Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi
Msc Solid state Physics, Gujartat University, Gujarat, India
MS Computer Engineering, Univ of Lowell, Lowell, Mass, USA

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Abstract

Review of the periodic table and existing research on isotopes of the various elements of the periodic table is conducted and the attempt is made here to visualize the process of element formation.

The role of Neutron in element formation is investigated and found to be vital for existence of elements . In the new light, the new model of nucleus is proposed which explains the stability of the  nuclei and reason for multiple stable isotopes of elements.

Review of the Periodic Table

The inspection of the periodic table of elements reveal an interesting fact that for all elements other than Hydrogen, for element to be stable, number of Neutrons are always greater or equal, to the number of Protons in the nucleus.  The periodic table is analyzed with respect to the abundance in nature for the elements.

The fusion of Hydrogen to produce Helium can be envisioned as follows:

1H + 1H + 1H + 1H →  2H + 2N + 2e+ (1)

where 2e+ later annihilating to produce additional gamma radiation.

Since tremendous force is needed to keep four protons together during the formation of helium and emit 2 positrons, it is unlikely.  The mass of neutron is more than the mass of proton and this fact  alone negates the likeliness of the above scenario.

In another scenario, the formation of helium may be envisioned as four neutrons coming close together to form a stable nuclei of Helium as follows:
4N → 2N + 2P + 2e (2)
Here the mass of Neutron is higher than the Proton.  The Neutron releases electron to form proton. Also justifies the reason for the  Proton to be lighter than the Neutron.
Thus it is assumed that
  1. Neutrons are the building blocks for elements in nature.
  2. In the elements , other than hydrogen, neutron and proton form a pair (np) and keeps distinct identity.
  3. Excess neutrons stay at the center of the nuclei but keeps their distinct identity.
Using the above assumption the periodic table is analyzed by finding excess neutrons for all  stable isotopes of elements as follows:
Excess neutrons = Atomic mass – 2P where P is the number of Protons for the element
The relative abundance of Isotopes is obtained from the research papers and wikipedia and is included in the Table 1, 2 ,3. The relative abundance is indicative of the preferred state for the element (nuclei) in nature.
The following facts are found as a result of analysis:
For Odd atomic number nuclei:
  • Abundance of isotope is close to 100% when excess neutrons are odd count.
  • If the excess neutron count is even, the isotope is radio active.
  • Majority elements have only one Isotope.
  • Only Potassium has three isotopes, the one with 2 excess neutron is radio active with 0.001 relative abundance.
For Even atomic number nuclei:
  • Elements He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S are close to one in abundance with no excess neutron and maximum three isotopes.
  • Element Be has one excess neutron and one isotope, 100% abundance.
  • All other higher elements require four or more excess neutrons for the element to be abundant in nature and has up to 10 stable isotopes.
  • Element Ca is exception with 0 excess neutron and 97% abundance. However it is unstable with >E+21 a Half life.
Atomic number 43 (Tc) and 61 (Pm) has no stable isotopes in nature.
Thus from the above analysis, it looks like that all nuclei, stable or otherwise,  prefers to keep at least one neutron at the center of the nuclei from its excess count. The remaining excess neutrons stay very close to the center keeping its own identity. The other neutrons pair up with each proton and stay close together to the proton (like heavy hydrogen) but maintains its separate identity.

The nature prefers, for more complex nucleus, more neutrons than protons and creates a delicate balance to form a stable nuclei.

This balance of forces is so critical that in case of element F (the stable isotope is with  9 proton and 10 neutrons) The isotope 18F with 9 Protons and 9 Neutrons, with in 20 minutes decays and forms 18O which is stable with 8 protons and 10 Neutrons and gives up a e+ positron to convert proton to neutron and e+ and e- reaction produces Gama radiation.

Equation   18F → 18O + e+

Thus the existence of Neutron is vital to the existence of the universe itself, because without neutron, elements may not have been possible and hence the intelligence as we know today.

