Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi
Msc Solid state Physics, Gujartat University, Gujarat, India
MS Computer Engineering, Univ of Lowell, Lowell, Mass, USA

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Abstract

Review of the periodic table and existing research on isotopes of the various elements of the periodic table is conducted and the attempt is made here to visualize the process of element formation.

The role of Neutron in element formation is investigated and found to be vital for existence of elements . In the new light, the new model of nucleus is proposed which explains the stability of the  nuclei and reason for multiple stable isotopes of elements.

Review of the Periodic Table

The inspection of the periodic table of elements reveal an interesting fact that for all elements other than Hydrogen, for element to be stable, number of Neutrons are always greater or equal, to the number of Protons in the nucleus.  The periodic table is analyzed with respect to the abundance in nature for the elements.

The fusion of Hydrogen to produce Helium can be envisioned as follows:

1H + 1H + 1H + 1H →  2H + 2N + 2e+ (1)

where 2e+ later annihilating to produce additional gamma radiation.

Since tremendous force is needed to keep four protons together during the formation of helium and emit 2 positrons, it is unlikely.  The mass of neutron is more than the mass of proton and this fact  alone negates the likeliness of the above scenario.

In another scenario, the formation of helium may be envisioned as four neutrons coming close together to form a stable nuclei of Helium as follows:
4N → 2N + 2P + 2e (2)
Here the mass of Neutron is higher than the Proton.  The Neutron releases electron to form proton. Also justifies the reason for the  Proton to be lighter than the Neutron.
Thus it is assumed that
  1. Neutrons are the building blocks for elements in nature.
  2. In the elements , other than hydrogen, neutron and proton form a pair (np) and keeps distinct identity.
  3. Excess neutrons stay at the center of the nuclei but keeps their distinct identity.
Using the above assumption the periodic table is analyzed by finding excess neutrons for all  stable isotopes of elements as follows:
Excess neutrons = Atomic mass – 2P where P is the number of Protons for the element
The relative abundance of Isotopes is obtained from the research papers and wikipedia and is included in the Table 1, 2 ,3. The relative abundance is indicative of the preferred state for the element (nuclei) in nature.
The following facts are found as a result of analysis:
For Odd atomic number nuclei:
  • Abundance of isotope is close to 100% when excess neutrons are odd count.
  • If the excess neutron count is even, the isotope is radio active.
  • Majority elements have only one Isotope.
  • Only Potassium has three isotopes, the one with 2 excess neutron is radio active with 0.001 relative abundance.
For Even atomic number nuclei:
  • Elements He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S are close to one in abundance with no excess neutron and maximum three isotopes.
  • Element Be has one excess neutron and one isotope, 100% abundance.
  • All other higher elements require four or more excess neutrons for the element to be abundant in nature and has up to 10 stable isotopes.
  • Element Ca is exception with 0 excess neutron and 97% abundance. However it is unstable with >E+21 a Half life.
Atomic number 43 (Tc) and 61 (Pm) has no stable isotopes in nature.
Thus from the above analysis, it looks like that all nuclei, stable or otherwise,  prefers to keep at least one neutron at the center of the nuclei from its excess count. The remaining excess neutrons stay very close to the center keeping its own identity. The other neutrons pair up with each proton and stay close together to the proton (like heavy hydrogen) but maintains its separate identity.

The nature prefers, for more complex nucleus, more neutrons than protons and creates a delicate balance to form a stable nuclei.

This balance of forces is so critical that in case of element F (the stable isotope is with  9 proton and 10 neutrons) The isotope 18F with 9 Protons and 9 Neutrons, with in 20 minutes decays and forms 18O which is stable with 8 protons and 10 Neutrons and gives up a e+ positron to convert proton to neutron and e+ and e- reaction produces Gama radiation.

Equation   18F → 18O + e+

Thus the existence of Neutron is vital to the existence of the universe itself, because without neutron, elements may not have been possible and hence the intelligence as we know today.

Structure of Neutron

The fact that Gravitational binding forces (Fg) of masses in the nucleus needs to be more than the destructive electromagnetic forces (Fem) created by the electrically positive environment of the nucleus,  (Fem < Fg) excess neutrons are required in the nuclei. However, even at the center of the nucleus neutrons keep their distinct identity, rather than lumping together to form one heavy neutron. Therefore, neutron can not be just a fuzzy mass but a well defined structure able to hold induced charges with precise demarcation of boundary with an insulating layer, more like a free standing capacitor. Which suggests that at least three particles with two sets of characteristics are required to create a neutron. For our model here, that has to be two particles capable of holding charges and one particle which provides insulation between these particles, similar to that of dielectric layer in the capacitor. Thus in this postulated model the neutron looks and behaves neutral for all practical purposes. However, within nuclei keeps separate and distinct identity and does not combine with other neutrons to form a one central heavy body.

