction produces Gama radiation.

Equation   18F → 18O + e+

Thus the existence of Neutron is vital to the existence of the universe itself, because without neutron, elements may not have been possible and hence the intelligence as we know today.

Structure of Neutron

The fact that Gravitational binding forces (Fg) of masses in the nucleus needs to be more than the destructive electromagnetic forces (Fem) created by the electrically positive environment of the nucleus,  (Fem < Fg) excess neutrons are required in the nuclei. However, even at the center of the nucleus neutrons keep their distinct identity, rather than lumping together to form one heavy neutron. Therefore, neutron can not be just a fuzzy mass but a well defined structure able to hold induced charges with precise demarcation of boundary with an insulating layer, more like a free standing capacitor. Which suggests that at least three particles with two sets of characteristics are required to create a neutron. For our model here, that has to be two particles capable of holding charges and one particle which provides insulation between these particles, similar to that of dielectric layer in the capacitor. Thus in this postulated model the neutron looks and behaves neutral for all practical purposes. However, within nuclei keeps separate and distinct identity and does not combine with other neutrons to form a one central heavy body.

The proposal here defers from the model independent analysis predicting the structure having negative charge on the surface, Positive charge in the next lower level and than neutral  mass. My model suggests that neutron is a free standing charged capacitor. This helps in keeping the distance between excess neutron in the nuclei. Otherwise there is nothing stopping these neutrons from lumping together to form a mini neutron star with in the nuclei. This model of Neutron is justified from the known fact that Neutron is heavier than Proton.

For elements other than Hydrogen, the nuclei becomes a chaotic environment. For Example, in case of

4He, two protons require their space and wants to be separate from each other as far as possible, and two neutrons are caught between the two protons as shown in figure 1.  From the reference frame of protons it is envisioned that Neutrons spin on its axis at very high rotational speed. One clockwise and other anticlockwise.

Model of nuclei

A new model of nuclei is proposed as shown in the figure 3. A spherical shell of excess neutrons with one neutron at the center of the shell surrounded by paired proton neutron (pn) shell.

For the stable nuclei system the electromagnetic forces needs to be balanced and gravitational forces maximized.  From the example of 4He above, it is envisioned that  elements are built, in this model, by Heavy Hydrogen nuclei (pn) as a building block and just enough excess neutrons to provide needed gravitational force for stability.

Energy levels (orbitals) in pn outer shell follows the similar shell structure of electrons, with K,L,M,N,O being primary shell and s, p, d, f, g sub shells with similar total charge particle capacity. However for excess neutron shell it differs, where a single neutron stays at the center of the nuclei when in excess. The energy level for that central neutron in this model is called “Foundation neutron” (Fn).

The Table 4 shows the placement of neutrons in each shell.

Nuclei Stability Analysis using above model

For Odd atomic number nuclei:

In the ‘p-n shell’ the outermost pair has no symmetry, however the excess neutron shell is symmetrical for all odd atomic number elements giving the stability and abundance. Referring to table 2 and table 4 , isotopes, with one excess neutron, has relative abundance in nature of 1 or close to 1,  The excess neutron takes the place of Fn.  The isotopes with 2 excess neutrons are all radio active which can be attributed to the asymmetry of neutron in unfilled K shell, which can hold up to 2 neutrons. When the K shell is completely filled as in the case of 41K, the nuclei is stable. Table 2 outlines isotopes and abundance for majority of elements, all follow the same principle and model fits perfectly with the exception of 14N with atomic number 7. Iodine has 21 excess neutrons, as we see in table 4, the outer most excess neutron shell is symmetrical, making it stable. All other elements follows.

For Even atomic number nuclei:

The stability is obtained from the pn shell. However, excess neutron shell  becomes asymmetric and depending on which sub shell, there is a room for additional excess neutrons and hence exhibits many stable isotopes with relative abundance. Theoretical probability calculation may prove this fact.

Instability and radio activity in heavy elements:

The neutron proton (np) pair in nuclei has capability to grow indefinitely. However as the heavier elements are built the inner excess neutron shell is large enough to interact with lower np shells, thus giving instability to the nuclei. e.g. for 238U there are 148 total neutrons and 54 excess neutrons.  A nuclei with 111 excess neutron will completely fill up the O shell. All elements after 209Bi are radio active, this shows that interaction of neutrons form excess neutron shell(inner shell) with pn shell is destructive when the N shell is half filled. Thus there is a upper limit to the size of the  inner excess neutron shell and this may be the reason for non existence of super heavy stable elements in nature.

