Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi
Msc Solid state Physics, Gujartat University, Gujarat, India
MS Computer Engineering, Univ of Lowell, Lowell, Mass, USA

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Abstract

Review of the periodic table and existing research on isotopes of the various elements of the periodic table is conducted and the attempt is made here to visualize the process of element formation.

The role of Neutron in element formation is investigated and found to be vital for existence of elements . In the new light, the new model of nucleus is proposed which explains the stability of the  nuclei and reason for multiple stable isotopes of elements.

Review of the Periodic Table

The inspection of the periodic table of elements reveal an interesting fact that for all elements other than Hydrogen, for element to be stable, number of Neutrons are always greater or equal, to the number of Protons in the nucleus.  The periodic table is analyzed with respect to the abundance in nature for the elements.

The fusion of Hydrogen to produce Helium can be envisioned as follows:

1H + 1H + 1H + 1H →  2H + 2N + 2e+ (1)

where 2e+ later annihilating to produce additional gamma radiation.

Since tremendous force is needed to keep four protons together during the formation of helium and emit 2 positrons, it is unlikely.  The mass of neutron is more than the mass of proton and this fact  alone negates the likeliness of the above scenario.

In another scenario, the formation of helium may be envisioned as four neutrons coming close together to form a stable nuclei of Helium as follows:
4N → 2N + 2P + 2e (2)
Here the mass of Neutron is higher than the Proton.  The Neutron releases electron to form proton. Also justifies the reason for the  Proton to be lighter than the Neutron.
Thus it is assumed that
  1. Neutrons are the building blocks for elements in nature.
  2. In the elements , other than hydrogen, neutron and proton form a pair (np) and keeps distinct identity.
  3. Excess neutrons stay at the center of the nuclei but keeps their distinct identity.
Using the above assumption the periodic table is analyzed by finding excess neutrons for all  stable isotopes of elements as follows:
Excess neutrons = Atomic mass – 2P where P is the number of Protons for the element
The relative abundance of Isotopes is obtained from the research papers and wikipedia and is included in the Table 1, 2 ,3. The relative abundance is indicative of the preferred state for the element (nuclei) in nature.
The following facts are found as a result of analysis:
For Odd atomic number nuclei:
  • Abundance of isotope is close to 100% when excess neutrons are odd count.
  • If the excess neutron count is even, the isotope is radio active.
  • Majority elements have only one Isotope.
  • Only Potassium has three isotopes, the one with 2 excess neutron is radio active with 0.001 relative abundance.
For Even atomic number nuclei:
  • Elements He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S are close to one in abundance with no excess neutron and maximum three isotopes.
  • Element Be has one excess neutron and one isotope, 100% abundance.
  • All other higher elements require four or more excess neutrons for the element to be abundant in nature and has up to 10 stable isotopes.
  • Element Ca is exception with 0 excess neutron and 97% abundance. However it is unstable with >E+21 a Half life.
Atomic number 43 (Tc) and 61 (Pm) has no stable isotopes in nature.
Thus from the above analysis, it looks like that all nuclei, stable or otherwise,  prefers to keep at least one neutron at the center of the nuclei from its excess count. The remaining excess neutrons stay very close to the center keeping its own identity. The other neutrons pair up with each proton and stay close together to the proton (like heavy hydrogen) but maintains its separate identity.

The nature prefers, for more complex nucleus, more neutrons than protons and creates a delicate balance to form a stable nuclei.

This balance of forces is so critical that in case of element F (the stable isotope is with  9 proton and 10 neutrons) The isotope 18F with 9 Protons and 9 Neutrons, with in 20 minutes decays and forms 18O which is stable with 8 protons and 10 Neutrons and gives up a e+ positron to convert proton to neutron and e+ and e- reaction produces Gama radiation.

Equation   18F → 18O + e+

Thus the existence of Neutron is vital to the existence of the universe itself, because without neutron, elements may not have been possible and hence the intelligence as we know today.