The proposal here defers from the model independent analysis predicting the structure having negative charge on the surface, Positive charge in the next lower level and than neutral  mass. My model suggests that neutron is a free standing charged capacitor. This helps in keeping the distance between excess neutron in the nuclei. Otherwise there is nothing stopping these neutrons from lumping together to form a mini neutron star with in the nuclei. This model of Neutron is justified from the known fact that Neutron is heavier than Proton.

For elements other than Hydrogen, the nuclei becomes a chaotic environment. For Example, in case of

4He, two protons require their space and wants to be separate from each other as far as possible, and two neutrons are caught between the two protons as shown in figure 1.  From the reference frame of protons it is envisioned that Neutrons spin on its axis at very high rotational speed. One clockwise and other anticlockwise.

Model of nuclei

A new model of nuclei is proposed as shown in the figure 3. A spherical shell of excess neutrons with one neutron at the center of the shell surrounded by paired proton neutron (pn) shell.

For the stable nuclei system the electromagnetic forces needs to be balanced and gravitational forces maximized.  From the example of 4He above, it is envisioned that  elements are built, in this model, by Heavy Hydrogen nuclei (pn) as a building block and just enough excess neutrons to provide needed gravitational force for stability.

Energy levels (orbitals) in pn outer shell follows the similar shell structure of electrons, with K,L,M,N,O being primary shell and s, p, d, f, g sub shells with similar total charge particle capacity. However for excess neutron shell it differs, where a single neutron stays at the center of the nuclei when in excess. The energy level for that central neutron in this model is called “Foundation neutron” (Fn).

The Table 4 shows the placement of neutrons in each shell.

Nuclei Stability Analysis using above model

For Odd atomic number nuclei:

In the ‘p-n shell’ the outermost pair has no symmetry, however the excess neutron shell is symmetrical for all odd atomic number elements giving the stability and abundance. Referring to table 2 and table 4 , isotopes, with one excess neutron, has relative abundance in nature of 1 or close to 1,  The excess neutron takes the place of Fn.  The isotopes with 2 excess neutrons are all radio active which can be attributed to the asymmetry of neutron in unfilled K shell, which can hold up to 2 neutrons. When the K shell is completely filled as in the case of 41K, the nuclei is stable. Table 2 outlines isotopes and abundance for majority of elements, all follow the same principle and model fits perfectly with the exception of 14N with atomic number 7. Iodine has 21 excess neutrons, as we see in table 4, the outer most excess neutron shell is symmetrical, making it stable. All other elements follows.

For Even atomic number nuclei:

The stability is obtained from the pn shell. However, excess neutron shell  becomes asymmetric and depending on which sub shell, there is a room for additional excess neutrons and hence exhibits many stable isotopes with relative abundance. Theoretical probability calculation may prove this fact.

Instability and radio activity in heavy elements:

The neutron proton (np) pair in nuclei has capability to grow indefinitely. However as the heavier elements are built the inner excess neutron shell is large enough to interact with lower np shells, thus giving instability to the nuclei. e.g. for 238U there are 148 total neutrons and 54 excess neutrons.  A nuclei with 111 excess neutron will completely fill up the O shell. All elements after 209Bi are radio active, this shows that interaction of neutrons form excess neutron shell(inner shell) with pn shell is destructive when the N shell is half filled. Thus there is a upper limit to the size of the  inner excess neutron shell and this may be the reason for non existence of super heavy stable elements in nature.

Conclusion

This proposed model of nuclei, explains the stability and relative abundance of the nuclei. The nuclei(except for H and He) in this model is a shell with in a shell, where an innermost shell structure is formed with excess neutrons with one Fundamental foundation neutron (Fn) and the rest arranged in shell structure. Protons, form pair with neutron and form shell enclosing this excess neutron shell as shown in figure 3. The stability of the nuclei is a direct result of symmetrical placement of neutrons in the outer most shell of excess neutron shell. The same shell is responsible for many stable isotopes in even atomic number nuclei. The additional isotopes are possible if the outer shell of excess neutron shell holds odd number of neutrons. The nature of neutron is postulated here, the proof of which depends on future experiments.