Conclusion

This proposed model of nuclei, explains the stability and relative abundance of the nuclei. The nuclei(except for H and He) in this model is a shell with in a shell, where an innermost shell structure is formed with excess neutrons with one Fundamental foundation neutron (Fn) and the rest arranged in shell structure. Protons, form pair with neutron and form shell enclosing this excess neutron shell as shown in figure 3. The stability of the nuclei is a direct result of symmetrical placement of neutrons in the outer most shell of excess neutron shell. The same shell is responsible for many stable isotopes in even atomic number nuclei. The additional isotopes are possible if the outer shell of excess neutron shell holds odd number of neutrons. The nature of neutron is postulated here, the proof of which depends on future experiments.

References

Numerous Scientists’ and scholars’ exhausting work in development of periodic table, investigation of Isotopes is utilized and due credits are given. The list is too large to print here, but due credits are mentally given to all scientists.

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi

796 comments to Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

  • Diego Tanaglia

    Esimio Ing Rossi
    seguendo spasmodicamente da diversi mesi le news sul tema e-Cat guardi cosa ritrovo al seguente link
    http://pesn.com/2011/12/31/9601996_Free_Energy_in_2011_Prepping_to_Take_Off_in_2012/
    Rossi primo in classifica, ed al secondo posto…………Le ricoda qualcosa?
    Mica male per questo ” nemo profeta ” virtualmente primo e secondo.
    E parafrasando dal mondo dei motori ” Rossi c’e’ ”
    Veramente complimenti e Forza Rossi attendo ansiosamente il seguito del mio ordinativo.
    Avanti sempre !
    Buon anno
    Diego

  • Maximilian Chiella

    Spett.le Dott. Rossi ,spero sinceramente che gli interessi poco puliti di chi ci governa non bastino a impedire in alcun modo la commercializzazione della sua invenzione nel nostro paese, in particolare quando riuscirete a produrre energia.Le faccio i miei migliori auguri per un anno fruttuoso.
    Maximilian

  • lily

    when will e cat be available for purchase?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Janne Strom:
    Yes, I do.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marcello,
    Our work will be worldwide.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marcello

    Caro Ingegner Rossi,
    La seguo dal gennaio dell’ anno scorso.
    Innanzitutto invio l’ augurio di un anno che La ripaghi adeguatamente degli sforzi fin qui profusi.
    Le vorrei chiedere questo: una volta portati in casa i suoi “micetti”, non crede che vi sarà un assalto da parte delle istituzioni, quanto meno per coprire il disavanzo che vi sarebbe sulle varie accise, tasse, ecc. ecc. che verranno a mancare nelle casse (offensivamente bucate) del nostro … paese?

  • Janne Strom

    Hello Mr Rossi
    Thank you for answering my post here earlier about the location of the plant for the home e-cats
    I also sent you an email to: info@journal-of-nuclear-physics.com
    I hope that address is monitored by you.
    Regards /Janne Strom, Sweden

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lu:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lu

    Dear Andrea,

    While the recent news about domestic E-cats has certainly been exciting, I’m curious, has there been any additional sales in your 1MW E-cats beyond the previous 13 sales you have announced?

    Thanks,
    L.F.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Mr ” Tom Jones”:
    Since you used (a little bit cowardly) a fake name to make your comment, I can say without fear to damage you: what a stupid comment! Of course the E-Cat is a water heater, all the persons who have pre-ordered it and who will buy it know perfectly that it is what we always said it is: a water heater. With a difference between a normal water heater and the E-Cat: the normal water heaters use gas or oil or electricity in a measure bigger than the thermal energy produced heating the water, while the E-Cat makes 6 kWh consuming 1 kWh.
    Good Bye, “Tom Jones”.
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Morgan:
    The regulation will be made by means of a by-pass , but if the power of the E-Cat is well suited for the house to heat up, there will not be much excess, as we are experiencing in the factory we are heating with our E-Cats. Accumulation is also an option.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Morgan

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    For the household e-cat unit, how do you plan to balance heat production to the heating demand of the house? Are you able to adjust the output of the reactor or will it work start-stop together with a accumulator tank or will it work full power together with some kind of heat sink for the overproduction?

    Thanks!

  • Tom Jones

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Have you figured out where to hide when your customers realize that the E-Cat is nothing more than an electric water heater?

    Warm regards, Tom

  • Bob

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I have been thinking of your 1 million Unit number, that is very aggressive considering material procurement and testing. I admire your aggressive goals, but I will be wildly happy if 250K numbers are reached. Its better to ship small numbers than rush a product not fully ready and I think you have many huge issues. Good luck on obtaining your goals.