Structure of Neutron

The fact that Gravitational binding forces (Fg) of masses in the nucleus needs to be more than the destructive electromagnetic forces (Fem) created by the electrically positive environment of the nucleus,  (Fem < Fg) excess neutrons are required in the nuclei. However, even at the center of the nucleus neutrons keep their distinct identity, rather than lumping together to form one heavy neutron. Therefore, neutron can not be just a fuzzy mass but a well defined structure able to hold induced charges with precise demarcation of boundary with an insulating layer, more like a free standing capacitor. Which suggests that at least three particles with two sets of characteristics are required to create a neutron. For our model here, that has to be two particles capable of holding charges and one particle which provides insulation between these particles, similar to that of dielectric layer in the capacitor. Thus in this postulated model the neutron looks and behaves neutral for all practical purposes. However, within nuclei keeps separate and distinct identity and does not combine with other neutrons to form a one central heavy body.

The proposal here defers from the model independent analysis predicting the structure having negative charge on the surface, Positive charge in the next lower level and than neutral  mass. My model suggests that neutron is a free standing charged capacitor. This helps in keeping the distance between excess neutron in the nuclei. Otherwise there is nothing stopping these neutrons from lumping together to form a mini neutron star with in the nuclei. This model of Neutron is justified from the known fact that Neutron is heavier than Proton.

For elements other than Hydrogen, the nuclei becomes a chaotic environment. For Example, in case of

4He, two protons require their space and wants to be separate from each other as far as possible, and two neutrons are caught between the two protons as shown in figure 1.  From the reference frame of protons it is envisioned that Neutrons spin on its axis at very high rotational speed. One clockwise and other anticlockwise.

Model of nuclei

A new model of nuclei is proposed as shown in the figure 3. A spherical shell of excess neutrons with one neutron at the center of the shell surrounded by paired proton neutron (pn) shell.

For the stable nuclei system the electromagnetic forces needs to be balanced and gravitational forces maximized.  From the example of 4He above, it is envisioned that  elements are built, in this model, by Heavy Hydrogen nuclei (pn) as a building block and just enough excess neutrons to provide needed gravitational force for stability.

Energy levels (orbitals) in pn outer shell follows the similar shell structure of electrons, with K,L,M,N,O being primary shell and s, p, d, f, g sub shells with similar total charge particle capacity. However for excess neutron shell it differs, where a single neutron stays at the center of the nuclei when in excess. The energy level for that central neutron in this model is called “Foundation neutron” (Fn).

The Table 4 shows the placement of neutrons in each shell.

Nuclei Stability Analysis using above model

For Odd atomic number nuclei:

In the ‘p-n shell’ the outermost pair has no symmetry, however the excess neutron shell is symmetrical for all odd atomic number elements giving the stability and abundance. Referring to table 2 and table 4 , isotopes, with one excess neutron, has relative abundance in nature of 1 or close to 1,  The excess neutron takes the place of Fn.  The isotopes with 2 excess neutrons are all radio active which can be attributed to the asymmetry of neutron in unfilled K shell, which can hold up to 2 neutrons. When the K shell is completely filled as in the case of 41K, the nuclei is stable. Table 2 outlines isotopes and abundance for majority of elements, all follow the same principle and model fits perfectly with the exception of 14N with atomic number 7. Iodine has 21 excess neutrons, as we see in table 4, the outer most excess neutron shell is symmetrical, making it stable. All other elements follows.

For Even atomic number nuclei:

The stability is obtained from the pn shell. However, excess neutron shell  becomes asymmetric and depending on which sub shell, there is a room for additional excess neutrons and hence exhibits many stable isotopes with relative abundance. Theoretical probability calculation may prove this fact.

Instability and radio activity in heavy elements:

The neutron proton (np) pair in nuclei has capability to grow indefinitely. However as the heavier elements are built the inner excess neutron shell is large enough to interact with lower np shells, thus giving instability to the nuclei. e.g. for 238U there are 148 total neutrons and 54 excess neutrons.  A nuclei with 111 excess neutron will completely fill up the O shell. All elements after 209Bi are radio active, this shows that interaction of neutrons form excess neutron shell(inner shell) with pn shell is destructive when the N shell is half filled. Thus there is a upper limit to the size of the  inner excess neutron shell and this may be the reason for non existence of super heavy stable elements in nature.

Conclusion

This proposed model of nuclei, explains the stability and relative abundance of the nuclei. The nuclei(except for H and He) in this model is a shell with in a shell, where an innermost shell structure is formed with excess neutrons with one Fundamental foundation neutron (Fn) and the rest arranged in shell structure. Protons, form pair with neutron and form shell enclosing this excess neutron shell as shown in figure 3. The stability of the nuclei is a direct result of symmetrical placement of neutrons in the outer most shell of excess neutron shell. The same shell is responsible for many stable isotopes in even atomic number nuclei. The additional isotopes are possible if the outer shell of excess neutron shell holds odd number of neutrons. The nature of neutron is postulated here, the proof of which depends on future experiments.

