Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi
Msc Solid state Physics, Gujartat University, Gujarat, India
MS Computer Engineering, Univ of Lowell, Lowell, Mass, USA

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Abstract

Review of the periodic table and existing research on isotopes of the various elements of the periodic table is conducted and the attempt is made here to visualize the process of element formation.

The role of Neutron in element formation is investigated and found to be vital for existence of elements . In the new light, the new model of nucleus is proposed which explains the stability of the  nuclei and reason for multiple stable isotopes of elements.

Review of the Periodic Table

The inspection of the periodic table of elements reveal an interesting fact that for all elements other than Hydrogen, for element to be stable, number of Neutrons are always greater or equal, to the number of Protons in the nucleus.  The periodic table is analyzed with respect to the abundance in nature for the elements.

The fusion of Hydrogen to produce Helium can be envisioned as follows:

1H + 1H + 1H + 1H →  2H + 2N + 2e+ (1)

where 2e+ later annihilating to produce additional gamma radiation.

Since tremendous force is needed to keep four protons together during the formation of helium and emit 2 positrons, it is unlikely.  The mass of neutron is more than the mass of proton and this fact  alone negates the likeliness of the above scenario.

In another scenario, the formation of helium may be envisioned as four neutrons coming close together to form a stable nuclei of Helium as follows:
4N → 2N + 2P + 2e (2)
Here the mass of Neutron is higher than the Proton.  The Neutron releases electron to form proton. Also justifies the reason for the  Proton to be lighter than the Neutron.
Thus it is assumed that
  1. Neutrons are the building blocks for elements in nature.
  2. In the elements , other than hydrogen, neutron and proton form a pair (np) and keeps distinct identity.
  3. Excess neutrons stay at the center of the nuclei but keeps their distinct identity.
Using the above assumption the periodic table is analyzed by finding excess neutrons for all  stable isotopes of elements as follows:
Excess neutrons = Atomic mass – 2P where P is the number of Protons for the element
The relative abundance of Isotopes is obtained from the research papers and wikipedia and is included in the Table 1, 2 ,3. The relative abundance is indicative of the preferred state for the element (nuclei) in nature.
The following facts are found as a result of analysis:
For Odd atomic number nuclei:
  • Abundance of isotope is close to 100% when excess neutrons are odd count.
  • If the excess neutron count is even, the isotope is radio active.
  • Majority elements have only one Isotope.
  • Only Potassium has three isotopes, the one with 2 excess neutron is radio active with 0.001 relative abundance.
For Even atomic number nuclei:
  • Elements He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S are close to one in abundance with no excess neutron and maximum three isotopes.
  • Element Be has one excess neutron and one isotope, 100% abundance.
  • All other higher elements require four or more excess neutrons for the element to be abundant in nature and has up to 10 stable isotopes.
  • Element Ca is exception with 0 excess neutron and 97% abundance. However it is unstable with >E+21 a Half life.
Atomic number 43 (Tc) and 61 (Pm) has no stable isotopes in nature.
Thus from the above analysis, it looks like that all nuclei, stable or otherwise,  prefers to keep at least one neutron at the center of the nuclei from its excess count. The remaining excess neutrons stay very close to the center keeping its own identity. The other neutrons pair up with each proton and stay close together to the proton (like heavy hydrogen) but maintains its separate identity.

The nature prefers, for more complex nucleus, more neutrons than protons and creates a delicate balance to form a stable nuclei.

This balance of forces is so critical that in case of element F (the stable isotope is with  9 proton and 10 neutrons) The isotope 18F with 9 Protons and 9 Neutrons, with in 20 minutes decays and forms 18O which is stable with 8 protons and 10 Neutrons and gives up a e+ positron to convert proton to neutron and e+ and e- reaction produces Gama radiation.

Equation   18F → 18O + e+

Thus the existence of Neutron is vital to the existence of the universe itself, because without neutron, elements may not have been possible and hence the intelligence as we know today.

Structure of Neutron

The fact that Gravitational binding forces (Fg) of masses in the nucleus needs to be more than the destructive electromagnetic forces (Fem) created by the electrically positive environment of the nucleus,  (Fem < Fg) excess neutrons are required in the nuclei. However, even at the center of the nucleus neutrons keep their distinct identity, rather than lumping together to form one heavy neutron. Therefore, neutron can not be just a fuzzy mass but a well defined structure able to hold induced charges with precise demarcation of boundary with an insulating layer, more like a free standing capacitor. Which suggests that at least three particles with two sets of characteristics are required to create a neutron. For our model here, that has to be two particles capable of holding charges and one particle which provides insulation between these particles, similar to that of dielectric layer in the capacitor. Thus in this postulated model the neutron looks and behaves neutral for all practical purposes. However, within nuclei keeps separate and distinct identity and does not combine with other neutrons to form a one central heavy body.

