Interaction between neutrino flavor oscillation and Dark Energy as a super-luminal propagation

by Marco Lelli

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As it is well known a recent series of experiments, conducted in collaboration between CERN laboratories in Geneva and the Gran Sasso National Laboratory for Particle Physics, could have decreed the discovery of the transmission of a beam of super-luminal particles.
Experimental data indicate that the distance between two laboratories (approximately 730 km) was covered by a beam of neutrinos with an advance of  approx 60 nanoseconds with respect to a signal travelling at the relativistic limit speed c (which takes a time interval of the order of 2,4.10-3 s to perform the way).
Neutrino beam starts from CERN and after travelling 730 km through the Earth’s crust, affects lead atoms of  the OPERA detector at Gran Sasso laboratories. Production of neutrino beam is due by the acceleration and collision of protons and heavy nuclei. This event produces pions and kaons, which then decay into muons and νμ.
The initial energy of  neutrino beam is 17 GeV and its composition is almost entirely due to νμ.
Publication of  the OPERA experimental data immediately got a deep world mass-media echoes: the possible confirmation of the results of the experiment seems to imply an explanation leading to change our current thoughts about theory of relativity and, therefore, the intimate space-time nature. In this assumption c may not be considered a speed limit on the quantum scale investigation.
In this paper we try to show how the uncertainty principle and the oscillation in flavor eingenstates of neutrino beam may provide a possible explanation for OPERA’s data.
Our research assumes two basic hypotheses.


First approximation: approximation in number of  flavor eigenstates  (and then in mass eigenstates) within is supposed to play neutrino oscillation.
We consider this oscillation between two flavor eigenstates. Then we assume that each component of  the neutrino beam can be described by a linear combination of two eigenstates of flavor. These two eigenstates are: μ flavor (the flavor of neutrino beam generation) and τ flavor.
Oscillations in this two flavor was already observed in first half of 2010 within the same OPERA experimental series.
Although, as it is known, the neutrino oscillation cover three mass eigenstates for its complete description, we assume here an approximation for dominant mass of neutrino τ, which reduces the description of neutrino propagation in a linear combination of only two mass eigenstates.
In this approximation we can now describe the propagation of each neutrino produced at CERN as a combination of two mass eigenstates as follows:

Flavor and mass eigenstates are related by a unitary transformation which implies a mixing angle in vacuum similar to Cabibbo mixing angle for flavor of quarks:

then

Second approximation: we suppose that propagation of neutrino beam is in vacuum. The propagation in vacuum is determined by the temporal evolution of the mass eigenstates

We can consider valid this assumption, at least in first approximation, because matter interacts in particular with νe and less with νμ and ντ.νe weakly interacts with matter by W± and Z° bosons while νμ and ντ only by Z° bosons. So the principal possible effect consists in a massive transformation of νe in the |νμ› eigenstate.
Considering the small number of νe in starting beam we can neglect this effect.
Assuming that in the initial state  only νμ are present in the beam, through a series of elementary steps, we can get

then we can obtain the probability

In the approximation mμ « Eμ we can write

and finally the transition probabilities between eigenstates of flavor

νμ beam produced at CERN propagates as a linear superposition of mass eingestates given by the following relation

This superposition generates an uncertainty in propagating mass  neutrino that grows over time and is equal to

This uncertainty in the mass eigenstates of the neutrino implies an uncertainty in the energy of propagation.
Given the relativistic equation

taking the momentum of propagation p=cost, the uncertainty linked to neutrino mass eigenstate is linearly reflected in an  uncertainty in the propagation energy:

Therefore we have

Following  the uncertainty principle we have

so the uncertainty (12), about the value of νμ energy of  propagation, causes a corresponding uncertainty in its time of flight between the point of production and the point of arrival.
This uncertainty is expressed as follows:

In OPERA case available experimental data are:

Assuming sen²2θ12=1, in analogy with the value attributed to Cabibbo quark mixing angles, and a value for Δm12 ≈ 10-²eV ≈ 1,6.10-²¹ J  we have

then

(14) shows that the advance    on the propagation of neutrino beam, detected in the execution OPERA experiment, is between the range determined by the uncertainty principle.
The advance Δt is then interpreted by the uncertainty principle and the neutrino flavor oscillation during propagation. This oscillation implies an uncertainty in the neutrino propagation energy, due to the linear superposition of its mass eigenstates, which affects the uncertainty of its flight time.
According to this interpretation, therefore, the results of OPERA experiment, if confirmed, would represent not a refusal of the condition of c as a relativistic speed limit, but rather a stunning example of neutrino flavor oscillation according to physics’s laws known today (uncertainty principle  and speed limit c).
The range indicated in (14) depends on the competition of two factors. On one hand, the intrinsic nature of inequality of the uncertainty principle, on the other our fuzzy knowledge of Δm12 between mass eigenstates of neutrinos with different flavors.
One of the most convincing experimental proofs of flavor neutrino oscillation is the lack of solar electron neutrinos measured experimentally respect to the theoretically expected flow.
OPERA, as well as other tests, was designed to observe possible flavor oscillation in a neutrino beam running along the earth’s subsurface. Any oscillation can be found by observing a change of flavor in a fraction of neutrinos in the arrive.
However, if this happens, neutrino mass eigenstate is described by a linear superposition of mass eigenstates of pure muon neutrino and tau neutrino.
This condition generates an uncertainty on the propagation energy, which translates into an uncertainty on the flight time.
This is directly proportional to the total flight time and the square of the difference between the mass values of the different flavors of neutrinos, while it is inversely proportional to the total energy of the beam.
In this interpretation, therefore, the advance of the flight time of the neutrino beam with respect to the velocity c, far from being a refutation of the relativistic speed limit, is a good demonstration of neutrino flavor oscillation.
So we could use the advantage Δt in an attempt to determine, more accurately, the value of Δm12.
On the other hand, examples of physical effects equivalent to a super-luminal propagation of particles are considered in other fields of contemporary theoretical physics. Hawking effect about the emission temperature of a Black Hole is, under this respect, a very significant example.
Cosmic neutrinos flavor oscillations. We can now consider what could be the value of the advantage Δt respect to the time of flight of c in the case of neutrinos coming, for example, from a SuperNova explosion.
In this case the average energy of neutrinos νe is of the order of 10^7 eV and the time of flight, for example in the case of  SuperNova 1987a, of the order of 10¹² s.
Under these conditions we have

and it is conceivable that it may start a continuous sequence of oscillations in mass eigenstates.
The logical consequence of this situation is a superposition of two equally probable mass eigenstates.

We lose the information of to the initial state of the emitted neutrino along the way.
So the  uncertainty in mass eigenstates  exists with respect to the state of arrival of the neutrino and a mixing of  mass eigenstates with the same probability equal to ½.
In this hypothesis we have

therefore an advantage Δt of approx six orders of magnitude lower than in the OPERA case.
Interpretation of the principle of uncertainty used above.  The uncertainty principle is commonly intended as an aid to explanation for the impossibility of determining, by observation, contemporarily the position and momentum of a physical system, with absolute precision, because the one excludes the other.
Assuming this interpretation the uncertainty principle could explain , in the case of OPERA, a set of measures centered on an advance Δt=0 with a spread on the obtained measurement results  in the order of (14).
In contrast, the  experimental measurements provided by OPERA appears to be centered on a value of Δt ≈ 60 ns in advance respect to the time of flight of c!
Which explanation is therefore possible to give to the application of the uncertainty principle to justify the consistency of the data provided by OPERA with the fundamental laws of physics known today?
The most coherent interpretation seems to be as follows: the temporal evolution of the neutrino mass eigenstate introduces a temporal evolution in the state of total energy that interacts with space-time producing a reduction of the time of flight. This interaction has to be coherent with the uncertainty principle.
Energy gained or released by neutrino, during oscillation, must be released or gained by space-time, according to the principle of conservation of energy.
A more accurate explanation will require the introduction of some new hypotheses.
We suppose below that space-time possesses a quantized structure. We define a fundamental 1D string element that has the dimension of a length or a time. This fundamental element is a 1D vector in the 2D string wolrdsheet: we call this element the quantum of space-time.
To each 1D of space-time is associated a 1D energy-momentum vector (the total energy associated to a quantum of space-time) that is related to the module of the 1D quantum of space-time with a relation of constraint that we define below.
To introduce the basic unit of space-time we introduce the Polyakov 2D string action  and we proceed to its quantization finding the 1D elementary quantum of space-time