References

Numerous Scientists’ and scholars’ exhausting work in development of periodic table, investigation of Isotopes is utilized and due credits are given. The list is too large to print here, but due credits are mentally given to all scientists.

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi

796 comments to Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco Morici:
    Sorry, confidential info.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andrea Suriani:
    Thank you and best Wishes to you!
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Felize:
    Sorry, confidential info.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Felize

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Congratulations for the engineering step that you are carrying out.
    Could you disclose the type of primary fluid that you are going to use for producing electrical power? Is the same fluid that will be used in the 10 KW home ecat?

    Best wishes for a 2012 full of power! :-)

    Felize

  • ANDREA SURIANI

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I really hope that in 2012 the world will have the chance to recognize the incredible achievement you have accomplished together with Prof. Focardi. Who knows, maybe it needs to be 2012 before the media realize that 2011 was the year of cold fusion, and only a few noticed.
    My best wishes for the new year.

    Andrea Suriani

  • Dear Ing. Rossi,

    as I assumed in my rough calculations at Link
    that Your system probably uses enriched Nichel.

    Please, “if possible”, could You tell me how many natural Nichel You need to get 10 Kg of enriched Nichel ?
    (I undenstand that this could be confidential data, so the order of magnitude is enough).
    Best wishes for your valuable work and Happy New Year
    Kind Regards

    Franco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Neil Taylor:
    You are right, besides I think that alternative energy sources, limiting the necessity of fossil sources, will limit war sources.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear P.G. Sharrow:
    Best Wishes to you from all of us!
    Andrea Rossi

  • P.G.Sharrow

    Andrea Rossi and all;
    I want to wish all a happy and prosperous New Year. pg

  • mrb

    Andrea: replace the nickel with chromium, specifically the stable isotope Cr 54.

    A fringe theory predicts that if LENR is possible with Ni-H, then Cr-H should be too. see http://vixra.org/abs/1112.0043

  • Masatoshi ONO,

    Matches can be a weapon as can my lawn mower – so what’s your point?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Masatoshi Ono:
    Thank you for your important comment. The E-Cat is not fit to make weapons, specifically, but everything can become a weapon if focused in that direction. I will never work in that direction. I am not an expert of weapons, actually I never dealt with this issue and I am not at all interested to it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Masatoshi ONO

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    I wish you all the good luck in the world for the new year. May your endeavour succeed. That would be a great leap for humankind. However, I’m a little worried that the e-cats can somehow, against your good intentions, be used as a weapon. Is that possible?
    Best regards

    Masatoshi ONO

  • Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    re: Neil Taylor’s suggestion, here’s a video on that technology: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43jv00l7pa0
    It may require higher heat than the eCat provides.

    Sincerely,
    Iggy Dalrymple

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland:
    When you make electric power you have an efficiency of, say, 30-33%. Therefore the remaining 67-70% is availableas thermal energy.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul Heat:
    It depends on your consumes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul Heath

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    As I understand it, with the second generation ecat you can make energy and a small amount of heat. To have continuous heat and energy available at the same time, it would probably make sense to have 2 ecat’s for home use? One for heat and one (second generation ecat) for driving the electrical home appliances. Can you confirm that idea?

    Best Regards,
    Paul Heath

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    For the second generation E-cat unit you say a “minor amount of heat” will be available after thermal energy is used for electrical production.

    1. Will this minor amount of heat be enough for heating/air conditioning for the average home?

    2. Do you think a home might need two E-cat units — one for heat, one for electricity?

    Thanks very much!

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul Heath:
    The electric energy will arrive with the second generation of E-Cats: in that case you will have to spend thermal energy to make electricity and a minor amount of heat will be at your disposition. The electric energy kit will be applyable to the first generation E-Cats too.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kai Tonder:
    Now I understand. For the Jacuzzi and the warm up of the house yes, for the battery not until the electric power production will be assessed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rob Gaul:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Neil Taylor:
    Thank you, I am going to study also this,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    This NEW technology for converting heat to electricity may be a possibility for marrying with your E-Cat. Here is the companies website link:
    http://www.etalim.com/index.php

  • Rob Gaul

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Please add my name to your list of buyers for a 10kw e-cat unit. I would very much like to order one as soon as possible.

