Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi
Msc Solid state Physics, Gujartat University, Gujarat, India
MS Computer Engineering, Univ of Lowell, Lowell, Mass, USA

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Abstract

Review of the periodic table and existing research on isotopes of the various elements of the periodic table is conducted and the attempt is made here to visualize the process of element formation.

The role of Neutron in element formation is investigated and found to be vital for existence of elements . In the new light, the new model of nucleus is proposed which explains the stability of the  nuclei and reason for multiple stable isotopes of elements.

Review of the Periodic Table

The inspection of the periodic table of elements reveal an interesting fact that for all elements other than Hydrogen, for element to be stable, number of Neutrons are always greater or equal, to the number of Protons in the nucleus.  The periodic table is analyzed with respect to the abundance in nature for the elements.

The fusion of Hydrogen to produce Helium can be envisioned as follows:

1H + 1H + 1H + 1H →  2H + 2N + 2e+ (1)

where 2e+ later annihilating to produce additional gamma radiation.

Since tremendous force is needed to keep four protons together during the formation of helium and emit 2 positrons, it is unlikely.  The mass of neutron is more than the mass of proton and this fact  alone negates the likeliness of the above scenario.

In another scenario, the formation of helium may be envisioned as four neutrons coming close together to form a stable nuclei of Helium as follows:
4N → 2N + 2P + 2e (2)
Here the mass of Neutron is higher than the Proton.  The Neutron releases electron to form proton. Also justifies the reason for the  Proton to be lighter than the Neutron.
Thus it is assumed that
  1. Neutrons are the building blocks for elements in nature.
  2. In the elements , other than hydrogen, neutron and proton form a pair (np) and keeps distinct identity.
  3. Excess neutrons stay at the center of the nuclei but keeps their distinct identity.
Using the above assumption the periodic table is analyzed by finding excess neutrons for all  stable isotopes of elements as follows:
Excess neutrons = Atomic mass – 2P where P is the number of Protons for the element
The relative abundance of Isotopes is obtained from the research papers and wikipedia and is included in the Table 1, 2 ,3. The relative abundance is indicative of the preferred state for the element (nuclei) in nature.
The following facts are found as a result of analysis:
For Odd atomic number nuclei:
  • Abundance of isotope is close to 100% when excess neutrons are odd count.
  • If the excess neutron count is even, the isotope is radio active.
  • Majority elements have only one Isotope.
  • Only Potassium has three isotopes, the one with 2 excess neutron is radio active with 0.001 relative abundance.
For Even atomic number nuclei:
  • Elements He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S are close to one in abundance with no excess neutron and maximum three isotopes.
  • Element Be has one excess neutron and one isotope, 100% abundance.
  • All other higher elements require four or more excess neutrons for the element to be abundant in nature and has up to 10 stable isotopes.
  • Element Ca is exception with 0 excess neutron and 97% abundance. However it is unstable with >E+21 a Half life.
Atomic number 43 (Tc) and 61 (Pm) has no stable isotopes in nature.
Thus from the above analysis, it looks like that all nuclei, stable or otherwise,  prefers to keep at least one neutron at the center of the nuclei from its excess count. The remaining excess neutrons stay very close to the center keeping its own identity. The other neutrons pair up with each proton and stay close together to the proton (like heavy hydrogen) but maintains its separate identity.

The nature prefers, for more complex nucleus, more neutrons than protons and creates a delicate balance to form a stable nuclei.

This balance of forces is so critical that in case of element F (the stable isotope is with  9 proton and 10 neutrons) The isotope 18F with 9 Protons and 9 Neutrons, with in 20 minutes decays and forms 18O which is stable with 8 protons and 10 Neutrons and gives up a e+ positron to convert proton to neutron and e+ and e- reaction produces Gama radiation.

Equation   18F → 18O + e+

Thus the existence of Neutron is vital to the existence of the universe itself, because without neutron, elements may not have been possible and hence the intelligence as we know today.

Structure of Neutron

The fact that Gravitational binding forces (Fg) of masses in the nucleus needs to be more than the destructive electromagnetic forces (Fem) created by the electrically positive environment of the nucleus,  (Fem < Fg) excess neutrons are required in the nuclei. However, even at the center of the nucleus neutrons keep their distinct identity, rather than lumping together to form one heavy neutron. Therefore, neutron can not be just a fuzzy mass but a well defined structure able to hold induced charges with precise demarcation of boundary with an insulating layer, more like a free standing capacitor. Which suggests that at least three particles with two sets of characteristics are required to create a neutron. For our model here, that has to be two particles capable of holding charges and one particle which provides insulation between these particles, similar to that of dielectric layer in the capacitor. Thus in this postulated model the neutron looks and behaves neutral for all practical purposes. However, within nuclei keeps separate and distinct identity and does not combine with other neutrons to form a one central heavy body.