The proposal here defers from the model independent analysis predicting the structure having negative charge on the surface, Positive charge in the next lower level and than neutral  mass. My model suggests that neutron is a free standing charged capacitor. This helps in keeping the distance between excess neutron in the nuclei. Otherwise there is nothing stopping these neutrons from lumping together to form a mini neutron star with in the nuclei. This model of Neutron is justified from the known fact that Neutron is heavier than Proton.

For elements other than Hydrogen, the nuclei becomes a chaotic environment. For Example, in case of

4He, two protons require their space and wants to be separate from each other as far as possible, and two neutrons are caught between the two protons as shown in figure 1.  From the reference frame of protons it is envisioned that Neutrons spin on its axis at very high rotational speed. One clockwise and other anticlockwise.

Model of nuclei

A new model of nuclei is proposed as shown in the figure 3. A spherical shell of excess neutrons with one neutron at the center of the shell surrounded by paired proton neutron (pn) shell.

For the stable nuclei system the electromagnetic forces needs to be balanced and gravitational forces maximized.  From the example of 4He above, it is envisioned that  elements are built, in this model, by Heavy Hydrogen nuclei (pn) as a building block and just enough excess neutrons to provide needed gravitational force for stability.

Energy levels (orbitals) in pn outer shell follows the similar shell structure of electrons, with K,L,M,N,O being primary shell and s, p, d, f, g sub shells with similar total charge particle capacity. However for excess neutron shell it differs, where a single neutron stays at the center of the nuclei when in excess. The energy level for that central neutron in this model is called “Foundation neutron” (Fn).

The Table 4 shows the placement of neutrons in each shell.

Nuclei Stability Analysis using above model

For Odd atomic number nuclei:

In the ‘p-n shell’ the outermost pair has no symmetry, however the excess neutron shell is symmetrical for all odd atomic number elements giving the stability and abundance. Referring to table 2 and table 4 , isotopes, with one excess neutron, has relative abundance in nature of 1 or close to 1,  The excess neutron takes the place of Fn.  The isotopes with 2 excess neutrons are all radio active which can be attributed to the asymmetry of neutron in unfilled K shell, which can hold up to 2 neutrons. When the K shell is completely filled as in the case of 41K, the nuclei is stable. Table 2 outlines isotopes and abundance for majority of elements, all follow the same principle and model fits perfectly with the exception of 14N with atomic number 7. Iodine has 21 excess neutrons, as we see in table 4, the outer most excess neutron shell is symmetrical, making it stable. All other elements follows.

For Even atomic number nuclei:

The stability is obtained from the pn shell. However, excess neutron shell  becomes asymmetric and depending on which sub shell, there is a room for additional excess neutrons and hence exhibits many stable isotopes with relative abundance. Theoretical probability calculation may prove this fact.

Instability and radio activity in heavy elements:

The neutron proton (np) pair in nuclei has capability to grow indefinitely. However as the heavier elements are built the inner excess neutron shell is large enough to interact with lower np shells, thus giving instability to the nuclei. e.g. for 238U there are 148 total neutrons and 54 excess neutrons.  A nuclei with 111 excess neutron will completely fill up the O shell. All elements after 209Bi are radio active, this shows that interaction of neutrons form excess neutron shell(inner shell) with pn shell is destructive when the N shell is half filled. Thus there is a upper limit to the size of the  inner excess neutron shell and this may be the reason for non existence of super heavy stable elements in nature.

Conclusion

This proposed model of nuclei, explains the stability and relative abundance of the nuclei. The nuclei(except for H and He) in this model is a shell with in a shell, where an innermost shell structure is formed with excess neutrons with one Fundamental foundation neutron (Fn) and the rest arranged in shell structure. Protons, form pair with neutron and form shell enclosing this excess neutron shell as shown in figure 3. The stability of the nuclei is a direct result of symmetrical placement of neutrons in the outer most shell of excess neutron shell. The same shell is responsible for many stable isotopes in even atomic number nuclei. The additional isotopes are possible if the outer shell of excess neutron shell holds odd number of neutrons. The nature of neutron is postulated here, the proof of which depends on future experiments.

