Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi
Msc Solid state Physics, Gujartat University, Gujarat, India
MS Computer Engineering, Univ of Lowell, Lowell, Mass, USA

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Abstract

Review of the periodic table and existing research on isotopes of the various elements of the periodic table is conducted and the attempt is made here to visualize the process of element formation.

The role of Neutron in element formation is investigated and found to be vital for existence of elements . In the new light, the new model of nucleus is proposed which explains the stability of the  nuclei and reason for multiple stable isotopes of elements.

Review of the Periodic Table

The inspection of the periodic table of elements reveal an interesting fact that for all elements other than Hydrogen, for element to be stable, number of Neutrons are always greater or equal, to the number of Protons in the nucleus.  The periodic table is analyzed with respect to the abundance in nature for the elements.

The fusion of Hydrogen to produce Helium can be envisioned as follows:

1H + 1H + 1H + 1H →  2H + 2N + 2e+ (1)

where 2e+ later annihilating to produce additional gamma radiation.

Since tremendous force is needed to keep four protons together during the formation of helium and emit 2 positrons, it is unlikely.  The mass of neutron is more than the mass of proton and this fact  alone negates the likeliness of the above scenario.

In another scenario, the formation of helium may be envisioned as four neutrons coming close together to form a stable nuclei of Helium as follows:
4N → 2N + 2P + 2e (2)
Here the mass of Neutron is higher than the Proton.  The Neutron releases electron to form proton. Also justifies the reason for the  Proton to be lighter than the Neutron.
Thus it is assumed that
  1. Neutrons are the building blocks for elements in nature.
  2. In the elements , other than hydrogen, neutron and proton form a pair (np) and keeps distinct identity.
  3. Excess neutrons stay at the center of the nuclei but keeps their distinct identity.
Using the above assumption the periodic table is analyzed by finding excess neutrons for all  stable isotopes of elements as follows:
Excess neutrons = Atomic mass – 2P where P is the number of Protons for the element
The relative abundance of Isotopes is obtained from the research papers and wikipedia and is included in the Table 1, 2 ,3. The relative abundance is indicative of the preferred state for the element (nuclei) in nature.
The following facts are found as a result of analysis:
For Odd atomic number nuclei:
  • Abundance of isotope is close to 100% when excess neutrons are odd count.
  • If the excess neutron count is even, the isotope is radio active.
  • Majority elements have only one Isotope.
  • Only Potassium has three isotopes, the one with 2 excess neutron is radio active with 0.001 relative abundance.
For Even atomic number nuclei:
  • Elements He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S are close to one in abundance with no excess neutron and maximum three isotopes.
  • Element Be has one excess neutron and one isotope, 100% abundance.
  • All other higher elements require four or more excess neutrons for the element to be abundant in nature and has up to 10 stable isotopes.
  • Element Ca is exception with 0 excess neutron and 97% abundance. However it is unstable with >E+21 a Half life.
Atomic number 43 (Tc) and 61 (Pm) has no stable isotopes in nature.
Thus from the above analysis, it looks like that all nuclei, stable or otherwise,  prefers to keep at least one neutron at the center of the nuclei from its excess count. The remaining excess neutrons stay very close to the center keeping its own identity. The other neutrons pair up with each proton and stay close together to the proton (like heavy hydrogen) but maintains its separate identity.

The nature prefers, for more complex nucleus, more neutrons than protons and creates a delicate balance to form a stable nuclei.

This balance of forces is so critical that in case of element F (the stable isotope is with  9 proton and 10 neutrons) The isotope 18F with 9 Protons and 9 Neutrons, with in 20 minutes decays and forms 18O which is stable with 8 protons and 10 Neutrons and gives up a e+ positron to convert proton to neutron and e+ and e- reaction produces Gama radiation.

Equation   18F → 18O + e+

Thus the existence of Neutron is vital to the existence of the universe itself, because without neutron, elements may not have been possible and hence the intelligence as we know today.