References

Numerous Scientists’ and scholars’ exhausting work in development of periodic table, investigation of Isotopes is utilized and due credits are given. The list is too large to print here, but due credits are mentally given to all scientists.

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi

788 comments to Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    There has been some discussion on my E-Cat World Site about the possibility of creating a consortium to receive donations from
    people for the purchase of a 1 MW plant for the purpose of testing and evaluation.
    evaluation.

    Once the testing was complete the plant could be donated to a needy organization in need of heat — perhaps a hospital, desalination project, etc. (you could choose the final recipient)

    Would this be something you would approve of and cooperate with?

    Best regards,

    Frank Acland

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    my best guess about your customer is the USArmy for Afghanistan winter testing.
    Would be perfect for them.

    Please keep news flowing to the JONP. Nothing secret but provide updates.

    I have friends interested in the 1MW when it will be capable to produce electricity. My hope is about 330KW from 1MW thermal. Let us know.
    Gherardo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Mario,
    Grazie per i suggerimenti,
    cari saluti,
    A.R.

  • mario

    Gent.le Andrea Rossi,
    le sembrerà una ovvietà forse, ma considerare il suo prodotto un bene commerciale forse non le da del tutto merito, per completezza di osservazione.
    Il fatto è che necessariamente il core dell’impianto va sostituito ogni 6 mesi e di fatto l’acquisto di un e-cat deve essere visto come prezzo di accesso alla tecnologia e non l’acquisto di un bene. Infatti dopo 6 mesi, mesi più o mesi meno non importa, smette di funzionare. La ricarica sarà quindi un biglietto da staccare per continuare ad utilizzare una tecnologia solo in teoria acquistata.
    Io supporto l'”Effetto Rossi” e pertanto mi preme significarle quanto scrivo.
    Siccome l’Effetto Rossi avrà intrinsecamente la connotazione di servizio, mi sono esercitato a fare una valutazione di tendenza delle rirorse proprie o di terzi coinvolte nel processo di sviluppo e diffusione attraverso di scenari di distribuzione.
    Mi sono tremati i polsi, non tanto per l’avvio, ma per le dinamiche di potenziale crescita esponenziale dei mezzi NECESSARI a sostenere il servizio.
    Se fossi un suo nemico è esattamente qui che l’aspetterei al varco per far ramazza dei tutti i suoi sforzi.
    Occhio, caro Rossi, anche lei, inclusa la sua organizzazione, avete un limite di competenza. Le conseguenze non intenzionali delle sue scelte potrebbero comunque fare soffrire molte persone.
    La ringrazio e non le invidio le responsabilità. Solo per il coraggio di provarci, con la serietà delle tappe che ha imposto anche ha a se stesso, merita ogni bene.
    Faccia pagare il suo servizio un prezzo adeguato alla sostenibilità pianificata, e resti sempre indipendente dal sistema finanziario. Se dovrà rallentare la velocità non importa.
    mario

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Dear Joshi ,
    according to Mayer-Jensen theory, 20Ca40 and 8O16 could not be Magic Numbers.

    Unlike, according to their theory 14Si28 and 6C12 would have to be. But they are not.

    The reason why their theory fails is shown in this link, where I posted two pages of my book Quantum Ring Theory:
    http://discussiononanewnuclearmodel.blogspot.com/

    Regards
    WG

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Bhagirath Joshi wrote in December 12th, 2011 at 6:04 AM

    Dear WG and readers:

    I was surprised to find that my model solves the issues mentioned in her 1963 lecture of noble prize winner Maria Mayer. “

    Dear Joshi,
    the Hexagonal Floor Model proposed in my Quantum Ring Theory is also a shell model (but instead of having neutrons in the center, as proposed in your model, there is a central 2He4 in my model).

    The existence of magic numbers is explained in my book QRT.

    In Maria Mayer article she mentions some failures of the shell model, as for instance some nucleons as 2He3 do not fit to the Schimidt’s lines.
    In my book the magnetic moment of 2He3 is calculated, and agree to the nuclear data.

    Maria Mayer and Jensen awarded the Nobel Prize because they had explained the existence of the magic numbers.
    But in my book I show that there is a problem with their theory, because 6C would have to be magic number according to the theory, but it is not.