References

Numerous Scientists’ and scholars’ exhausting work in development of periodic table, investigation of Isotopes is utilized and due credits are given. The list is too large to print here, but due credits are mentally given to all scientists.

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi

788 comments to Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

  • Mark Szlazak

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    How small can an e-cat device be? I’m think of a small application where the cooling system of a car is kept warm in cold climates like Canada. Usually people plug in there cars block heater when not in use. It helps with starting the car. Circulation type block heaters work at higher temperatures so the cars passenger heater also near warm enough when starting on cold winter mornings. E-cat type heaters would be even more powerful and provide block and passenger heating while the engine isn’t running without electricity costs.

  • Paul Heath

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    Lot’s of people use electricity or gas to heat a stove or oven for cooking. On a global scale this would account for a great amount of energy. As I found on the internet, an electric stove can use up to 7.4 kilowatts for the surface unit and 7.2 kW for the oven (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/houseenergy.html#c4). That would take up a lot of the ecat’s heat energy, and probably more electrical energy as the ecat 2nd generation can deliver. So, would it be possible to develop a special version of the ecat to use as the energy source for a stove? The new ecat could be used to heat the stove / oven using the lenr reaction that produces the heat nessecary, or it could be used to generate electricity which could be used for heating the stove. New stoves could be developed that are specifically designed to use the ecat. I was just thinking that maybe this is a good idea, though a strong enough ecat (45KW?) could also deliver the amount of heat and electricity needed for a household. Do you think this may be a good idea?

    Best regards,
    Paul Heath

  • Jeff D.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Congratulations on your successes to date and my sincere wishes for your continued success with the Ecat.

    I have been impressed by the patience and graciousness with which you receive unsolicited ideas and suggestions on this blog. Here, with my apologies, is yet another idea.

    Suppose that a mechanism could be devised to inject a very small amount of the reactants into the Ecat reactor. The high temperature regime might then be pursued from a different perspective – an uncontrolled reaction. The reactor would only be loaded with a small amount of the reactants and heated to initiate the reaction, which would run uncontrolled until the temperature caused changes (melting) of the nickel powder, stopping the reaction. Once the temperature of the reactor falls to the range appropriate for the reaction, an additional dose of reactants would be inserted. This would be repeated cyclically until such time as maintenance would be required, which would include removal of ash from the reactor and recycling of the unreacted nickel. If this were possible, a much higher average tempearture might be achieved without the control challenges.

    Of course, in my ignorance, I have no idea whether this is possible. Regardless, good luck to you!

    Jeff D.

  • Jouni Tuomela

    Hello Mr. Rossi,
    thank you for the development so far, your work is so important.
    One thing is not clear to me, sorry. Does the system allow to produce different levels of energy depending on the need, or just 10 kW only when switched on?
    In other words, how controllable the energy output will be when the unit is working?
    Just thinking of my house, will I have to install a big water tank to utilize ECat wisely in my central heating?

  • john46blog

    Dear Andrea,
    I saw your recent interview with Sterling Allan. I discover a bunch of good news about your progress on e.cat development and I’m very happy for you. One thing I don’t like about your plans, it’s the decision to start the series production in Florida and possibly also in Massachusetts. You also mentioned that you prefer that e.cat technology became American! You are Italian my friend, as I am, and you know very well in which bad situation our country is at the moment. A revolutionary technology like your, could be very useful for our renascence; there is a fresh “air” now in our new government. Why you did not consider to start production in Italy instead? I understand of your old problems you had in the past here, this cannot be a justification for a strong man like you are. Just image the good contribution you
    could bring to the unemployment reduction in our country.
    Please reconsider your plans and include in them also Italy.
    Thanks for your attention
    Giovanni

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chandru Krishnamurthy:
    Yes, and I think that desalination is one among the duties this tech can do better.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hank Mills:
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Iggy Dalrymple:
    The air conditioner will be an optonal.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alfonso troisi,
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Davide redaelli:
    In the heating system water is continuously in circulation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.:
    Yes, it is true. We do not emit radiations out of the reactor and this obviously must be certified.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chandru krishnamurthy

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    First of all – many thanks for your fantastic innovation. I am wishing for great engineering and good luck for you! Quick question – can the current ecat technology and temperatures be used effectively for desalinization of sea-water? This would be a fantastic application that could solve a big health problem in many countries. Am curious if you have received inquiries on this.
    Best regards
    Chandru

  • Italo R.