Structure of Neutron

The fact that Gravitational binding forces (Fg) of masses in the nucleus needs to be more than the destructive electromagnetic forces (Fem) created by the electrically positive environment of the nucleus,  (Fem < Fg) excess neutrons are required in the nuclei. However, even at the center of the nucleus neutrons keep their distinct identity, rather than lumping together to form one heavy neutron. Therefore, neutron can not be just a fuzzy mass but a well defined structure able to hold induced charges with precise demarcation of boundary with an insulating layer, more like a free standing capacitor. Which suggests that at least three particles with two sets of characteristics are required to create a neutron. For our model here, that has to be two particles capable of holding charges and one particle which provides insulation between these particles, similar to that of dielectric layer in the capacitor. Thus in this postulated model the neutron looks and behaves neutral for all practical purposes. However, within nuclei keeps separate and distinct identity and does not combine with other neutrons to form a one central heavy body.

The proposal here defers from the model independent analysis predicting the structure having negative charge on the surface, Positive charge in the next lower level and than neutral  mass. My model suggests that neutron is a free standing charged capacitor. This helps in keeping the distance between excess neutron in the nuclei. Otherwise there is nothing stopping these neutrons from lumping together to form a mini neutron star with in the nuclei. This model of Neutron is justified from the known fact that Neutron is heavier than Proton.

For elements other than Hydrogen, the nuclei becomes a chaotic environment. For Example, in case of

4He, two protons require their space and wants to be separate from each other as far as possible, and two neutrons are caught between the two protons as shown in figure 1.  From the reference frame of protons it is envisioned that Neutrons spin on its axis at very high rotational speed. One clockwise and other anticlockwise.

Model of nuclei

A new model of nuclei is proposed as shown in the figure 3. A spherical shell of excess neutrons with one neutron at the center of the shell surrounded by paired proton neutron (pn) shell.

For the stable nuclei system the electromagnetic forces needs to be balanced and gravitational forces maximized.  From the example of 4He above, it is envisioned that  elements are built, in this model, by Heavy Hydrogen nuclei (pn) as a building block and just enough excess neutrons to provide needed gravitational force for stability.

Energy levels (orbitals) in pn outer shell follows the similar shell structure of electrons, with K,L,M,N,O being primary shell and s, p, d, f, g sub shells with similar total charge particle capacity. However for excess neutron shell it differs, where a single neutron stays at the center of the nuclei when in excess. The energy level for that central neutron in this model is called “Foundation neutron” (Fn).

The Table 4 shows the placement of neutrons in each shell.

Nuclei Stability Analysis using above model

For Odd atomic number nuclei:

In the ‘p-n shell’ the outermost pair has no symmetry, however the excess neutron shell is symmetrical for all odd atomic number elements giving the stability and abundance. Referring to table 2 and table 4 , isotopes, with one excess neutron, has relative abundance in nature of 1 or close to 1,  The excess neutron takes the place of Fn.  The isotopes with 2 excess neutrons are all radio active which can be attributed to the asymmetry of neutron in unfilled K shell, which can hold up to 2 neutrons. When the K shell is completely filled as in the case of 41K, the nuclei is stable. Table 2 outlines isotopes and abundance for majority of elements, all follow the same principle and model fits perfectly with the exception of 14N with atomic number 7. Iodine has 21 excess neutrons, as we see in table 4, the outer most excess neutron shell is symmetrical, making it stable. All other elements follows.

For Even atomic number nuclei:

The stability is obtained from the pn shell. However, excess neutron shell  becomes asymmetric and depending on which sub shell, there is a room for additional excess neutrons and hence exhibits many stable isotopes with relative abundance. Theoretical probability calculation may prove this fact.