    Also, the binding energy of lightest nuclei as 1H2, 2He3, 2He4, 3Li, 4B, 5Be, 6C, 😯 cannot be calculated theoretically by considering the current nuclear theory.

    The binding energy of the ligthest nuclei is calculated in my book, and they are agree to the experimental data.

    regards
    wg

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paolo,
    Thank you very much for your very important question, which allows me to remember that the help of Prof. Sergio Focardi has been foundamental for the development of our work. We hired him as a Consultant for safety issues regarding radiations, but he also gave to me very important suggestions to make the job. I also want to remember that he has been the one who encouraged me to go on with this work. He has made together with me hunderds of tests and experiments and if I am arrived where I actually arrived I am deeply indebted with him.
    Again, thank you for your very important question.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • LENR4you

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    think not only in megawatts.
    Also µW are interesting.
    The world’s smallest Stirling engine measures a few micrometers. Built in Stuttgart Germany:
    http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-12-world-smallest-steam-micrometers.html

    That’s the advantage of LENR energy: Scalable Nuclear energy densities from µW to GW.

    Greetings LENR4you

  • Andrea Rossi

    WARNING: WE ARE UNDER AN ATTACK FROM SOMEBODY AND ALL THE COMMENTS WE RECEIVE ARE SPAMMED. WE THINK THAT IN ONE DAY WE WILL WIN ALSO AGAINST THIS ATTACK. IF YOU WILL NOT FIND THE COMMENTS YOU HAVE SENT IN THESE LAST 2 DAYS, PLEASE SEND THEM AGAIN IN THE NEXT DAYS, WHEN YOU WILL SEE THAT OUR INCOMING COMMENTS HAVE RECOVERED THEIR NORMAL FLOW RATE.
    WARM REGARDS,
    ANDREA ROSSI

  • Bhagirath Joshi

    Dear WG:

    I tried to post on your blog but could not.

    Applying the ‘excess neutron shell model’ for elements 14Si29, 16S33 and 18Ar37. These elements occupy p sub shell of M shell of ‘np’ shell with 2, four and six ‘np’ pairs respectively. This p shell can hold up to six np pairs. 14Si28 , 16S32, 18Ar36 all exhibit Q(b). The extra neutron provides enough stability to 14Si29 and 18Ar37. The charge distribution for Si and Ar is uniform but Sulphur has 4 out of 6 orbits populated, hence the charge distribution is not uniform eventhough it looks like it is uniform at first glance, this gives Q(b).

    Sincerely
    Bhagirath Joshi

    P.S. I am trying to understand your explanation and will post comment once I understand. Thanks

  • Bhagirath Joshi

    Dear WG and readers:

    I was surprised to find that my model solves the issues mentioned in her 1963 lecture of noble prize winner Maria Mayer. I am sure she would have come to the same model as I propose her, if she had the experimental data available as I did. After reading this ( I did not know about this lecture before today) I realized that my modified shell model perfectly explains all her questions. What a surprise support for my model. I am stunned.

    Here is the link.

    http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1963/mayer-lecture.pdf

    FYI

    Bhagirath Joshi

  • Karl-Heinz Braun

    Sorry, please read “lattice resonance penetration of protons” instead of “lattice resonance penetration of neutrons”.
    KHB

  • Karl-Heinz Braun

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Do you think that the works of Patrick Mayor (“Observing brownian motion in vibration-fluidized granular matter”) could be of any help in explaining what is going on inside your reactor? Are the nickel grains in some sort of self-soustained brownian motion, suspended in a H2-atmosphere?
    This would be the explanation for why the nickel powder grains have to be of a certain (optimum) size. Too big they would not “take off”, too small their surface curbature would not allow for lattice resonance penetration of neutrons.
    Best regards,
    Karl-Heinz Braun

  • Scott Hansen

    I along with many of us really appreciate your willingness to address our questions. If you can think of a date to have a major event or deadline for the next 1MW plant it help us that are eagerly waiting for signs of progress, for this is history in the making.

    Thank you very much!

  • Kim Patterson

    Free energy = Free money

    The Banker and the Free energy
    cannot exist for any time together.

    This IS the Crux of the situation

    I wish you all the success in this
    world Andrea Rossi.

    Respect
    Kim

  • Ron

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    Have you seen the Opcon Powerbox? Maybe it would suite the E-Cat temeratureinterval better for the production of electricity.

    Good luck with the progress off your work. For mankind i hope you succeed.