    Thank you and I wish you a multitude of succuesses this year and a quick turn around on your request for a Patent accross the world.

    Rob Gaul

  • kai tønder

    Rossi,

    Joke? Not at all, of course it will be used to heat the hut too. But I had hoped I could use it to warm the water in a jacuzzi as well.

    Looking forward to your offer.

    Best regards
    K.T

  • Paul Heath

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    Before long, if the e-cat takes off like I believe it will, you’ll probably won’t have time for this blog anymore. So while you’re still able to read this personally, I’d like to thank you for giving the earth a nearly free, clean energy source and especially for your decision to make the e-cat available to us all for a price that should allow almost no competition. This will really change the world and hopefully make it a much better place. There isn’t much higher praise I can think of and it is meant that way :)

    You said the e-cat will produce electrical energy. Will that be enough to run a typical household or should I see the electrical energy more as a bonus?

    I wish you and all the readers here a great new year!

    Best regards,
    Paul Heath

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kai Tonder:
    The power of the domestis E-Cats will be 10 kW, and will produce heat and conditioned air.
    Your pre-order has been accepted: the utilizations you said probably are a joke, but if you are not really interested can cancel the order when we will send you the offer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fabio Sanzani:
    Best Wishes to you!
    A.R.

  • fabiosanzani

    Buonasera Ing. Rossi,
    da un vecchio e quindi non sospetto iscritto al suo sito
    le invio i miei più calorosi auguri di un grande 2012!
    Ad maiora !

  • Kai Tønder

    Dear Rossi,

    Will it be possible to connect your unit to a 12V car battery? I would like to use it at a hut where we do not have any other form for power then 12V.

    Also, is one unit sufficient to keep a jacuzzi warm ?

    If yes to both, please add me to your preorder list :)

    Warm regards
    K.T

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sterling Allan:
    Great job, thank you, dear Friend.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Iggy Dalrymple:
    In due time we will give the names of our Partners: it will be when our E-Cats will start to be in distribution. To give the names would mean to receive a lot of meaningless disturb to our work, which in this moment is very hard.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kim Patterson:
    I am pouring all the “fertilizer” I got…
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Kim Patterson

    Andrea Rossi

    LENR is tickling the psyche of
    the people. Like a Rose opening…

    How about a little more water and/or
    fertilizer.

    Respect
    Kim from Tucson

  • Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    re your reply to Gherardo, “we made a titanic step forward, derived from a lucky idea and from the huge possibilities our new Partners have opened to us.”

    Have you revealed the ‘new partners’? Are you speaking of Ampernergo, the Swedish Physicists, National Instruments, or is there another partner?

    Sincerely,

    Iggy Dalrymple

  • Here’s our latest compilation:

    E-Cat Weekly — December 29, 2011 – Highlights among the 51 unique stories posted from 14 dedicated sites and 1 mainstream site about Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat, include a recent favorable statement by Al Opdenaker from the U.S. Department of Energy regarding LENR, with a cautious nod at the E-Cat; ditto from senatorial candidate, Randy Hekman. (PESN)

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dietmar,
    Actually what happens in an E-Cat is totally different, but, as you know, I cannot five information about this issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Byron:
    Your pre-order has been accepted. You will receive in due time the offer and you will be free to confirm or cancel your order.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Byron

    Please let me order a working 5kw unit as soon as possible.

    Please contact me at my above email address as soon as any type of Fusion Unit becomes available in the United States of America.

    I hope you ship me a working unit soon.

    Where do I send my money?

    Byron

  • Dietmar

    Dear Mr. Rossi, very interesting is,
    that just in the moment, when you see free Neutrons and Gamma-rays,
    NO HEAT is produced and vice versa. This means: There are two different things (2 ways), which happen in Cold Fusion. Easiest explanation for this is: In most cases,
    the fusionsenergy went direkt to the lattice, produce Phonons and Phonons, means getting HOT. No free neutrons, no Gamma-ray. When some atoms are not bound correct in the cristall-lattice, they show the reaction, what is going on: So, only THEY produce free neutrons, gamma-rays, which are not resonant, can not be absorbed from the lattice, because their parents are strangers in this lattice. But they show us, what is going on as reaction:-)!
    In this thinking, may be Ni-powder produces more neutrons and gammarays, than bulk metall and so less heat. So you have to look for best conditions, that the neutrons and Gamma-rays can give their whole energy to the lattice, means no stranger parents.
    So, at last Celani is right, that the going on reactions, which produce HEAT, come together only by building enourmous amounts of Phonons, which have enough resonanzenergy for to fuse anything they hit,

    Dietmar

  • Dietmar

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    here comes my try to describe, what is going on in
    Ni-H :-).