The proposal here defers from the model independent analysis predicting the structure having negative charge on the surface, Positive charge in the next lower level and than neutral  mass. My model suggests that neutron is a free standing charged capacitor. This helps in keeping the distance between excess neutron in the nuclei. Otherwise there is nothing stopping these neutrons from lumping together to form a mini neutron star with in the nuclei. This model of Neutron is justified from the known fact that Neutron is heavier than Proton.

For elements other than Hydrogen, the nuclei becomes a chaotic environment. For Example, in case of

4He, two protons require their space and wants to be separate from each other as far as possible, and two neutrons are caught between the two protons as shown in figure 1.  From the reference frame of protons it is envisioned that Neutrons spin on its axis at very high rotational speed. One clockwise and other anticlockwise.

Model of nuclei

A new model of nuclei is proposed as shown in the figure 3. A spherical shell of excess neutrons with one neutron at the center of the shell surrounded by paired proton neutron (pn) shell.

For the stable nuclei system the electromagnetic forces needs to be balanced and gravitational forces maximized.  From the example of 4He above, it is envisioned that  elements are built, in this model, by Heavy Hydrogen nuclei (pn) as a building block and just enough excess neutrons to provide needed gravitational force for stability.

Energy levels (orbitals) in pn outer shell follows the similar shell structure of electrons, with K,L,M,N,O being primary shell and s, p, d, f, g sub shells with similar total charge particle capacity. However for excess neutron shell it differs, where a single neutron stays at the center of the nuclei when in excess. The energy level for that central neutron in this model is called “Foundation neutron” (Fn).

The Table 4 shows the placement of neutrons in each shell.

Nuclei Stability Analysis using above model

For Odd atomic number nuclei:

In the ‘p-n shell’ the outermost pair has no symmetry, however the excess neutron shell is symmetrical for all odd atomic number elements giving the stability and abundance. Referring to table 2 and table 4 , isotopes, with one excess neutron, has relative abundance in nature of 1 or close to 1,  The excess neutron takes the place of Fn.  The isotopes with 2 excess neutrons are all radio active which can be attributed to the asymmetry of neutron in unfilled K shell, which can hold up to 2 neutrons. When the K shell is completely filled as in the case of 41K, the nuclei is stable. Table 2 outlines isotopes and abundance for majority of elements, all follow the same principle and model fits perfectly with the exception of 14N with atomic number 7. Iodine has 21 excess neutrons, as we see in table 4, the outer most excess neutron shell is symmetrical, making it stable. All other elements follows.

For Even atomic number nuclei:

The stability is obtained from the pn shell. However, excess neutron shell  becomes asymmetric and depending on which sub shell, there is a room for additional excess neutrons and hence exhibits many stable isotopes with relative abundance. Theoretical probability calculation may prove this fact.

Instability and radio activity in heavy elements:

The neutron proton (np) pair in nuclei has capability to grow indefinitely. However as the heavier elements are built the inner excess neutron shell is large enough to interact with lower np shells, thus giving instability to the nuclei. e.g. for 238U there are 148 total neutrons and 54 excess neutrons.  A nuclei with 111 excess neutron will completely fill up the O shell. All elements after 209Bi are radio active, this shows that interaction of neutrons form excess neutron shell(inner shell) with pn shell is destructive when the N shell is half filled. Thus there is a upper limit to the size of the  inner excess neutron shell and this may be the reason for non existence of super heavy stable elements in nature.

Conclusion

This proposed model of nuclei, explains the stability and relative abundance of the nuclei. The nuclei(except for H and He) in this model is a shell with in a shell, where an innermost shell structure is formed with excess neutrons with one Fundamental foundation neutron (Fn) and the rest arranged in shell structure. Protons, form pair with neutron and form shell enclosing this excess neutron shell as shown in figure 3. The stability of the nuclei is a direct result of symmetrical placement of neutrons in the outer most shell of excess neutron shell. The same shell is responsible for many stable isotopes in even atomic number nuclei. The additional isotopes are possible if the outer shell of excess neutron shell holds odd number of neutrons. The nature of neutron is postulated here, the proof of which depends on future experiments.

References

Numerous Scientists’ and scholars’ exhausting work in development of periodic table, investigation of Isotopes is utilized and due credits are given. The list is too large to print here, but due credits are mentally given to all scientists.