    Best Regards
    Ron

  • Paolo

    Salve Rossi sono ormai mesi che la seguo sul suo blog e che faccio il tifo per lei, ho anche prenotato il suo e-cat. Ma volevo chiederle della figura di Focardi di cui mi ha colpito la sua umiltà, la sua preparazione e la sua classe. Qual’è stato il suo ruolo nella sua scoperta, Sarebbe giusto parlare anche di lui dal momento che tra qualche tempo sicuramente le saranno finalmente resi giusti onori ? Capisco che lei sia preso totalmente dal suo piano commerciale e che forse il suo riconoscimento personale di inventore vada in secondo piano, ma era per dare a Cesare ciò che è di Cesare. Non so dico stupidaggini ,ma questa è la mia impressione vedendo l’interviste di Focardi. Le auguro il pieno successo e il mio appoggio (credo di star contribuendo alla diffusione della sua scoperta, completamente snobbata dai media e lo faccio molto volentieri. La cosa mi ha preso fortemente). Se non può rispondere sul blog la prego di farlo privatamente. Saluti

  • Dear Bhagirath, I dealt with the structuring side of mass with regards the pattern of the four helical trajectories etc.. The transmutation aspect of a created mass, that is in nature, due to age and associated in certain instances with radioactivity is with regards to the evolutionary cycle of the evolving mass within the structure of four helical trajectories and is the result of the distance traveled upon the diametrical dimension of the structuring unit due the mass entering zones of greater positivity. The apex of the pyramid is where absolute fusion of the created structure takes place and from where fission rays are emitted with regards density values. The apex of the pyramid should be divided into four levels. The base level of the apex is the Aether level where the total Aether of the created structure is fizzed off. These Aether rays are of a low velocity and of a long wave that permeates the entire structuring unit and creates a retardation barrier with regards the higher velocity rays above. The level above Aether is from where the Gaseous rays are emitted and these too serve as a retardation barrier with regards the higher velocity rays from above. The next level above is the Liquid level from where the liquid rays are emitted and again these serve as a retardation barrier from the higher velocity rays above. The final level being the most uppermost is from where high velocity solid rays are emitted and are associated with semi solid mass (not the mass with the maximum latent energy that could, by future reference, be termed a cinder with little active resonance). Four planets exist within the apex of the pyramid at any one time. Every planet goes through these four levels of destruction and within each of these four levels are four values of a ray with regards atomic density and therefore, sixteen rays. These sixteen represent a micro system of the macro with regards the physical being an image of the overriding macro structuring systems/system. This overriding system of the atomic dimensions is comprised of four planetary dimensions of a neutral state i.e. fully formed and functional of isotopic values. These four planets are within a Solar dimension and there are four Solar dimensions to one Cosmic and four Cosmic dimensions to one dimension of a Y value structure and four Y value dimensions that are enclosed within the Absolute static barrier layer of the Absolute creating force. The Y values represent the Aether dimension of the macro structure, the planets represent the solid dimensions with two dimensions of density between. Evolution progresses forward and cycles in progressions through this vast system. Only by the none physical, forming physical structure is this process possible and this is where latent energy is of vital importance with perhaps the question ‘whats it all about’?.

    Latent energy contains a positive gravity value that is directly related to ‘the law of economy’ and that in turn is related to an aspect of quality. The more positive gravity a structure possesses the better the quality. Consequently, only the best quality with regards latent energy is able to escape from the apex of the pyramid by being ejected out into the negative zone of the above more positive neutral cube where it is then drawn further within. This ‘law of economy’ is directly related to the emission of the rays and the circumferential dimensions that they track. The greater the circumference the longer the length of the diametrical dimension they travel and consequently the more degree of fusion they undergo. In the negative zone of formation there are four zones/stages of construction, 1st being solidity, 2nd being liquidity, 3rd being gaseousness and finally the Aether dimension. Within the neutral dimension between that which has been created and that which has been destroyed are four zones/stages of planetary development that could be referred to as neutral periods of planetary isotopic development. Beneath/prior to are four zones of construction. 1st zone is the ‘black hole’/constructor, 2nd zone solid formative, 3rd zone liquid formative, 4th zone gaseous formative, 5th zone Aether communicator none formative. Thereby, 3 zones of physical in the formative dimension and 4 zones of physical in the neutral dimension this makes a total of seven stages of becoming/creating between two Absolutes.