Now we want to consider (17) in the limit n -> 1. The infinitesimal parameters dσ and dτ take the meaning of physically limit movement along, respectively, the spatial direction and  temporal direction of the 2D string worldsheet.
We can call these limit movement as follows

Ω^x e Ω^0 take the meaning of quantum of space-time in space direction and time direction  in the 2D string worldsheet.
Therefore, in this case, to each spatial direction of the elementary string element corresponds a temporal direction that, in a Minkowski’s manifold, is orthogonal to the space direction. The relation (18) binds the module of the element of string along the spatial direction with respect to temporal direction, in the case of a Minkowski’s manifold, and have the values lp and lp/c.
Double differentiation

appearing in (17) must now be rewritten taking into account that in a Minkowski’s manifold, for relations (18), we can write

then

Since it is possible to show that 2D string worldsheet action of Polyakov coincides with Nanbu-Goto action

given the relation

and because we have

we can rewrite (18) as follows
In (20) with Tμν we have indicated relation Tμν = μν. So we indicate string tension in 2 dimensions as a tensor of rank 2.
In a Minkowski’s manifold we have:
So the string tension in a Minkowski’s manifold can be written as a tensor of rank 2 whose product with the module of the fundamental string elements (the quantum of space-time) in spatial and temporal direction is constant and equal to Planck’s quantum of action. Contracting one of the two indices of tension with one of the two vectors Ω^μ or Ω^ν we get the 2D energy-momentum vector for the string element along the direction μ and ν respectively,
it is now possible to define the following relation

Relation (23) was obtained in a Minkowski’s manifold: it is therefore valid in a region of space-time in which the action of gravitational energy is negligible. Under these conditions (23) defines a relation of constraint: the product of the 1D length of the fundamental string element (the length of the module of the quantum of space-time) and the 2D energy-momentum vector of 2D string worldsheet associated with this element is constant and equal to Planck’s constant.
2D energy- momentum vector Eν thus defines the  expectation value of energy of empty space that corresponds to the amount of energy needed to increase string length of an element of length lp along ν direction.
Similarly we can define Eν as the 2D energy-momentum vector associated with the increase of a quantum of space-time along ν direction. For these reasons, in a Minkowski’s manifold, (23) takes the form:

valids in each quantum of space-time.
Calculation of the anticipation Δt in the time of flight. (24) can be written taking into account variations in the 2D string worldsheet fundamental element:

multiplying the two members is obtained the variational relation of least action for the elementary 2D string worldsheet:

so we have

and then

From (28) we obtain (13) and the result (14). In (28) the term   is an appropriate constant of integration that take in to account vacuum fluctuations of energy of magnitude   for the system under investigation.
Conclusions. Conducing our analysis in 2D we quantize the 2D Polyakov string worldsheet action, obtaining a constraint relation that relates 2D energy -momentum vector and the module of 2D elementary  string element (the quantum of space-time).
We have therefore assumed that the neutrino flavor oscillation interacts with the energy associated with each element of the 2D worldsheet string (or the space-time) exchanging energy. This exchange is obeying the law of conservation of energy.
This kind of interaction does not require any hypothesis of fifth force, and may, on the contrary, be assumed of gravitational type, in the sense that the energy due to the neutrino mass eigenstates interacts with the energy of the elementary string element with an easy phase overlapping, just as it is with a gravitational mass.
We can therefore assume that neutrino, through the temporal evolution of its mass eigenstates, exchanges energy with space-time. This exchange causes a change, a contraction in the length of the 2D fundamental  string element. Integration of this contractions along the path of neutrino flight produces as a result the observed advantage    in the time of the flight.
The energy associated with each elementary quantum of 2D string worldsheet in a Minkowski’s manifold corresponds to the energy of empty space-time, ie the vacuum energy of the gravitational field in absence of gravitational source. The target of a forthcoming work will be to show how this vacuum energy is able to produce effects phenomenological equivalent to hypothesis of dark energy and dark matter under certain conditions.
Basing on the assumptions here introduced the same uncertainty principle, from first and irreducible principle of physics, assumes the rank of derived condition through (25) – (28) by a more fundamental principle that is (23).