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi

786 comments to Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

  • Yugo

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    What is your favorite movie?

    Regards,
    Yugo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Oliver Stahn,
    I thank you for your suggestion, our strategy is different, as you can understand from former comments I made in this blog. But, of course, I respect your opinion, since it derives from your experience.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gianni V.:
    you can contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herbert Gillis:
    As you well know, I respect all my competitors, but I never comment their work. If a theory works, there is only one way to understand it: if the theory does allow the production of plants which really work in the market, the theory is right; if the theory does not, it is wrong. All the rest is TDA ( Tongue-Displaced-Air).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herbert Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:

    After reading Joe Zawodny’s recent US patent application (and his video at NASA of January-12-2012) I noticed he said carbon was a suitable fuel for LENR (by reaction with hydrogen). I know you don’t agree with Zawodny’s theoretical interpretation, but my question is not about theory. What do you think of using carbon as alternative or a supplement to nickel? Carbon is much cheaper and more abundant. Part of the problem with using carbon is its non-metallic nature. It may not exhibit the lattice and electronic properties of a metal which are required for the reaction with hydrogen. Would it be possible to avoid this problem by using a metallic alloy of carbon in a device like the e-cat? For example; an alloy of carbon and a metal, which has overall metallic properties? Good luck and best wishes.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    I have been told that in your official E-Cat website http://ecat.com/ there is the important news that two Universities are already studying and testing your E-Cats.
    May I ask you if it is real?
    Maybe those Universities are in Bologna and Uppsala?
    I apologize to be so indiscreet but, as you know, we all are excited and follow every fact of E-Cats!!
    Kind regards,
    Italo R.

  • Oliver Stahn

    Mr. Rossi,

    Just some comments: I myself was an entrepreneur at the time the internet was in its infancy. There were many gifted developers with all kinds of projects and commercial expectations, and most applications that we have today already existed. There were many search engines, services like facebook etc., and many startup companies. When the big companies like Google emerged and Microsoft focused on the internet, it ended as a disaster for the many independent “small money” developers. For instance, Netscape who had the best browser, i.e. the most generic internet application thinkable, was not able to survive commercially. Other big money companies with no expertise and product at all, however were able to make big money and ruin the small creative ones, all by way of getting extensive funding from Wall Street.

    I believe you should look for a good concept of building up a company that could survive in the business. At some time you will lose your trade secrets and experience, and all of a sudden products will come from China, India, Malaysia etc., and these companies will be owned by some US big players. From then on you will earn nothing. Maybe you should partner with some better company and transfer your knowledge in return for getting a stake in that company, stay connected with the development and research department and focus only on the reactor itself, and hopefully find a good engineering team who can develop state of the art boilers, have a good legal IP department and a good company management.

    Sincerely
    Oliver Stahn

  • Gianni V.

    Dear Andrea,
    Is it possible to communicate directly with you, bypassing the present blog? If yes can you please send me yr direct email? You can send it to mine that you can find in the data base of present blog as a “required” field that will not be published. I have few confidential things to tell you.
    Thanks a lot.

    Regards
    Gianni V.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andre Blum:
    Please read the answer to Giuseppe B. of today.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giuseppe B.
    The 1 MW plant has been accepted and the sale has been confirmed after the October 28th test, as I said. We decided together with the Customer and National Instruments to make all the control systems and all the fixings of the gaskets in our factory of Bologna, instead of in the Customer’s place. The delivery will be made within one, or maximum 2 months, when all the works will have been completed. A misunderstanding, due to bad translation, has made thinK the plant was already in the place of the Customer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giuseppe B.

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I’m a really huge fan of E-cat, but I saw on your latest video the 1MW contanier still on the laboratory, and now I’m worried that the customer may have returned it to you, for some kind of problems.
    Is it the same container of October test, or it is another one? If it’s another can you confirm that the first one is performing good?

    Thank you for all, I can’t describe the respect for your work and especially for your person.
    Best regards.

  • Andre Blum

    Dear Mr Rossi,

    Following some discussion on vortex-l about the jan 12 interview on youtube, where it seems to show the 1 MW container in exactly the same spot as on the 28th of October:
    (1) Is that recent footage? Is the container still there today?
    (2) How does that relate to your earlier statement that the container was shipped?

    ..we were just wondering.

    Good luck!
    Andre

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Scott Hansen,
    I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Realist:
    Leonardo Corporation will become a great company, I hope a patrimony of all, indipendently from my person.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Realist

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    If it’s not too personal – do you have any inheritors/relatives – someone who in due time will continue your work and take over your future empire?