Instability and radio activity in heavy elements:

The neutron proton (np) pair in nuclei has capability to grow indefinitely. However as the heavier elements are built the inner excess neutron shell is large enough to interact with lower np shells, thus giving instability to the nuclei. e.g. for 238U there are 148 total neutrons and 54 excess neutrons.  A nuclei with 111 excess neutron will completely fill up the O shell. All elements after 209Bi are radio active, this shows that interaction of neutrons form excess neutron shell(inner shell) with pn shell is destructive when the N shell is half filled. Thus there is a upper limit to the size of the  inner excess neutron shell and this may be the reason for non existence of super heavy stable elements in nature.

Conclusion

This proposed model of nuclei, explains the stability and relative abundance of the nuclei. The nuclei(except for H and He) in this model is a shell with in a shell, where an innermost shell structure is formed with excess neutrons with one Fundamental foundation neutron (Fn) and the rest arranged in shell structure. Protons, form pair with neutron and form shell enclosing this excess neutron shell as shown in figure 3. The stability of the nuclei is a direct result of symmetrical placement of neutrons in the outer most shell of excess neutron shell. The same shell is responsible for many stable isotopes in even atomic number nuclei. The additional isotopes are possible if the outer shell of excess neutron shell holds odd number of neutrons. The nature of neutron is postulated here, the proof of which depends on future experiments.

References

Numerous Scientists’ and scholars’ exhausting work in development of periodic table, investigation of Isotopes is utilized and due credits are given. The list is too large to print here, but due credits are mentally given to all scientists.

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi

788 comments to Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

  • Janne Strom

    Hello and Congratulations to the e-cat
    Could you tell med where the factory is located where you will manufacture the home e-cats?
    Can i import an e-cat from USA to Sweden this autumn, or do i have to wait until you have distribution in Sweden?
    Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kim Patterson:
    Thank you. James Martinez has made a very good interview: it is still unknown to the People of the USA that Leonardo Corporation, a US industry, is making and growing up (fertilizing also, as you say) tremendous job there, and such interviews are useful to make this well known
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Iggy Dalrymple:
    Exactly.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Karl-Heinz Braun:
    Thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Karl-Heinz Braun

    Is 2012 the year of the E-cat ?
    Lets hope while listening to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QM7LR46zrQU

  • Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    I hate to keep pestering you but will the heat pump be STEAM DRIVEN as opposed to a normally electrically driven heat pump?

    Sincerely,

    Iggy Dalrymple

  • Kim Patterson

    Thanks Andrea for your Radio Show
    Interview with James Martinez.

    Your really are pouring on the
    fertilizer for your growing
    E-cats!

    Respect
    Kim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Iggy Dalrymple:
    We will use a heat pump.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    You speak of your 1st generation home E-Cat providing both heat and cooling. Through what mechanism can your machine provide cooling?

    Sincerely,

    Iggy Dalrymple

  • occam

    Gentile Dott. Rossi

    Se mi permette , le suggerisco un’altro esempio sempre dello stesso autore :

    http://newmagneticengine.blogspot.com/

    In pratica è un motore a deviazione di flusso magnetico o parallel path , modulare .Una innovazione importante particolarmente adatto per veicoli elettrici o per generatori di corrente ad alto rendimento . Gli autori sono in cerca di finanziatori , penso sia un ottimo affare per chi può investire e uno degli autori e particolarmente portato per le innovazioni e le riscoperte (batterie plantè autocostruite).

    Saluti Occam

    Occam

  • Gherardo

    My compliments for this interview. Where do you find all the time ?
    Your next task should be a time management book 😉

    This is for sharing with the other viewers if not already reported.
    http://www.achieveradio.com/archplayer.php?showname=Cash%20Flow%20with%20James%20Martinez&sn=66&ShowURL=http://audio.achieveradio.com/cash-flow/2011-12-29–1200—Cash_Flow.mp3

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    No, we are still working on it with the Customer and with National Instruments to upgrade the control systems and to make it fit for the specific task it has to go to do. As I said, a magnificence is growing up, while we are making stronger the E-Cat technology and engineering.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ville Kanninen:
    Your pre-order has been accepted.
    The E-Cat needs connection with Electricity, water.
    Warm water will be made.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Occam:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • James Kessler