Structure of Neutron

The fact that Gravitational binding forces (Fg) of masses in the nucleus needs to be more than the destructive electromagnetic forces (Fem) created by the electrically positive environment of the nucleus,  (Fem < Fg) excess neutrons are required in the nuclei. However, even at the center of the nucleus neutrons keep their distinct identity, rather than lumping together to form one heavy neutron. Therefore, neutron can not be just a fuzzy mass but a well defined structure able to hold induced charges with precise demarcation of boundary with an insulating layer, more like a free standing capacitor. Which suggests that at least three particles with two sets of characteristics are required to create a neutron. For our model here, that has to be two particles capable of holding charges and one particle which provides insulation between these particles, similar to that of dielectric layer in the capacitor. Thus in this postulated model the neutron looks and behaves neutral for all practical purposes. However, within nuclei keeps separate and distinct identity and does not combine with other neutrons to form a one central heavy body.

The proposal here defers from the model independent analysis predicting the structure having negative charge on the surface, Positive charge in the next lower level and than neutral  mass. My model suggests that neutron is a free standing charged capacitor. This helps in keeping the distance between excess neutron in the nuclei. Otherwise there is nothing stopping these neutrons from lumping together to form a mini neutron star with in the nuclei. This model of Neutron is justified from the known fact that Neutron is heavier than Proton.

For elements other than Hydrogen, the nuclei becomes a chaotic environment. For Example, in case of

4He, two protons require their space and wants to be separate from each other as far as possible, and two neutrons are caught between the two protons as shown in figure 1.  From the reference frame of protons it is envisioned that Neutrons spin on its axis at very high rotational speed. One clockwise and other anticlockwise.

Model of nuclei

A new model of nuclei is proposed as shown in the figure 3. A spherical shell of excess neutrons with one neutron at the center of the shell surrounded by paired proton neutron (pn) shell.

For the stable nuclei system the electromagnetic forces needs to be balanced and gravitational forces maximized.  From the example of 4He above, it is envisioned that  elements are built, in this model, by Heavy Hydrogen nuclei (pn) as a building block and just enough excess neutrons to provide needed gravitational force for stability.

Energy levels (orbitals) in pn outer shell follows the similar shell structure of electrons, with K,L,M,N,O being primary shell and s, p, d, f, g sub shells with similar total charge particle capacity. However for excess neutron shell it differs, where a single neutron stays at the center of the nuclei when in excess. The energy level for that central neutron in this model is called “Foundation neutron” (Fn).

The Table 4 shows the placement of neutrons in each shell.

Nuclei Stability Analysis using above model

For Odd atomic number nuclei:

In the ‘p-n shell’ the outermost pair has no symmetry, however the excess neutron shell is symmetrical for all odd atomic number elements giving the stability and abundance. Referring to table 2 and table 4 , isotopes, with one excess neutron, has relative abundance in nature of 1 or close to 1,  The excess neutron takes the place of Fn.  The isotopes with 2 excess neutrons are all radio active which can be attributed to the asymmetry of neutron in unfilled K shell, which can hold up to 2 neutrons. When the K shell is completely filled as in the case of 41K, the nuclei is stable. Table 2 outlines isotopes and abundance for majority of elements, all follow the same principle and model fits perfectly with the exception of 14N with atomic number 7. Iodine has 21 excess neutrons, as we see in table 4, the outer most excess neutron shell is symmetrical, making it stable. All other elements follows.

For Even atomic number nuclei:

The stability is obtained from the pn shell. However, excess neutron shell  becomes asymmetric and depending on which sub shell, there is a room for additional excess neutrons and hence exhibits many stable isotopes with relative abundance. Theoretical probability calculation may prove this fact.