    Dear Ing. Rossi. You have written:
    “…UL makes safety certification. They make all the tests necessary to guarantee the safety of the device…”

    I suppose that UL will test a running E-Cat and that they will measure all parameters including the presence of radiation in the ambient. Infact, speaking of safety, radiations outside of a running E-Cat are really very important.
    Is it true?

    Thank you
    Italo R.

  • Achille Conti

    Carissimo Ing. Rossi, ho letto del suo “amore” per gli Stati Uniti. Io, nato all’estero da genitori italiani, vivo oggi in Italia ed amo pazzamente il mio paese e lo difendo orgoglioso. Mi domandavo se una scoperta rivoluzionaria come la sua non potesse essere di aiuto in questo momento di difficoltà per il mio ed il suo paese, magari localizzando delle fabbriche anche da noi. Si ricordi, lei porta il nome di Leonardo…

  • I would pay $1000 for a 3KW heater, especialy if it could be used without electical power.

  • Davide Radaelli

    Gent.mo Ing. Rossi,
    Scusi la domanda forse banale… Se ho capito bene l’ecat home sarà installato a monte dell’impianto idraulico, in modo da preriscdare l’acqua prima della caldaia esistente. Un po’ come accade per alcune stufe a pellet. Immagino che la temperatura di 120 gradi venga mantenuta stabile facendo circolare l’acqua, corretto? Ma come è possibile visto che l’acqua non circola in continuazione? È necessario anche uno scarico?
    Cordiali Saluti
    Davide Radaelli

  • Alfonso Troisi

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I read that you’re solving the problem of production of hot water. Do you think that with the first generation of e-cats this issue is going to be solved.

    Thank you for the way you are doing things,

    Alfonso Troisi

  • Kim Patterson

    A common space heater is intuitively and inherently the proper initial domestic product
    usage.

    Simple, neat and replete.

    It would demonstrate the science to the people, and give them the confidants needed to embrace LENR

    $250 for 3kw heater.

    Respect
    Kim

  • Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    I enjoyed listening to your interview with Sterling Allan.
    Does your 1st generation domestic E-Cat include the steam driven heat-pump that you spoke of earlier?

    Sincerely,

    Iggy Dalrymple

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I really like the space heater idea. For example, I do not have central heating or cooling in my home. Instead, in the summer time I use a small window air conditioner to cool my bedroom, and this winter I am using a small 500 watt portable heater. A small 500 watt unit is usually all I need to heat my very small bedroom — except on the coldest of nights.

    For my situation, a small portable E-Cat heater (without the need to be connected to a water supply) that produced a kilowatt of heat would be ideal.

    If such a heater were made available, I would most likely by a second unit to keep a container of water warm for bathing, washing my hands, etc. What would be ideal, is if you could simply put a modest sized metal in contact with the surface of the E-Cat, and the heat would warm the contents.

    For the millions of economically challenged individuals out there, such an E-Cat product would be a huge blessing.

    Sincerely,
    Hank Mills

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Argon:
    a) is correct: the amount of water in circulation is measured depending on the temperature you want.
    b) is not available.
    Thank you very much for your support,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Christopher:
    Do you know? Your is a very good idea. We gotta study it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    UL makes safety certification. They make all the tests necessary to guarantee the safety of the device.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Martin

    Dear Andrea,

    I have red that you have sent a prototype ecat to the UL certification organisation.
    Is this the only needed certification? What kind of test will they perform?
    Is it possible that your IP leaks out via the test, are there enough security measurements taken to protect your invention?

    Best regards

    Martin

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Could you produce a simple E-Cat space heater that anyone could plug into a wall? Most current consumer electric space heaters are limited to 1,500 watts, which is claimed to be enough to heat 1,000 square feet (93 square meters). Such a device would allow even very low income apartment dwellers to immediately benefit from LENR technology. You could not possibly manufacture enough portable heaters to keep up with worldwide demand. Competition is only a problem if you run out of customers. The E-Cat shortage will be the big problem making headlines.

    Sincerely, Christopher Calder

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gherardo:
    Your pre-order is accepted, thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefano:
    We have found the way to allow the regulation for the heating system.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Harold:
    It will be a real miracle if we will succeed to be ready with our extremely complex industrialization by the next winter.
    Probably you have no idea what does mean to make a device like this at 50 Euro/kW.
    By the way: with all respect, this technology has absolutely nothing to do with the F.P. electrolysis: we do not make electrolysis, do not use deuterium, nor palladium, nor platinum.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Argon

    Hi Mr Rossi,
    I listened both your latest interviews with great interest as well as patiently waiting for real proven eCat products to arrive 😉

    From inteview by Sterling Allan Jan 14, I have a question that keeps me wondering.