    1.)Change m (Muon) against m (heavy Elektron) in
    http://www.ca.infn.it/~oldeman/resneu/primakoff.pdf

    2.)Via 3 different gamma-peaks from
    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/FocardiSevidenceof.pdf

    H is Hydrogen, D is Deuterium, p is Proton,
    e is Elektron, v is Neutrino.

    Peak 1: 660 keV +-2keV (most heaviest peak, appears always)
    Comes from p + p+e+v + p+e+v = D + n + 659.854 keV (VERY sharp peak)

    Peak 2: 1444 keV +-11keV
    Comes from p + p+e+v = D + 1442.187 keV (pep reaction) (sharp peak)

    Peak 3: 2604 kev +-7keV (broad peak)
    Comes from n + n = D + e(rest mass) +v + 2224.52 keV + 782.333 keV
    That this is more than 2604 keV, but can be understand.
    The elektron and the neutrino together have Ekin=782.333 keV.
    When you imagine, they split them half/half you get 2615.6865 keV(when Ni-lattice gives the Ekin from elektron to Gamma-photon)

    Waaoh, what a result
    Dietmar

    PS: Most will be right from this calculation. It means:

    1.)Most preferred reaction in Rossis e-cat is H + H = D
    It depends NOT on Nickel, Nickel is only Catalysator.
    The new generated, slow Neutron n gives then most energy,
    when transforming elements. (Not so good in my eyes, because in other case the same Nickel will stay forever, only H2 would be formed to D2)

    2.) No new Neutron is build. H + H = D and only big Gamma-ray.
    Good for Nickel, because no Transmutation. Not good for ongoing of reaction, because no free Neutron.

    3.) 2 Neutrons are lost. This reaction will stop e-cat from working.
    The same result you get, when you ADD Deuterium:-).

    4.) One more reaction is possible:
    p + D = He-3 + 4980 keV. May be, this exist also, look for Helium3 and
    Tritium and Helium-4.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gianfranco Veronesi:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Roberto Mucciarini:
    Of course your pre-order is accepted.
    By the way: it is absolutely impossible that from Leonardo Corporation anybody answered you that your order has not been accepted.
    Probably you made a wrong address.
    We will send a precise offer and brochure when we will be ready for the distribution, and at that point you will be free to confirm or cancel your order.
    Happy New Year to you,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alain Pensini:
    Your pre-order has been accepted
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alain Pensini

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    My goal is to build a greenhouse. My only problem was the heat cost until now.
    I would like to order a Ecat .
    Thank you

  • Roberto Mucciarini

    Ho tentato di inoltrare un pre-ordine di un E-Cat Home (con riserva per uno da 10Kw) al seguente indirizzo info@leonardocorp1996.com ma ricevo sempre la seguente risposta: Ordine non accettato. E’ lo stesso se lo passo quì? Spero di si.
    Una domanda: quando sarà disponibile una documentazione tecnica (per i modelli 3Kw e 10Kw) da consegnare ai potenziali clienti in modo da poter decidere con più precisione quale modello pronotare/scegliere?
    Buon Anno Nuovo a lei, Ing. Rossi e a tutto il suo staff.

  • Gianfranco veronesi

    can you add my name in the pre order? thanks

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Aldo Greco:
    Your pre-order has been accepted.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ALDO GRECO

    Egregio ing. Rossi
    Ho inviato una mail qualche giorno fa dal mio sito aziendale chiedendo di poter effettuare una prenotazione del suo apparato .
    Immagino sia molto preso dal suo lavoro : Mi basta avere i riferimenti per effettuare la reservation del suo apparato.
    Cordiali saluti e ancora una volta complimenti per il suo prezioso lavoro.
    Aldo Greco
    grecoaldo@alice.it

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo A. Albanese:
    1- Not so, all the system will be retrofittable
    2- No, because we will guarantee the lower possible price. Competition is protected to allow lower prices, not to allow higher prices.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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