Instability and radio activity in heavy elements:

The neutron proton (np) pair in nuclei has capability to grow indefinitely. However as the heavier elements are built the inner excess neutron shell is large enough to interact with lower np shells, thus giving instability to the nuclei. e.g. for 238U there are 148 total neutrons and 54 excess neutrons.  A nuclei with 111 excess neutron will completely fill up the O shell. All elements after 209Bi are radio active, this shows that interaction of neutrons form excess neutron shell(inner shell) with pn shell is destructive when the N shell is half filled. Thus there is a upper limit to the size of the  inner excess neutron shell and this may be the reason for non existence of super heavy stable elements in nature.

Conclusion

This proposed model of nuclei, explains the stability and relative abundance of the nuclei. The nuclei(except for H and He) in this model is a shell with in a shell, where an innermost shell structure is formed with excess neutrons with one Fundamental foundation neutron (Fn) and the rest arranged in shell structure. Protons, form pair with neutron and form shell enclosing this excess neutron shell as shown in figure 3. The stability of the nuclei is a direct result of symmetrical placement of neutrons in the outer most shell of excess neutron shell. The same shell is responsible for many stable isotopes in even atomic number nuclei. The additional isotopes are possible if the outer shell of excess neutron shell holds odd number of neutrons. The nature of neutron is postulated here, the proof of which depends on future experiments.

References

Numerous Scientists’ and scholars’ exhausting work in development of periodic table, investigation of Isotopes is utilized and due credits are given. The list is too large to print here, but due credits are mentally given to all scientists.

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi

788 comments to Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    you said “the refilling operation will be made by the Customer himself or by his usual plumber, or installer. It will be a very simple operation.”
    This is a very good news as allow more independence.

    1) Will the user be allowed to stock a number of refils instead of buying one at a time?
    2) Will the ecat be capable to modulate its heat production (and so consumptions) to allow for night/day shifts at home? to what extent? 1% to 100%? 33% to 100%?
    3) Can be switched off (summer vacation) and programmed for wakeup after a weekend?
    Thanks for your time, Gherardo

  • stephanie hawkings

    Dear Andrea, I understand the concept of your device pretty well… how about the residual radiation, how do you contain it? You said that there’s no radiation whatsoever that can be detected. Quantic laws of information preservation states that there cannot be zero radiation in such instances. Thank you kindly!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Robert Tanhaus:
    The concept we are developing is totally new, you will see. The E-Cats will be very easy, very chip, the assistance will be very close. The industrialization we are working on is probably as much important as the invention itself.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Albert Ellul:
    Thank you.
    The big science, after trying to ridiculize us, now has understood that the E-Cat works, so now they are trying to copy and make patents to overcome us, discourage us and trying with this sophysticated way to stop us under a disguise of an indirect vindication. Is a smart move, but they are underevaluating us. I will never stop, within one year we will start the delivery of million pieces at 50 $/kW, with a totally new concept, at that point the game will be over. This technology must be popular, must cost a very low price, must be a real revoluton, not a bunch of theoretical (wrong) chatters.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Albert Ellul

    The first e-Cat units, soon to be on the market, will, in 30 year’s time be historically displayed in science museums, universities and technical colleges as the first real clean energy providers that raised our living standard by quantum leaps. How it changed our economic and social paradigms. History books will include a chapter on how corrupt people (scientists, politicians and journalists)tried to ridicule and put in disrepute a new scientific discovery that had the potential to feed the hungry, keep them warm, produce cheap energy that could produce cheap clean water, cheap transportation for food and other products. In a nutshell, how the corrupt tried to deny basic commodities to the poor and hungry of the world.

    Rossi and his collegues will, like Columbus, be hailed as the dicoverers of the ‘new’ world.

  • Robert Tanhaus

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    do you plan to implement an interface for home automation? Like http://www.knx.org/
    That would be nice and a worth feature. Many producers of heating systems have that in their portfolio.
    However I can understand it if you first concentrate on the necessary functions.

    Very good that people can recharge the “kitty” them self!
    Is it possible to have charges on stock at home or do you plan to just sell one charge each time?