    You state the following:

    If you put 1 hour 2.7 kW power into small box sized as eCAt, it must become burning hot in matter of 10-20 minutes(1litre water boils within minutes in normal kitchen cooker!). So where that rather big amount of energy goes?

    a) are you circulating water at the same time, if so why? Wouldn’t it be cheaper and faster to stabilize eCAt, with limited water circulation?
    or
    b) Is energy transmuted to other form (like in chemical as in car battery for example)

    Could you little bit open up this subject to warm me up to maybe place preorder some day 😉

    Thank you and best success. You have more support on us than you can imagine!

  • Harold

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    For more than a year there was a large and positive chain of events regarding the E-Cat. Everything did happen almost as precise as you told the public it would. Although there were some set-backs regarding the 1Mw customers but in all it all worked out fine.

    And at the start of this year you surprised us again by lowering the price towards $50/kwh, this almost looks like as if you followed my advise in January 21st 2011 where I wrote to you on this blog:
    “In all if the price range of your invention will be around €5000 I hope you’ll allow your distributors to set up a lease/buy construction to obtain such a device. While with a price above €5000 you will reach only the more fortunate people, but on the other hand a price around €1000 will truly change the World to say the least!”

    And now we are far below the $1000.— this is on itself a revolutionary event, I thank you enormously for this, but now as we all go further into 2012 I am only missing the ONE event.
    I am part of your market and you once stated that the market will be your final judge, so when will this market (your market) be able to do this ONE thing and give their final judgment of your energy revolution.
    Do we all have to wait till September 2012 for we can shout “Viva il grande miracolo di Andrea Rossi”?
    Or will there be a surprise for us, your market, in a more nearby future maybe on the enigmatic date March 23rd when it would be 23 years after the Pons and Fleischmann event!
    Can you do this for your market, setting a new date to truly start the revolution by unleashing this inevitable miracolo for your supporters and let us laugh at those who never once were open minded.

    Mr. Rossi can you do this, surprise us and start our revolution! Please think about it!

    Kind regards and thank you for your work,
    Harold

  • Stefano

    Caro Dott. Rossi,
    ho letto in rete che per far avviare l’E-Cat da 10 kW servono 2,7-2,9 kWh di energia elettrica per un ora e quando il dispositivo è arrivato a temperatura, va avanti da solo con la reazione LENR, ma ammettiamo che si utilizzi l’e-cat per il riscaldamento di casa: quando all’interno dell’abitazione viene raggiunta la temperatura impostata, la reazione continua o viene fermata dal termostato di controllo? E in questo ultimo caso, quando la temperatura ambiente riscende, percui il termostato va in richiesta di calore è necessario attendere nuovamente (immettendo 2.7 KWh per 1 ora) l’innesco della reazione?
    Grazie per la risposta e complimenti per il Suo preziosissimo lavoro.

    Stefano

  • Gherardo

    This is my pre-order for an e-cat (10 or 20 Kw).
    Thanks, Gherardo

  • mak

    La nasa dice che le lenr esistono

  • Greg Leonard

    Dear Karl Ahl,
    I suspect the answer to your question is one of temperature.
    In order to heat the E-cat core, you will need a much higher temperature than the core normally runs at – this can easily be supplied by gas, induction or resistive heating.
    The output temperature of one E-cat will not be sufficiently high to heat up another.
    regards,
    Greg

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lu Fong:
    In September.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rene Vega:
    We are working to do this from the beginning. This is requested from many othersm as you cann read in this blog, I have to react to these solicitations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Karl Ahl

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Many thanks for your answer about Cat A and B ability to support each other with heat energy it puzzles me as you say it would be possible to heat a Cat with gas.

    I would like to come back to my question from yesterday though about potential parallel operation of Cat A and B that potentially “helps” to heat each other to “at least” reduce the need for external electrical energy heating power or part of the external energy.

    Please recall your answer to Jan K. (http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=563&cpage=13#comments).
    Here you clarify the possibility to use gas as an external source of energy to heat the Cat to operate. I think this is an excellent opportunity in places where only limited electrical energy is available or where you would be depend on batteries for control functions etc. for example small summer houses. In addition a home using gas heaters would potentially be able to reduce its gas consumption with a factor 6 if external heat is the major external energy demand. Now, if it is possible to use gas to heat would potentially be able to use the gas to heat the E-Cat to operate instead of the typically more expensive heat energy from electricity. Thus, reduce the gas bill by a factor 6.