    Isotopes of the elements are related to environmental potentiality both from within the forces of the Earth and the exterior forces of the rays. Because of duration in the formation of the elements they submit to a disparity in aging and can thereby form a sort of transmutation spectrum within there given grades. To transmute an element has to increase its gravity value both its positive value and its negative value. Its the negative gravity of structure/elements that instigates the evolutionary cycle of transmutation. To transmute, an element must lose a degree of its positive gravity value. This is caused by penetration of its nuclei by a particle that reduces the size dimension and thereby increases its volume dimension (to lose size is to gain volume and to lose volume is to gain size with regards dimensions). Thereby the exterior Aether dimension evaporates and the latent neutron shell becomes exposed to exterior bombardment of exterior electron forces. This activity continues until the size dimension stops expanding due to internal pressure of the nuclei with that of the latent neutron shell. When the activity ceases, due to a balance of potential between inner core and outer environment, the unit cools down the exterior Aether dimension is once again established by the regaining of its positive gravity value. The proton zone being the apex of the pyramid also shrinks back together with the proton that now contains more energy because of absorption during its period of expansion/readjustmment. Uranium is a classic old element that is disintegrating due to its age and environment. This element in nature has its benefits by helping to break down elements and thereby aid evolution in the mineral Kingdom. Four stages of none reversible transmutation occur in the apex of the pyramid due to fusion absolute with regards environment. 1st stage a planet loses its Aether dimension and is labeled Mercury because its mobile field of communication with regards cyclic flow throughout the structure fizzes out into the overriding structuring field. The Aether dimension of a fully formed planet is not regarded as physical material, only the solid, the liquid and gas are. Thereby the planet is re-labeled Saturn when the gas dimension is fizzed off. This leavesa planet of water with no atmosphere and is labeled Neptune. After Neptune the planet becomes solid rock and is labeled Uranus. Thereby, three physical bodies with regards three physical rays occupy the apex of the pyramid where they undergo Absolute fusion to form a ‘white hole’ of S.U.N. rays.

    Density of structure i.e. quality determins who steals what and which one breaks under the interacting influences. Temperature and pressure play an important part with regards particle velocity, disintigration and subsequent penetration of an unrelated inner core. I am of the opinion that hydrogen is on the 4th level of Aether. When the Aether level sunk due to positive gravity of the structure only three dimensions became fully mobile with communicating properties. The 4th dimension that sits on the top level of the Aether dimension in the apex of the pyramid contains sufficient positive gravity to be classified as a dimension of gas but a gas that easily breaks down under temperature/pressure in the presence of an isotope with a potential to accept and transmute by an active Aether presence of positivity. N.B. Perhaps this is why hydrogen is able to roam i.e. communicate because it is of the Aether familty. I do find both yours and Wladimirs information interesting as you deal with specifics of the subject not the general overview.
    Regards Eric Ashworth.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Fiorenzani:
    I know ORC. For us the efficiency is too low. Is a very good system for waste heat streams.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Fiorenzani

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    Do you anything about ORC ? ORC is
    a product by Turboden and it could be
    a valid solution for e cat to convert
    thermal power in electric power

    warm regards

    Francesco Fiorenzani

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Italo,
    La ringrazio.
    Buon Natale e Buon Anno a Lei.
    A.R.

  • Italo

    Gentile ing. Rossi, moltissimi le scrivono per suggerirle azioni e comportamenti diversi da quelli che lei ha scelto, oppure per domandarle con aria innocente informazioni su ciò che sta facendo o con quali enti o persone è in contatto, o sui segreti del suo Reattore.
    Ovviamente lei fa bene a non acoltarli e a proseguire per la sua strada.
    Soprattutto in questa delicata fase dei suoi lavori è logico che nessuna importante informazione (capace magari di portarle danni) debba essere divulgata.

    Al di là comunque di coloro che lei chiama snakes, puppeteers and competitors, c’è una infinità di persone che fa il tifo per lei e che segue tutto ciò che lei fa attingendo alle (scarne) informazioni raccolte qua e là. E questa è la normale ed onesta curiosità di tutti noi, in attesa di nuovi e sempre più importanti sviluppi.
    Tanti Auguri per le prossime Festività e, soprattutto, di Buon Lavoro!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wladimir Guglinski:
    Your logo is nice. I will conserve it for the final choice.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco S.:
    the charge will be changed avery 6 months, the refill cost will be few euro.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    I have a new hoby: I am criating some ideas for the eCat logo.