    Best wishes,
    Robert Tanhaus

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mattia Zirzi:
    1- Yes, every 6 months the domestic E-Cat will have to be refilled
    2- the refilling operation will be made by the Customer himself or by his usual plumber, or installer. It will be a very simple operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Feiko Brilstra :
    This is not confirmation, nor vindication: this is copyation. But the original is much better. In any case, these are real Competitors, not clowns with a mock up, like others around.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hanz Jager:
    The fact that NASA is trying to copy my work honours me. But their theory is wrong. We will beat them, as well as all the other Competitors with our E-Cats: the E-Cats will have a too low price to allow NASA or anybody else to compete with us. They are Goliath, very big and strong, we are David…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • HanzJager

    Thank you for all of your hard work and dedication to this Mr. Rossi! I can’t wait to have an eCat sitting in my basement! Have you seen this video released by NASA? Have a great and productive day!! :)

    http://technologygateway.nasa.gov/media/CC/lenr/lenr.html

  • Feiko Brilstra

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Your thoughts please on this latest video ( http://technologygateway.nasa.gov/media/CC/lenr/lenr.html ) from NASA. Confirmation maybe even vindication?

    Warm regards,
    Feiko Brilstra

  • mattia zirzi

    Caro Dr. Rossi,
    ho letto con grande piacere che l’e-cat domestico sara’ sul mercato a breve! Non vedo l’ora.
    Ma l’e-cat domestico richiedera anchesso una ricarica ogni 6 mesi? E da parte di chi?
    Grazie per la disponibilita

  • Here’s the latest update:

    E-Cat Weekly — January 12, 2012 – This past week saw at least 65 stories from 15 dedicated sites and 5 mainstream news sites. Themes included robotics to be employed in the 1 million E-Cat manufacturing process; considering Cyclone engine technology for harvesting E-Cat heat to generate rotational force; an interview with Edmund Storms; and LENR presentations at the World Sustainable Energy Conference 2012. (PESN; January 12, 2012)

  • Vidar

    About the Cyclone engine. No, they don’t seem to sell directly. From their website:

    “The Company’s business objective is to bring its multiple engines to pre-production prototype stage and license the technology to manufacturers in multiple industries for diverse applications throughout the world.

    Cyclone’s recent milestones and business achievements include:

    7/11 Filed Form 10 with Securities and Exchange Commission to become fully-reporting company
    6/11 Signed Letter of Intent with leading global materials lift equipment manufacturer, Combilift
    5/11 Received key Patent on Waste Energy Recycling Engine (WHE)
    4/11 Raytheon Company places $400,000 order for multiple engines to power Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUVs)
    3/11 Global manufacturing leader, TopLine Automotive, signs Letter of Understanding to build Cyclone Engines”

    Downloaded some specs from their website for the WHE engine:

    Engine Efficeny: 12%, Heat exchanger 85%, Alternater 80%

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro:
    Thank you very much, your help is preciopus.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Matteo A.:
    Thank you, I will remember.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Matteo A.

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    I’m a young chemist from Romagna, but living in Bologna.
    If you need any kind of contributions for your work, please do not hesitate to contact me.

    Best Regards,

    Matteo A.

  • Caro ing.Rossi,a lei va tutta la mia stima e solidarietà per questo progetto grandioso,che risolverebbe tutti i problemi economici ed ecologici dell’umanità.Io la sto seguendo da gennaio 2011 e da subito ho capito che questo sarebbe stato un evento storico di importanza capitale.Nel mio piccolo,contribuisco a sensibilizzare l’opinione pubblica che,come lei sa,è la vera forza trainante capace di trasformare le coscienze di coloro che non vorrebbero mai questi cambiamenti.Con grande stima le porgo i miei più cordiali saluti e in bocca al lupo.Pietro

  • dan z

    Sincere and vigurous aplauds(aplauzo) for your tremendous realization… Dear Andrea, you are my hero in a world that is in great need of heroes. Who said that a man alone won’t save the world… it can… YOU can! Lots of love and crossed fingers for you in your endeavour. Romania loves you greatly!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco C.:
    Impossible: if you write to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    you will be served. Probably you typed a typo.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mariora,
    We asked a precise proposal and a precise efficiency detail, but we got neither.
    Probably is still at prototypal stage; if not, we will be delighted to study.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mariora

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    I think you have now seen on many sites people referring to the Cyclone Engine (http://www.cyclonepower.com/works.html) as the perfect fit for your e-cat.