    If external heat could be used to start and handle the operation stability I don’t understand why it should not be possible to use or at least take best possible advantage of the heat produced by Cat A and B to support each other in order to exclude or at least reduce the need for external energy. I don’t see why Cat A in self sustainable mode could not help to heat B. I can understand if you say now it’s not possible because you can’t rely entirely on such operation as the two may be not be synchronised in their mode of operation. I however a synchronisation of operation would be possible, I guess it is potentially possible that A and B at least support each other to reduce external energy demand.
    All the best
    Karl

  • Rene Vega

    I was writing this response earlier in another thread, and it seems JanK beat me to it. I calculaetd the cost of heating the 10KW thermal e-cat 24/7 (running continuously). The 12Kwh/day (4 X 3KWh) at California utility rates of 0.18USD/Kwh comes out at almost $66/month. Using propane at current market rates 3.84USD costs about $55/month. But more important, the problem is that in certain parts of the world (example, the NE in the USA) the cost of natural gas is far less expensive than the same power equivalent in electricity. Or, there might be situations where that much electiricity is simply not available but other fuels are available (typical of off-grid systems). So, yes, I would love to see an e-cat that can be activated by propane or natural gas.

  • Lu Fong

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    There have been many questions regarding the E-Cat including operation, maintenance, power requirements, water requirements, performance, interfaces etc and I appreciate you taking the time to answer them. You have stated that (hopefully) factory production is to begin sometime in the fall with start of delivery next winter. My question is, at what point will you release detail product specifications about the domestic E-Cat? Can we expect it in the Spring, Summer, Fall?

    Regards,
    L.F.

    P.S., I enjoyed listening to your interview with Sterling Allen. Thank You.

  • Hello Everyone,

    An article covering the recent interview with Andrea Rossi has been posted to PESN.

    It contains a transcript and audio of the interview.

    Many significant revelations were made! Check it out at the following link.

    http://pesn.com/2012/01/14/9602012_Momentous_Breakthroughs_Announced_During_Anniversary_E-Cat_Interview/

    Sincerely,
    Hank Mills

  • Here’s our report of yesterday’s interview:

    Momentous Breakthroughs Announced During Anniversary E-Cat Interview – In a landmark interview, Andrea Rossi, the inventor of the E-Cat (cold fusion energy catalyzer), announced many breakthroughs in the development of his technology, answered a wide range of questions, and shared many details regarding the upcoming ten kilowatt heat unit for home use. (PESN; January 15, 2012)

    I thoroughly enjoyed doing the interview.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mariora:
    You are right, but remember that we guarantee COP 6.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear K.D.:
    Anyway the charge must be refilled every 180 operation days.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jan K.:
    Of course this is possible: we need thermal energy, the source of it has not necessarily to be electricity. We are studying to heat the E-Cat in existing heaters using fire. Your question is very good, congratulations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jan K.

    Mr. Rossi,

    I have a general question, not related to the article. Would it be possible to change the auxiliary electrical heating for the e-cat to a gas burner? Most heaters and boilers for example in Germany are powered by gas. Because electricity for heating is much more expensive than gas, the e-cat as it is now, may not be very economical comparing the electricity with the gas utility bill.

  • K. D.

    It was told already that in the E-Cat only some nickel isotopes take part in process of transmutation into copper.
    My question is. If it was possible to enrich the nickel (at low cost) with these isotopes, will it be more of that fuel burned (transmuted into copper)and the work of reactor extended for some additional time?

  • Mariora

    Thanks Andrea for coming back to me..

    I meant to say that it would be wasted, because for a normal house it would be too much.. today speaking with a friend, he told me that he would be happy to have that much heat available.. ha would use it in a “serra” (greenhouse)..

    So, my speculation, my hope, are related to the fact that one could build an house completely independent.. having the ecats working in selfsutained mode 24×7 producing day and night electricity and thermal energy..
    You can sell unused electricity on the market, but the heat must be used in some other way..
    now i have some more idea: a grenhouse, a huge refrigrator (to conserve agricoltural products), and so on..

    6 ecat would be an initial investment of about 3000$ then 120$ per year and that would give you electricity for everything in the house, thermal energy to heat and cool the house, to heat water for sanitary reasons, and a lot of other thermal energy for anything else..

    This would be a dream coming true.. a real new world…
    Grazie!!!
    W e-cat!!!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Karl Ahl:
    No, it will not be possible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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