    Best,

    BN

  • Hello Everyone,

    I have recently become aware of the fact a certain other company (that everyone here should be aware of) is claiming to have a robust Ni-H system, without the use of catalysts. In my opinion, it should be pointed out that Andrea Rossi has already stated that without the use of catalysts, Ni-H systems do not produce a practical quantity of output. Instead, their output is extremely limited by orders of magnitude, compared to systems using catalysts. Since he is the only individual in the world to have demonstrated robust and powerful Ni-H systems, I think we need to remember what he has said on this topic.

    I think we should be skeptical of the claims of any company that claims to have robust Ni-H systems, but do not utilize catalysts. When the claims come from a company that has never performed a single demonstration, I think we need to be even more skeptical.

    Sincerely,
    Hank Mills

  • Anniversary Interview with Rossi Slated for January 14, 3pm MST – One year after the press conference in which Andrea Rossi announced his 10 kW cold fusion E-Cat technology, we will be holding a live interview with him, where you’ll be able to submit questions in real time. (PESN; January 5, 2012)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Nochols:
    1- Yes
    2- Yes
    3- Yes
    We are working on all the issues you gave us suggestion for. Thank you for this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bill Nichols

    Andrea:

    Can you answer…

    1.) Are you progressing with Patent Protection(s)?
    2.) Have your new partners been of value in this endeavor(s)?
    3.) Are you developing a “suite” of patents to anchor your evolving business model?
    4.) If yes to 3, in a basic sense, what way functionally?

    From past experiences with developing new technologies involving patents, partners can be of much value with relationships and contacts to open doors in this arena.

    Example: If National Instruments and others are helpful in your major redesigning and improvements in the E-Cat, this very could include new patents.

    If things are progressing…you may have quite a challenge managing these options and leads. As we know, relationships and contacts are critical.

    Appreciate any answers and information you can provide.

    Good Luck.

    Kind Regards,

    Bill Nichols

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Thank you for your suggestions, but be sure, we are a well fueled warship.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Federico:
    Easy! Do not worry, I had just written you to contact me in March, do not worry.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Federico

    Dear Ing Rossi,
    I’m really, really sorry for the e-mail, because the address is correct and it is working. Unbelievable! The most important e-mail of my life, stopped by unknown problems in the most wrong time! It seems a joke.
    Anyway, it’s all right and even if I hoped to meet you earlier, I will be back in March and if you think to need something, remember: I’m ready!
    Has been an honour to have your attention.
    Buon lavoro
    A presto
    Federico

    PS: where will I contact you?

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    jeffsmathers: Of course I have no “inside” information, but I am concerned that Mr. Rossi and his company are underestimating the financial challenges ahead. History tells us that innovative companies like Leonardo fail because they simply run out of cash. If I were giving Mr. Rossi advise I would tell him: If you think you need XXXX cash to reach your goals, double or triple that estimate. Then have a financial officer with a big stick for those who spend too much.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Federico,
    Contact us in March, when we will prepare the team for the “first million E-Cats distribution”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • […] contract or agreement. Andrea Rossi made sure to emphasize the same in a couple recent comments on JONP blog:Andrea Rossi January 5th, 2012 at 4:27 AMDear Alex: IMPORTANT: WE DID NOT REACH ANY AGREEMENT WITH […]

  • Federico

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    in case of problem unsolved, here the new e-mail address.
    Thanks again.
    Cordialmente
    Federico

  • Federico

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    I’m really sorry! I don’t know why! I changed the e-mail address in the form (I put the original one). If it doesn’t work again I’ll give you another address!
    Thanks a lot
    Federico

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    Is the same reactor, redesigned.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jon Soderberg:
    We did not yet make any deal with Home Depot, we are just in discussion. The certification process is in course. If you are an installer, please contact me in March. Thank you for your suggestions, of course we have experts in our team.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jeffmathers:
    Very good, contact us in March, specifying your organization.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Federico,
    We sent you an email to fecusci@alice.it
    but it returned as wrong address.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Feiko Brilstra:
    The water flow depends on the temperature requested. Yes, the water of the heating circuit must be demineralized: the rukles are the same of normal heaters for what concerns the water circuit.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Feiko Brilstra

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    How much water does the 10 or 20 kw E-cat consume and is it necessary to filter, purify or decalcify the water in order to prevent stone like sediments inside the E-cat, and will there be both open and closed cycle versions?

    Best wishes for 2012 to you and your loved ones

  • Federico

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    I hope from the deep of my self. I’m ready to take off!
    A presto
    Federico

  • jeffsmathers

    I am sincerely optimistic that Rossi can do what he says, however, I hope he fully understands the service and support infrastucture for his 10K units will be critically important and extremely dynamic, and also needs a well thought out implementation before the first 10K unit is delivered.