References:

[1] B. M. Pontecorvo, Sov. Phys. Usp., 26 (1983) 1087.
[2] L. Wolfenstein, Phys. Rev. D, 17 (1978) 2369.
[3] S. P. Mikheev e A. Yu. Smirnov, Il Nuovo Cimento C, 9 (1986) 17.
[4] S. Braibant, G.Giacomelli, M. Spurio, Particelle ed interazioni fondamentali, Springer, 2010.
[5] J. N. Bahcall, “Neutrino astrophysics” (Cambridge, 1989); http://www.sns.ias.edu/~jnb
[6] http://www.arcetri.astro.it/science/SNe/sn1987a.jpg
[7] H. A. Bethe e J. R. Wilson, Astrophys. J., 295 (1985) 14.
[8] G. Pagliaroli, F. Vissani, M. L. Costantini e A. Ianni, Astropart. Phys., 31 (2009) 163.
[9] V. S. Imshennik e O. G. Ryazhskaya, Astron. Lett., 30 (2004) 14.
[10] W. Baade e F. Zwicky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 20 (1934) 259.
[11] A.M.Polyakov, Gauge Fields and Strings, Harwood academic publishers, 1987.
[12] Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam,  arXiv:1109.4897.
[13] F. L. Villante e F. Vissani, Phys. Rev. D, 76 (2007) 125019.
[14] F. L. Villante e F. Vissani, Phys. Rev. D, 78 (2008) 103007.
[15] M. A. Markov, “The Neutrino” (Dubna) 1963.

by Marco Lelli

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442 comments to Interaction between neutrino flavor oscillation and Dark Energy as a super-luminal propagation

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kuo-Chuan Cheng:
    Why don’t you contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear LBG:
    Your pre-order is welcome.
    Steam cars? Sincerely, I do not think they are coming soon… but maybe I am wrong.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Theoretic:
    I am very sorry to have to correct you: I wish you were right, but the COP of an inverted air conditioner is .4, not 4.
    Our COP is 6, what is put after it has the original COP that could have anyway, the COP of the declinations is indipendent from the COP of the source.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Theoretic

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I was wondering if it’s possible to combine the air-conditioner technology with the e-cat for the heat input. The inverter air conditioners have a COP 4 in heat production mode, so in theory if you use a modified air conditioning system for the initial and ongoing heating of the reactor, the energy efficiency will be greater. If a 10 KW e-cat needs a constant 1,66(6) KW of heat, with air-conditioner with COP 4, you’ll need 0,416(6) KW input power to produce this heat and (in theory) the total COP will be 24(!). Please, correct me if I am wrong.

  • LBG

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I’d like to order an E-Cat for household heating and hot water. Also, in the near future after I retire, I’d like to work on the design of a new steam car.

    Respect and Regards,

    LBG

  • Kuo-Chuan Cheng

    Dear Engineer Andrea Rossi:
    Good to hear that you have licencees almost in all countries in the world. How about Taiwan? I have already preordered one home ECat. If no Taiwan Licencee yet, I can try to introduce one. Regards,
    Kuo-Chuan Cheng

  • Franco Morici

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    If possible I would like to understand if the higher E-Cat energy gain, recorded for long time and written on Your tecnical paper “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”, were for an different E-Cat design.
    You garantee COP of 6 times only, and my question now is why an high COP can’t be restored.

    Thank You.

    Kind Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wladimir Guglinski,
    My Friend:
    In Autumn we will surely send the detailed offers to all the “horde” of pre-orderers.
    The deliveries will start hopefully within the next winter, surely within 18 months .
    Your paper will be very welcome, please send it now to the Journal
    info@journal-of-nuclear-physics.com
    for peer reviewing.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Hi, dear Andrea Rossi

    You told us that in the next autumn the 10kW eCat will be at market.
    So, we realize that in upcoming September the mistery of your catalizer will be unveiled, since each purchaser will be able to open his eCat, and to look at within it what is the element used as catalyzer.

    In April-2011 I had submitted to your JNP my paper ”How repulsive gravity contributes for cold fusion in Rossi-Focardi experiment”, where it is proposed what is the best element to be used as catalyzer in your eCat.

    The paper was not published in your journal, because in 2011 it was too soon to unveil what is the catalyzer used in the eCat.