    What do you think about it? Did you evaluate it already as a possible solution to genereate electricity and also for use in cars and vehicle of any size?

    Everybody cross his fingers eager of news from you!!
    2012:W e-cat!!
    -mario

  • Francesco C.

    Gentile Ing. Rossi, ho provato a contattarla tramite e mail all’indirizzo:
    info@leonardo…………ma ho ricevuto il seguente messaggio:

    Il messaggio non ha raggiunto alcuni o tutti i destinatari.
    Oggetto:
    Inviato:
    Impossibile raggiungere i destinatari seguenti:
    ‘info@leonardo……’ 10/01/2012 10.51
    550 RCPT address has non-existant domain

    Non ho scritto l’intera e mail per via della privacy.
    Pertanto le richiedo un ulteriore vs. indirizzo e mail.

    Cordiali saluti
    Francesco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Janne Strom:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fabio:
    Yes, one E-Cat will be able to heat a 100 sq meters (1,000 sq ft) house or apartment.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • fabio

    Caro Sig. Rossi.
    Vorrei sapere una cosa un e-cat da 10 kw è sufficente per riscaldare una casa di 100 metri quadrati?.
    Mi congratulo con lei con la convinzione che la sua invenzione cambierà il mondo

  • Janne Strom

    Hello again Mr Rossi
    I hope you got the e-mail i sent a couple of days ago.
    Snow is falling here in Sweden and the temperature is dropping, really need an e-cat
    Consider this my preorder
    Regards /Janne Strom

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Robert Mockan:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Wark Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pasquale-L:
    Your pre-order has been accepted.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pasquale-L

    Caro Ing. Rossi,
    è dal primo test dello scorso anno che seguo le vicende dell’E-Cat con estremo interesse, Lei sta facendo la Storia.
    Avevo scritto un bel po’ di roba tra complimenti e domande, ma poi ho pensato che la cosa più preziosa per Lei adesso è il tempo,
    quindi, per farla breve, le auguro il meglio per questo 2012 e vorrei prenotare per me un E-Cat domestico (basta segnalarlo qui sul blog?).
    Grazie e buon Lavoro, Pasquale

  • Robert Mockan

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    This winter the industrial space I rent for R&D on my projects
    averages about 60 degree F during the day, and 50 degree F at night.
    I like to work in a shirt sleeve environment and run a 70,000 BTU
    kerosene forced air heater for about 6 hours every 24 hours to keep
    the average temperature inside at least 75 F. I use about 3 gallons
    of fuel per day costing me about $10 USD per day. 70,000 BTU is
    a little over 20 kilowatts thermal. From the description of your
    E-Cat product a couple of them should be able to keep my work space
    warm and they would pay off in a year. After that I would save over
    $2000 USD per year. Needless to say I am looking forward to being
    able to buy your product. Sincerely, Robert.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Diego Tanaglia:
    No, the 1 MW plants have a totally different technology and they have not the same economy scale. Of course, anyway we are going to cut also the price of the 1 MW plants, but not in the same measure.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Riccardo DG:
    Everybody able to work with us will be welcome. This will be a revolution, and, as I said already, a revolution must be popular to survive.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Claudio M:
    My phylosopphy is this: I am focused to make my duty at the maximum of my capabilities. The rest is up to God.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • claudio m.