    I have posted some of them here in this link:
    http://wladigpinturas2010.blogspot.com/2011/12/1.html

    regards
    WG

  • Henrik.

    I sit in front of my TV and watch the Nobel dinner, really hope to see you there next year,
    You will be the guest of honor.

  • Bhagirath Joshi

    Dear Reader:

    To show the relation between Excess neutron count and Half life of isotope, I have analyzed in detail element number 61, namely Promethium. This element is highly unstable and trace amount is found in nature, mostly fission byproduct. It is created in lab only.

    Here is the link to the analysis. The data is obtained from wikipedia. The graph is mine.

    When you apply my model to these isotopes, you will find that spin is calculated correctly for all isotopes.

    http://www.rudramweb.com/documents/Pm_isotopes_Relation_bet_Excess_Neutrons_and_Half_life_Pm.pdf

    In the data you will notice that as more and more neutrons are added the maximum half life of 17.7 years occurs at 23 excess neutrons, at 24 half life is 5.53 Years, at 25 n half life is 2.63 years and at 26 n 5.4 days and than it goes down drastically.

    Enjoy

    Bhagirath Joshi

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    To the readers of Rossi’s blog:

    My discussion with B. Joshi herein is now in the following link:
    http://discussiononanewnuclearmodel.blogspot.com/

    Regards
    WG

  • Marco S.

    Dear Andrea Rossi
    I’m your big fan and a subscriber for 1 10KW ECat that I hope to use for warming my home. I’d like to know how much approx. will it take before a Ni-H charge will need to be replaced (considering a the medium autumn-winter usage here in Bologna) and the approx. cost for one recharge.
    Many thanks in advances and keep up your good work.

    Marco S.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Fiorenzani:
    As I already repeated many times, all the R&D work we are doing with our Consultants is totally confidential and we are not going to give any information about it. If reports will be made, it will not be before 1 year from now, and such information will regard only the data we will deem publicable, since all the R&D is paid by us, not by the taxpayer, so that it will be totally proprietary.
    We will not even disclose the names of the persons which will make the job.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco Fiorenzani

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    In your opinion the collaboration with University of Bologna
    will start before the next March or not?

    thank you

    Francesco Fiorenzani

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco Morici:
    1- I did not promise to install a webcam, I just said I would have tried to find a way to do it, if possible, when a Customer could accept it
    2- We will do it, if possible, not before some month, when we will have plants in stable daily operation
    3- We will inform our Readers if and when it will be possible.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Good morning Ing. Rossi,

    with reference to Your promise to install a webcam so as to spread streaming pictures of the working 1MW plant, I will ask You a prayer.

    I would, if possible, that one of the first images taken by the webcam will be a long and powerful (obviously in safety) jet of steam released from the plant into the atmosphere to show the energy produced by the plant, maybe better during self-sustained mode.
    It could be a beautiful gift for Christmas for all those people that follow with passion and from long time Your hard work on the E-Cat.
    I hope that the Customer will be not contrary about this.

    Please would you consider this suggestion and I would like to know if the webcam will become operative before Christmas.
    Best wishes and Happy 2012.

    Kind Regards

    Franco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Neil Taylor:
    1- yes
    2- working strongly
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine:
    1- I think yes
    2- Self sustaining will be longer, I think, but I never get opinions before real operation
    3- Of course your pre-order has been accepted !!!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Aussie Guy:
    1- Should arrive up to 400 Celsius
    2- I suppose yes
    Best Wishes to you,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear James Arness:
    1- 20 was the number I remembered when I answered, but I was wrong. Yesterday I have been precise because the same day I worked, report at hand, with the Customer to study the control systems which we are commissioning to National Instruments, so that I was very fresh in memory.
    2- all these data have been recorded, obviously, by the Consultant and his report is not publicable.
    3- the water pumps brought the water in the common rail which feeds the reactors and the common rail is in higher position respect the circuit.
    The circuit is complex and based upon a geodynamic design that, anyway, is proprietary for obvious reasons. No more particulars of it will be given.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Arness

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yesterday you wrote:

    “Dear Franco Morici:
    The Consultant of the Customer measured a pressure of 230- 240 mm in water column in the steam output pipe near the thermocouple where the temperature has been recorded.”

    I seem to remember that earlier you have stated that this pressure was no more than 20 mm water column. Although very important neither of these values or how they were measured are recorded in the test protocol.