  • Scott Hansen

    Mr. Rossi
    I’m beginning to understand what you mean by energy integration, for example I don’t believe the Oil companies will be hurt so much financially. They use a lot of energy to produce and refine the oil. If they used your technology it would help their bottom line.
    I like how everyone benefits.
    Thank you again

  • Hello Andrea,

    Here is a thought experiment.

    — Take an E-Cat reactor core.

    — Run a cooling liquid through it, via a closed loop.

    — The loop of liquid is connected to a heat exchanger with a very large surface area.

    — A fan then blows ordinary air across the heat exchanger, and the heat then blows into a room.

    — The liquid in the loop is then cooled.

    — The cooled liquid is then re-circulated to the reactor core to continue the cycle.

    My thinking is that to regulate the energy production…

    A) The speed of the fan could be modulated.
    B) The flow rate provided by pump could be modulated.
    C) The radio frequency generator could be modulated.

    In the event the reactor core heated up beyond a certain temperature, the radio frequency generator could be cut off, the circulation of fluid could be increased, and the fan speed could be increased.

    In case of a power outage, a small battery could be embedded in the device to store a quantity of electrical power to power the fan and pumps for several minutes (to help with the cooling).

    Do think a setup like this could be feasible?

    Thanks.

    Hank Mills

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Harold Baker,
    Your idea is good and is a paradigmatic example of how the different energy sources are integrable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear JYD13:
    low efficiency,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Aussie Guy:
    1- it will be for the units that will produce electricity: not ready, yet
    2- when we will be able to make electricity the kits will be applicable to the existing e-cats
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Our specialist will help you, do not worry. It is possible, of course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tim Noakes:
    Worth thinking about.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andrea Mattalia:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    J.V.:
    Yes, but it is less efficient. The question is NOT stupid, by the way.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mark Saker:
    1- reactor stops automatically
    2- reactor stops automatically, unless there is a back up
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.
    Yes, it is the same: we are still working on it with National Instruments and with the Customer. It will take another month before it will be ready.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kev:
    Correct,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Kev

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Could you please expand a little on your earlier “sanitary water” remark.

    Would I be correct in assuming that you have made a breakthrough today that will enable the e-cat to be able to heat the closed water system for room heaters (radiators) AND also the “sanitary” water in the hot taps/faucets in the kitchen/bathroom. If so this is a significant leap in functionality which will enable the e-cat to directly replace current home boilers/heating systems – like for like.

  • Piero

    My goodness mr.Rossi, i checked your amazing story on the site you indicated to john46blog, and let me say your decision to move your business to the States makes perfect sense. We wish you success!

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    ho letto sul sito che ha segnalato la sua storia passata di cui avevo solo flash.
    Allucinante! Capisco la sua riottosità riguardo l’Italia.
    Già bene và che non ne fugga lontano per sempre.
    Gherardo

  • Italo R.

    Dear Ing. Rossi, I have watched this interview with you in Bologna realized on the 12th of January 2012
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=odkfAjqA4pc
    In it appears a 1 MW container.
    May I ask you if that container is the same used in the last test with ing. Fioravanti and already sold to your customer?
    Thank you.
    Kind regards,
    Italo R.

  • Mark Saker

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    What is the safety procedure in the following situations?

    1. Water is stopped so the reactor is dry.

    2. There is a power cut.

    I wish you every success that production begins this year.

    Thanks

    Mark

  • J.V.

    Hallo, dear Mr. Rossi, what about heating of €-cat with microwaves to start it? I´m sorry, other tasc only , maybe stupid … J.V.

  • Andrea Mattalia

    Buon giorno dr. Rossi !
    Sono mesi che la seguo e sappia che la supporto col cuore !
    Credo che questa non sia la solita Bufala Italiana !
    Forza che manca poco !
    Se possibile mi inserisca nei preordini !!!

    Sto gia facendo posto nel ripostiglio …. :)

  • Tim Noakes

    Dear Dr Rossi, I would like to develop Chris Calder’s idea about a room space heater some more. You must be aware of a very mature product on the market at present – electrically heated free standing oil filled radiators.

    1. A simple embodyment would be to replace the electrical heat source with a small (1-1.5kw) e-cat, whose heat would be circulated around inside the radiator panel by convection in the oil.

    2. If such an item was a fixed output (like the old electric fire) then it would fit the simpler application for room heating that Chris described.

    3.IF in addition it can be turned down or up, then, perhaps in a second generation device, you could have an (admittedly slow to respond) E-cat oil filled radiator with ‘some’ thermostatic behaviour.