    I would like to be on his service and distributor group since I am now one of the millions of professional Technicians and Engineers unemployed in this country but I have not yet heard from his company.

  • Jon Soderberg

    Professor Rossi
    Im delighted to hear of your relationship with Home Depot. I have read your concern about certification of the ecat for residential installations. I’ve worked in renewable energy and understand the devil is in the details and it must also be true with your ecat. Might I recommend you start with an ecat that would be installed outside of the house on a concrete pad like you would a backup generator or a wood fired boiler. This installation scenario while adding some complexity to the overall installation it would make UL and other certifications much easier than having an ecat installed in someones basement. Since your market is mainly heating and cooling installing insulated piping in the ground is not difficult and is readily available in the renewable marketplace. Im foreseeing more issues with retrofitting existing heating systems to except your energy than you will have with your ecat. Id expect a cost breakdown to be around 50/50 for supplying an ecat and the installation and retrofitting costs. Good luck and godspeed

  • Martin

    Dear Andrea,

    The last day’s i red about your 10-20 kw ecats. Is this a new reactor or The same
    Reactor with a better performance? Unbeleavable low price for such an invention!
    This shows your good intensions! This is realy important for our planet. I am very gratefull for this great vision! Last question, The goal for producing 1 million ecats is great but Will you produce this number of Cats’ only when they are sold?

    Thans for everything!

    Best regards,

    Martin

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Federico:
    Understood.
    I think you will be contacted.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.:
    In Italy we surely will develope a R&D center; further developments will depend on how the market will go. We will be extremely dynamic and will move rapidly where it will be opportune.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Ing. Rossi, you have written:
    “…probably we will produce the E-Cats for Sweden directly in Sweden…”

    What about producing E-Cats for Italy directly in Italy?
    As you know, things are going very bad in Italy…
    And one or more factories here could really help a lot, giving people hope in a better future for them and their children.

  • Federico

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    thank you for your answer.
    I’m a 44 y.o. “guy” from Milan and actually I’m engaged in the developement of my activity based on a my creation ( nothing to do with your revolutionary one); I’m alone and i follow all the company sides: marketing, commercial, purchases and more.
    But I think that is not important what I’m doing now, but what I can do tomorrow. I’m ready to do everything necessary to make your invention the biggest idea of the new era.
    As Mr Dicks says in the previous post, you are on a dangerous way and I’m ready to be on your ship, ready to fight the possible enemy.
    I want to change the world! And you have what the world needs to change.
    Really! I’m ready to do everything! I was waiting for this idea from a long time!
    Cordialmente
    Federico

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Federico,
    Thank you.
    If you explain to me what is your activity, I will see what we can do together.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mark Dicks:
    1- Yopur pre-order has been accepted, of course.
    2- I thank you for your suggestions.
    3- I prefer to keep prices as low as possible, also to make this tech at disposal of every pocket. A revolution must be popular, to survive.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark Dicks

    Hello Andrea Rossi!

    I am following now since 4 weeks very intensively the information being available for Ecat, the Andrea Rossi story etc.
    (However it took me only initial 2-3 minutes to decide, that I also want an Ecat, so I am somewhere preregistered.)

    I can only hope that all what is being spread in blogs from you and websites is mostly true, because I would love it !!! I have a technical background and as a former entrepreneur for SW products it is pretty much clear, that it can take a while from prototype to product.

    Nevertheless it is obvious, that your incredible invention has a negative impact on a large number of persons (goes into multi, multi millions…..) and this is not only big business (like Oil Industry,etc) but also affects a large set of small business and individuals (e.g. like chimney sweepers etc.). Resistance will be there, it will be extremely massive, it will be political, because YOUR invention kills THEIR jobs. In those cases it is always better if things come slowly…. I hope you have considered this.

    Now am I a bit worried, that no organization is visible from your side and I can only hope that in line with getting the Ecat on product status, that you create a reasonably big organization and partnershipts around you (Leonardo ..) with lots of Marketing guys, Distribution Channels, the Technical Production and Support and most important lots of lawyers and experienced consultants. If you do not have these as a protection, it will be easy to get you out of the way.

    For the pricing strategy, I can only recommend to give your device a good price, but not a low or cheap price. All Microsofts, Apples and big companies of this world always sell for market prices (and never creation prices) and this is important to build and protect you + company size.

    Just my 5 cents.

    Best wishes for your technical and financial success in 2012+.