    Caro Ing. Rossi,
    E’ da più di un anno che la seguo con grande interesse e speranza. Sono anche tra coloro in attesa di accendere al più presto un E-CAT casalingo e che vorrebbero che tutto questo diventasse realtà al più presto. Mi permetta però di sottolineare alcuni aspetti della sua affermazione quando dice che la “reverse engineering” volta a replicare il suo dispositivo, una volta che i moduli verranno messi sul mercato ad un costo così basso […E-Cats will cost between 100 and 150 US$/kW…], non sarà più un problema perchè è un costo troppo basso per chiunque voglia competere. Purtroppo non mi sento di concordare con questa sua posizione. Credo che lei sappia che coloro che oggi detengono il potere dell’energia (basata su petrolio, gas, nucleare, rinnovabili) faranno o forse stanno già facendo di tutto per arrestare la sua corsa. Sa anche che il denaro e quindi la forza d’urto che possono mettere in campo va ben oltre quella di intere nazioni. La domanda è molto semplice. Crede davvero che di fronte ad uno scenario di questo genere ci si possa difendere semplicemente con un valore di “target price”? Se la reverse engineering sarà in grado di trovare il bandolo della matassa ci saranno in breve tempo ed inevitabilmente concorrenti al suo E-CAT. Il mercato e soprattutto coloro che lo controllano, come lei sa certamente, è spietato ed usa tutti i mezzi leciti ed illeciti per favorire o demolire società ed addirittura interi popoli. Lei ha visto cosa purtroppo è stato in grado di fare il “mercato” alla nostra amata Grecia e come si sta muovendo verso i prossimi obiettivi. Come può quindi fidarsi del mercato? Posso dire che da utente non vedrei l’ora di poter scegliere sul mercato E-CAT di diversi fornitori: questo è evidente, ma lei non rischia in questo modo di essere posto fuori gioco in pochi mesi? Oltretutto con il rischio di non poterci più rientrare. Senza una legittimazione diciamo “accademica” del dispositivo e senza nessun paracadute di emergenza mi pare veramente (le assicuro vorrei sbagliarmi … non sa quanto) che questa sua strategia non paghi ed addirittura possa essere a suo danno. Ad ogni modo credo che i prossimi saranno i mesi decisivi e le auguro con tutto il cuore di riuscire a realizzare tutto ciò in cui crede. Con grande stima le porgo i miei più cordiali saluti. Claudio Monti

  • RiccardoDG

    Ad Andrea Rossi, poche parole per non farle perdere troppo tempo in espressioni di ammirazione che Lei ben sa che ha e merita. Vorrei solo sottolineare che il suo background di studi filosofici , dal mio punto di vista, le hanno permesso di superare le idee fisse dei fisici e gli attacchi che ogni grande avanzamento comporta (nonchè la sua esperienza avuta con la P e l’insania della burocrazia italiana) . Now the question

    In your future distribuition agreement, there will be possibilities also for small firms /individuals specialist mainly to install and ensure the maintenance of e cat to public, or your plans are to privilege big / middle organizations. Thank you

    ps Volevo avere un riferimento per la conferma e notizie sulla mia prenotazione fatta a Novembre,

  • Diego Tanaglia

    Egr. Ing. Rossi
    the recent review of costs has greatly reduced the expected price of the 10Kw home module did it also affect the 1MW module end price ?
    Thank you for the answer

    Diego

  • CF

    Mr Rossi,

    I hope your talks with Home Depot go well.
    There is a lot of unused factory floor space here in Cobb County, GA. 😉

    With respect,
    CF

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Chini:
    Very interesting, can be useful for the domestic E-Cat, to store heat. I am going to study this device.
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Chini

    Gentile dott. Rossi, per caso questa tecnologia le è già stata segnalata?

    http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/tecnologie/2011-12-23/arriva-pannello-solare-produce-081428.shtml?uuid=Aa27ivWE

    (tratto dall’articolo, a leggere così parrebbe poter essere interessante anche per l’E-Cat)

    “Il calore viene immagazzinato in una “batteria termica” che ha le dimensioni di un grosso frigorifero. Le batterie di questo genere esistono già, non le ha inventate Negrisolo. Lui però ha trovato una miscela molto semplice del liquido con cui funzionano che può lavorare bene tra 100 e 200 °C.”