    4. IF that is possible, then the whole domestic central heating paradigm will slowly get called into question where new heating systems are being installed (new houses/house rebuilds). Each room would have its own thermostatted space heating e-cat, end of story! No piping runs, no boiler, no circulating pump, no leaks…

    Worth thinking about?

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Thank you for your patience in responding to all our questions. For us non technical people it is difficult for us to envision how our E-Cat will interface with our current heating system. It might help a lot of people to hear how you envision this interface to my system, which is very common in the US. My system is a natural gas forced air system. My knowledge of this furnace……it is about two feet wide by five feet high and four feet long, it contains a gas burner and a fan to circulate hot air developed from the gas burner through duct work that runs throughout the house. How am I going to hook up my E-Cat to this system? Thanks.

  • AussieGuy

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Can you confirm the home E-Cat will be able to operate at 200 deg C (which you have stated is a stable operational temperature) with a high temperature coolant like diathermic oil?

    If not will a special model that can do this be available?

    If so will I be able to buy a heat exchanger / steam generator, fluid and circulation pump for the E-Cat to make 200 deg C steam from Leonardo or your distributors?

    Will this be a costed add-on to the basic E-Cat or will to be included in the basic price?

    Thanks on advance for your reply. How you find the time to share yourself with your forum and the world for your interviews is a very impressive effort to get your message out there and to explain how the E-Cat will function.

    Aussie Guy

  • nima

    Dear Rossi
    russian scientists have a theory for your reactor that i think might be interesting for you please take a look.

    multielectron catalysis theory A possible theory for rossi reactor

    http://ecatplanet.net/downloads/pdf/Reaktor_Rossi.pdf

  • nima

    Dear Rossi
    russian scientists have a theory for your reactor that i think might be interesting for
    you please take a look.

    http://ecatplanet.net/downloads/pdf/Reaktor_Rossi.pdf

  • JYD13

    Dear Mr Rossi

    What do you think about using micro-waves for initial heating of the E-Cat ?

    (I apologise for my mistakes, but I am a frenchman with very poor English language)

    With great respect

    JYD

  • Harold Baker

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I have a suggestion you might find interesting. I know that you are interested to generate electricity using ecat.
    My suggestion is to use ecat to generate electricity INDIRECTLY. You could build a factory to create solar panels. The factory would be powered by ecat. This would cover 90% of the cost of fabrication. The factory would also be automated to save labor expense. Then you could provide cheap solar energy, as well as cheap heat. What do you think?

  • Gianni V.

    Dear Andrea,

    Thanks for your prompt answer (to my nickname John46blog); I understand yr position and I knew about your old stories having red already time ago the site mentioned. Good to keep R&D in Italy, but having worked many years within a multinational company as a Product Manager, I know by experience that the distance and the time zones will represent some problems especially in this sensitive phase of product development and engineering. I hope that you have taken all the appropriate countermeasures to overcome possible problems. If you may need any help for your next steps in USA, Australia and Far East Countries, just let me know I have good connections there.
    Good success and good luck.
    Warm Regards
    Gianni V.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mark Szlazak:
    Our target is not car applications, we are focused to the home heaters.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark Szlazak

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    30 x 30 x 12 cm is to large for the application I mentioned. Is this a practical or theoretical minimum size? It doesn’t seem so to me but I do understand you have to focus your efforts at a particular size.

    Circulation heaters that are installed at the cars heater hoses are about the size of a beer or pop can. Are you familiar with the application I’m thinking about and is it even possible to do this with a smaller size E-cat type device?

    Thank you.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear john46blog:
    If we want to help Italy with this technology, we must develope it in the USA before. If we start in Italy, we will be stopped before beginning. If you want to understand what I am saying, please go to
    http://www.ingandrearossi.com
    Nevertheless, we will maintain in Italy the R&D stronghold we already have and will develope it; actually, we ARE developing it.
    Besides, this will become a world diffused tech, therefore production sites will be born around the World, Italy enclosed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jouni Toumela:
    The Ecat ill be controlled by our system: it will be fit for your existing system. It will be fit for all existing systems.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jeff D.,
    I appreciate your good will to help. The mechanisms are not those, though, anyway again thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul Heath:
    Our priority will be houses heating and conditioning, eventually electric power.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mark Szlazak:
    It will be cm 30 x 30 x 12 circa. Not able to make electricity yet. Able to make heat and sanitary water ( this is a new of today: resolved also this problem).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Stephen T.

    @ Jeff D.
    In MY ignorance I think your idea is great!
    Stephen

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