    Mark Dicks

  • Federico

    Dear. Ing Rossi
    I’m following you for months and from months I pray in order that all this can turn into a new reality. You can not imagine what kind of emotions I feel every time there are positive developments in terms of consensus and progress. All the anger turns into will to fight against this world controlled by the dirty business. It’ s a revolution that you are creating and I am willing to stake my life just to be helpful to you. Let me be a part, involve me, please!
    … e che sia un gran anno! Buon 2012

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Janne Strom:
    Our production factory will be in the USA.
    To import them you will have just to order them. If you want, you can enlist in the waiting list; I hope to be ready to deliver by next Autumn, if not it will take some more month, not years. In Sweden we will have an important concern anyway, because Sweden will be a primary place for us: probably we will produce the E-Cats for Sweden directly in Sweden.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Federico

    Gent. Ing Rossi,
    la sto seguendo da mesi e da mesi prego affinchè tutto questo si possa realmente tramutare in una nuova realtà. Lei non immagina che emozioni provo ogni qualvolta ci sono novità positive sia in termini di consensi sia in termini di progressi. Tutta la rabbia che ho si tramuta in voglia di combattere contro questo mondo controllato dagli affari sporchi. E’ una vera rivoluzione quella che Lei sta generando e io son disposto a mettere in gioco la mia esistenza pur di poterle essere d’aiuto. Mi faccia essere partecipe, La prego mi coinvolga!
    Federico

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jonatan:
    First of all, congratulations: to be an engineer at 21 years of age is a great achievement. I am sure you have in front of you a great future.
    About the battles: my rule is to fight with all my strength in the specific point of the battle with all the force I have, without being de-focused from secondary issues. For example, in our field (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions) there are billions of chatters: had the chatters be able to be turned into energy, all the high speed trains of Europe, Japan and the USA could be powered with the energy from chatters. Never mind the chatters around you when you fight, just focus on the real enemy, which is the uncapability to reach your technological target. For example, presently I am sorrounded from a meaningless noise made by wannabe validators ( substantially, spies and competitors) who try to make me lose time to satisfy their need of stolen information, wannabe competitors, real competitors who pay pseudo skeptiks to try to destroy our image, etc, etc…I am invited every other day to participate to pseudo scientific conferences, whose sole goal is steal information, not to talk of attempt of character assassination as happened in my past…well, here is my suggestion: just ignore all this, if it happens to you, and work, do your job as well as you can; if you reach your target, you lived for something, and the meaningless noise of the above mentioned imbeciles will just fade, while, should you not reach your target, the chattering of the same imbeciles will be worth zero in front of the problems you will have to face. Conclusion: all that counts is your work and the real results you will be able to produce. Example: we are making 1 million E-Cats: this makes ridiculous the meaningless chattering of my enemies, and makes terribly useful for Mankind our work.
    You are 21 years old and already an Engineer, this means you are very good: you will be successful, whatever you will do, only if you will focus all your force in the due place at the due time. Leave to Hell all the snakes you will meet : if you will do something really good, you will have to handle unavoidably some snake: the contrary- not to meet snakes- could be a not good sign; how to fight them? Just ignoring them.
    Good Luck, with all my heart,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luca Salvarani:
    1- I hope.
    2- The 70% of our potential market is made by heat and cool demand.
    3- Our improvement has been made necessary from the reality around us (the environment)
    Warm Regrds,
    A.R.

  • Luca Salvarani

    Dear Andrea
    Only two questions:
    1) Are you sure to have enough time for all tests and certifications necessary for the sale in Autumn, expecially considering the nature (nuclear) of the device? I really hope American burocracy is easier and more business friendly than our oppressive and endless one!
    2) Since you have apparently solved the issue of electric power or are close to.. why don’t you postpone for few months the initial sale and begin with a complete product (cool, heat and electic)… This would mean less costs for customers (no need 2 stages installation) higher margin for you, more time to rightly accomplish all burocraic procedures.. and last but not least a superior product for your competitors to match with (always supponing they really exist) and less time to retroengine it increasing your competitive advantage… Of course I’m not speaking abour ridicoulous defkalion!
    3) Anyway your improvements are really impressive! I’ just eager to know news and too enthusiasic… so congratulations and hold on!!!

  • Jonatan

    Hi
    I am an 21 years old engineer and i have a question to you.
    Can you tell me how you have such big self confidence?
    I see that you have to deal with a lot of people, sometimes competitors that want to restrict you, so you have to handle all these battles, and you do that successfully.
    so i wondered how i can achieve such big self confidence (which i don’t have now), even when there are people against me?

    Thanks

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