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Thanks, I will contact again in Sept. No offense intended by addressing you as professor;-}
    Jim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Derar Fabio:
    For the assistance service to our Customers please contact us in September.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear James Kessler:
    I am not Professor.
    For the assistance, please contact us in September 2012.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • James Kessler

    Dear Professor Rossi,
    I have been following your progress on e-cat technology for nearly a year now and I am very excited about the promise that this technology holds.
    Since you will be producing 1 million units for home use this year, I am sure that you will be needing to contract/hire people all over the world to service these units once they are in use.
    Please add my name/email to whatever list you may be compiling for regional service centers as I would be honored to be a part of this great endeavor. I live in the state of Missouri, USA.
    Thanks,
    Jim

  • fabio

    gentile dott. rossi sarei molto interessato a gestire l’installazione e la manutenzione dei suoi apparati per la mia citta’ .
    grazie.
    saluti

  • occam

    Gentile dott. Rossi

    Al link di seguito c’è un motore a vapore artigianale .Forse potrebbe interessarle :

    http://energiaalternativa.forumcommunity.net/?t=48330895&st=90#entry343070071

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gherardo, that will be the further generation. The first generation will produce heat and air conditioning.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gherardo

    Dott.Rossi,
    I was thinking about the perfect e-cat for a home/house.
    It has to provide:
    1) hot water
    2) home heating in winter
    3) electricity production
    4) air conditioning directly from heat in the summer

    In addition since the unit works continuosly it would be appropriate to add a control unit to deliver excess capacity to the public electric grid.
    Last, an extended refueling time like 12 or 24 months.
    Regards, Gherardo

  • Ville Kanninen

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Please add my name/email to your list of buyers for a first generation 10kw e-cat units. Does the first generation unit need any other connections than electricity ? Is it designed to produce warm air or to warm water flowing through the unit ?

    You have done probably the most important invention of the 21st century.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Can you provide us any more information on the E-Cat that was sold as a result of the November 28th demonstration. Is it operating? How is it being used? Thanks

  • Silvano Mattioli

    Ho letto che accetta prenotazioni.
    Eccone una, la mia !

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Paul Heath:
    No, we will change it every 180 days.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fyodor,
    We are working on all the issues you correctly put in evidence.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dag Gullberg:
    Those were the E-Cats which have been assembled to make the 1 MW plant tested on oct. 28th: all of them have been put in operation to test them in the factories where we made them.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Scott Hansen:
    We will meet in Alaska.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Scott Hansen

    Dear Mr. Rossi
    Thank you for excepting my order. In doing so you said you would love to deliver my ecat personally to Alaska. I know you would be way to busy to actually do so, but if you could it would be the best place in the world to showcase your home unit. I would love to help you out in any way I could in that endeavor.
    Thank you for all your very long days working to make the world a better place.

  • Dag Gullberg

    Andrea Rossi,

    Best wishes for 2012.

    I have a question about an alleged statement of yours (in July 2011 according to freeenergytruth.blogspot.com):
    “97 E-Cats In Operation Right Now Accross 4 Countries”

    Is this a statement you recognize and can confirm as yours?

    If this is correct, what energy output range are we talking about on those devices?

    br
    /Dag Gullberg

  • Tracy Hall

    Dietmar:

    A plasmon, or surface plasmon polariton, is not the same thing as a phonon. A plasmon is an excitation of electrons, not of nuclei. (That being said, it would not surprise me too much if plasmons were involved in LENR.)

  • Fyodor

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I am very intrigued by your plans to mass produce the 10KW units. It seems that even beyond the difficulties of manufacturing, the mass production of many units will require advanced processes for quality control, testing, etc, to make sure that all of the very large number of products are working correctly and safely.

    For example, it seems that it will not be practical for you to personally test each device and you will need trained engineers and technicians, etc.