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fyodor:
    1- A new design and technology, which is confidential, allows easy big scale production and very cheap price. No more information is necessary to our Customers, who are interested to efficiency and price, not to the confidential part of the technology. Why are you interested to it? Are you a competitor? ( Your address relates to a fake name, by the way)
    2- We are in discussion with many possible distributors. We will give precise information when any deal will have been made.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fyodor

    I apologize if you have gotten this post multiple times-I am having trouble with the spam filter.

    Mr. Rossi

    I hope all is well with you and that you had a good new year.

    1. Can you tell us anything new about the nature of your recent breakthrough that will let you build the Ecat more cheaply? What part of the Ecat does it relate to? What was the previous cost issue that you can now avoid?

    2. I understand that you have been negotiating with Home Depot? Have they seen the Ecat yet? Has it been tested for them?

    Thank you for taking the time from your busy schedule to answer my questions.

    Fyodor

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Cornè:
    1- The physics concerning the reactions within the E-Cats are well known ( we just do not publish them for confidentiality issues) and there are patents pending for those, while the certifications are in course. We made thousands-hours tests without any radiations emitted from the reactors to the environment outside the reactors. This is very easy to be measured anyway.
    2- Our specialists will decide the ads.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marcello:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wallemans Roger:
    If the E-Cat is properly set, you will not have excess heat in Winter and excess cold in Summer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wallemans Roger

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    First of all, I wish you and the people close around you a very happy New Year and in 2012 a productive one!!
    Like most people I think, I am heating my house with a oil based heater and radiators on a water temperature of around 60° C.
    I think like you already mentionned that I will need some kind of hot water tank to store the extra heat.When the accumulator is filled up the E-cat must be switched off. How many times per day can I do that without COP going down?
    If I leave the E-cat on, that is a bit what you mentionned by saying not to have to much excess” as you experience in the factory” a 10 KW E-cat will be on during the 6 months we need heat, and with a COP of 6 my consommation on the grid level will be 10KW/6 x 24 x 30 x6 = 7200 KWh.
    To compensate that I will need a generator of the same amount ,1.5 KW, a bit like a micro CHP otherwise I am heating my house almost by electricity.
    And now my question : When the generator and do you use the excess heat of this one to heat the house (microCHP behavior).
    Warm Regards to,
    Wallemans Roger

  • Marcello

    Gentile Ingegnere,

    posso chiedere la sua mail privata, per una piccola cosa ?

    Grazie, Marcello

  • Corné

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Last spring I first read about the E-Cat, and since then I have been fascinated by it’s story.

    There are two things I was wondering about lately. I hope you can comment on them:

    1) One of the key points for certification of the E-Cat and for customer acceptance will be the guarantee that it will not – under any condition – emit any kind of harmful radiation. How will you prove to the regulators and to the customers that this new form of nuclear energy is absolutely safe? (The physics concerning the reactions within the E-Cat are still unknown and the regulators may require safety tests spanning a period of several years to make sure that the device is absolutely safe even after many years of operation.)

    2) Until now you have kept relatively low profile. There have been a few mainstream publications about the E-Cat, but almost all of them were ‘on the fence’ concerning the validity of the E-Cat. Consequently, at the moment the number of people who are aware of the existence of the E-Cat is still limited and the number of E-Cat enthousiasts will be even smaller. If you want to reach the general public and sell a million E-Cats you will have to launch a huge media campaign. What are your plans about that?

    I wish you good business!
    Corné

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Diego Tanaglia:
    Thank you!
    Yes, the #2 remembers to me something… it is a patent of mine of 1978, now expired; I am glad of this development and wish good luck to this enterpreneurial achievement.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lily:
    The 1 MW plants are already for sale, the domestic E-Cats will be for sale, I hope, within 2012.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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