    Also 240 mm water column would not be sufficient to lift the water to the open return water pool. An additional pressure drop is also needed for transportation of steam / water through the pipes, condensors and hoses.

    Could you please further clarify this matter?

    Kind regards James Arness

  • AussieGuy

    Dear Andrea,

    Congratulations on selecting the primary circuit fluid. May I ask what will be the delivered steam temperature? Will this high temperature version of the 1 MW E-Cat plant include the heat exchanger (steam generator) and primary circuit fluid circulation pump?

    Best regards to you and your family for the holiday season,
    AG

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1) Does the selection of the new Heat Transfer Fluid for the primary circuit/(loop) improve the stability of the plant in self-sustain mode compared to what you have been using?

    2) If the goal is to generate electrical power, how important is it to have the capability of a long interval in self-sustain mode (e.g. 12-24 hours, vs 4-6 hrs) since you can always feed back some electric power to the heaters. (Loss of external electricity is not as serious.)

    3) Am I on the list for the Home E-Cat? I have two cats in my house but this third cat would only have to be fed (and cleaned up after) every 6 months.

    Thank you,

    Joseph

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    As one who has signed up to receive a home plant when they become available I am curious to know if you have attained the 10,000 unit potential orders you are shooting for? Can you tell us the number of requests received to date, or if you have achieved your stated goals, yes or no?

    Also, I would be happy to hear of your progress with the heat to electrical conversion for the household e-cat…

    God speed with your endeavors for all mankind,
    Neil Taylor

  • Here’s our latest compilation:

    http://pesn.com/2011/12/08/9601978_E-Cat_Weekly_December8/

    E-Cat Weekly — December 8, 2011 – The past 9 days-ish, have seen around 35 unique stories posted about Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat from the near dozen dedicated sites as well as from at least 9 mainstream sources. The main highlights include Rossi agreeing to do a live, streaming video of a 1 MW plant; release of documents from NASA; a call by a MU vice chancellor to solve the cold fusion puzzle. (PESN; December 8, 2011)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steve:
    We are working very hard to make our plants. Today, for example, we have finally selected the primary liquid that will run through the primary circuit to make electric power, a very important achievement along the path of the evolution of out plants, working with our Customer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Nick Pourmi:
    We do not give priority to world press conferences. We give priority to make plants, in this period. This is time to work, not to talk.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco Morici:
    The Consultant of the Customer measured a pressure of 230- 240 mm in water column in the steam output pipe near the thermocouple where the temperature has been recorded.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Nick Pourmi

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    After all the evidence submitted from your work throughout the year, there is still to these days a deafening roar of unbelief that vested interest-driven rattlesnakes around the world make.

    Why don’t you call for an international press conference in which to state publicly all the achievements you surpass and threats you are facing?
    Best wishes,
    Nick Pourmi

  • Steve

    Caro Andrea
    Mi chiedo che e le chiedo una cosa : quando Lei e altri Suoi importanti colleghi definiscono la Sua straordinaria invenzione una rivoluzione mondiale , quasi epica , a che vi riferite ? Pensate che possa cambiare economicamente il mondo reale in cui viviamo? mi riferisco al lavoro , alle bollette , alla spesa del mese ?
    Lo chiedo perchè , forse Lei è molto occupato col lavoro di sviluppo dell’energy catalyzer , ma in europa sta scoppiando il finomondo .
    La speculazione finanziaria sta facendo disastri , milioni di italiani subiranno gravissimi tagli e disoccupazione .
    Caro Andrea , fai in fretta!!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John:
    The foundamental mistake you are making is ignore the fact that we are selling our plants. As for the IP property issues, I already answered to this many times, I cannot repeat the same answers more then 10 times…
    Thank you anyway for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Silvano Mattioli:
    I cannot give information of the reactor.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Silvano Mattioli

    Viste le ridotte dimensioni della cella di reazione ha pensato di utilizzare la stessa in un normale scaldabagno per l’acqua industriale di serie.
    Inserirebbe in luogo della resistenza un cilindro che contiene bomboladi H2 schermo elettronica e cella di reazione.

    Il primo vantaggio è l’immediata commercializzazione delle celle anche in grande scala essendo interesse stesso dei produttori modificare le resistenze, in secondo luogo le darebbe la possibilità di acquisire partner IDRAULICI e di produzione seriali di elettrodomestici utili allo scopo di un rapido sviluppo dei prototipi fin ora realizzati…

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