    Can you tell us more about how you are planning to develop these capacities? Will this be done by your partners and their employees or your own employees. How much know-how will you be giving to the technicians and other employees involved in the process.

    It seems that for good reason you have been very careful to keep all important information secret but building at this scale will require more openness.

    Thank you for taking time from your busy schedule to answer my questions and happy new year

    Fyodor

  • Paul Heath

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I wish you a great 2012 and hope that it will be filled with fun and opportunities to learn. For me the highlight of 2012 will probably be the moment I receive my personal e-cat.

    Question: Will we be able to change the fuel in the ecat ourself?

    Best regards,
    Paul Heath

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    Sergio Focardi, Prof. Emeritus of the University of Bologna, is always working with us, and in particular he teaches us about radiations containment and control.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Martin

    Dear Andrea,

    Just a small question. Im curious in what way Mr Focardi stays involved
    with the development of the ecat. Is he still working for you and (if the answer is yes) what kind of work is he doing?

    Best regards,

    Martin

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hank Mills,
    Thank you for your work.
    I wish you a wonderful 2012,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luigi Versaggi:
    Happy new Year to you!
    Thank you for your continuous sustain.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Happy New Year to you and to your family Dr. Rossi!
    The 2011 was a great year for the LENR, the 2012 will be the beginning of a new era. Thank you for your invenction and for the every day hard work you constantly do.

  • Hello Everyone,

    A new “year end” article about the E-Cat technology has been posted at PESN. Please check it out and share your comments.

    One Full Year of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat

    http://pesn.com/2011/12/30/9601995_One_Full_Year_of_Andrea_Rossis_E-Cat/

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    Tomorrow I will send her flowers.
    Thank you to remember me, he,he,he.
    Happy new Year to you!
    Andrea

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John L. Miller-George:
    May God bless you and your family,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andrew Dardry:
    1- yes
    2- the COP is 6, the power 10 kW
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bal Herrera:
    Thank you, you will not be disappointed,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Bal Herrera

    Only the best Mr. Andrea and all the E-cat team!!! I can’t wait to have my own E-cat for my home in the future. Forza!!!

  • Dietmar

    Dear Mr Rossi,
    am I wrong :-)?

    Take a look at

    http://dipc.ehu.es/04highlight_detalle.php?lng=eng&id=106

    On the photo is shown, what happens on the surface with the Nickel-atoms, when they are in resonanz with the phonons of the lattice (called Plasmons here). The nickelatoms (like vulcanos) move up and down, VERY fast in resonance.
    Image a H-atom between Nickel-atoms, in those vulcanos:-).
    The H-atoms are forced to follow the nickel-atoms in resonanz, because they are like in prison.
    The electron of the H-atom thinks, where is my H-atom :-).
    And try to follow its H-atom. After a very short moment, the electron is much nearer to its H-atom as before (like dog, tugging on the leash).
    When the distance to its master (H-atom) is smaller than aBohr/2.531
    it comes into the nucleus and change nucleus to neutron

    e (tugging on the leash to p) + p = n + v

    Dietmar

  • Andrew Dardry

    Dear Andrea Rossi
    Will the 10kw ‘home’ecats be able to run in self sustaining mode? If so what is the expected output in that mode?

  • Andrew

    Dear Andrea
    Will the 10kw ‘home’ version be able to operate in self-sustaining mode, and if so what is the anticipated output in that mode? I need to know if one or two are required for my cold house in UK.
    Many congratulations on all your success so far and may it long continue!

  • Andrea Rossi,

    Best wishes for the new year, sir!

    May all your projests (and our dreams) be exceeded by1000%!

    May energy prosperity become undeniable and inevitable in 2012.

    May we all do our part to make dreams come true so that all of the earth’s children sleep safe, warm, and well-fed for generations to come.

    JLMGeo

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Your wife must be an angel, send her some flowers, Happy New Year

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