    However, as in the next September the catalyzer will be known by anyone who will buy your eCat, I think my paper could be published in August.

    What do think ?

    Regards
    WG

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine:
    There is a millionaire who can (!) propose you flying soup cans with the surprise inside: you satisfied?
    Groggy Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bill Conley:
    With the puppet snakes, the greek clowns and other vultures around I have to protect our Customers from any kind of internet assault, so I have to be very closed in this period. Our Customers are working in peace, we too, our patents are going through, and when we will put our product in the massive market, well protected by our patents and by very cheap prices, your dreams to see an E-Cat working in your house will be reality.
    In this moment I would just give free information to the hordes of wannabe competitors.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gennady:
    You will get 20 kW with two E-Cats of 10 each.
    I didn’t receive your ideas, please send them to this blog.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Richard Hill

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I have been following the E-Cat for a long time now, and I respect your work.
    I ask has anyone pointed out the possible link between Muon Catalysed Fusion (MCF) and
    the Ni-H work by Focardi and yourself?
    I understand MCF is a known effect, but useless in practice due to the difficulty of generating muons.
    For some time now I have wondered about it.
    Maybe the devices developed by Ni-H people are natural muon capturing units.
    This would also explain the repeatability problem.
    since natural muons are mostly random, with some links to cosmic rays.
    Thus there could be a certain rare chance of a natural muon shower at any time, explaining why Ni-H researchers get effects some times but not others.
    This hypothesis could be tested by trying an E-Cat on a mountain top, where natural muons are more frequent.
    Perhaps your breakthrough is related to muon capture?
    I would understand if you dont wish to reply to this speculation.
    Regards
    Richard Hill

  • Joseph Fine

    A.R.

    Thanks for your special offer (for soup). Of course, it is not necessary to include a can of soup. But If you want to do so, I prefer either Onion Soup or Vegetable Soup. And, the hot water could come from the E-Cat itself.

    A great idea. Thanks in advance.

    Joseph

  • Gennady

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I appreciate your answers to my prior questions. In a mean time I have another one that came to my mind recently. Several month ago you mentioned that there may be home e-cats of 20 KW as well. When are you expecting to start to produce those? Are there larger home e-cats in works?

    Kind regards,

    Gennady

    P.S. I also sent you some ideas regarding multi e-cat homes to your info@leonardocorp1996.com address. I hope you received it and would love to hear some feedback on that.

  • Bill Conley

    Mr. Rossi,

    Several months ago you said that although your first 1MW plant client wished to remain confidential, a second client was willing to be publicly identified and we would hear about them soon. Several months have passed and we have heard no more about this second client. Can you give us an update. We would love to be able to hear the experience of a real E-Cat user, something that we can only dream about at this point.

    Thanks and best wishes on your very important work.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Timeo Danaos Et Dona Ferentes:
    This ancient Roman verses mean, substantially, “beware of they who give you gifts” (just to make it short). It reminds me of some millionaires around who dispense free millions. What scares me of such subjects is the facility with which they can bet millions: you know, I come from a family where money has always been hard to be earned, and what I learnt from my father is that to earn money is very difficult and takes a lot of hard work. Therefore I admire all these supermen , able to earn the money so easily to be able to bet millions, just like that. So I have put attention in some of them: they made money selling trivial things, like, just to say something for casual example, but not for specific reference, soup in groceries. Therefore, ” Wow! If I will be born in a next life, you bet, I will sell soup in groceries”: so I said to a friend of mine. But he told me:” Andrea, don’t be stupid: when persons like a soup seller, just to make a generic example, make millions, in best cases they are money launderers”. But I explained to him: ” in a case that I know this is just impossible, the person in question is for sure a gentleman, a very good person, I swear on it”. My friend has not been able to answer. So I remained convinced that all these millionaires who sell soups and make millions are very good persons, honest and rightly rich. Under a Calvinist point of view they got from the Lord the prize for their hard work and they merited it.
    p.s. We will sell the E-Cats with a can of soup inside. As a bonus.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear R. Meiner:
    1- if the E-Cat overheats the nickel becomes liquid, so it is no more powder, therefore the E-Cat stops. It is intrinsically safe.
    2- The charge, in this cases, has to be changed ( 10 US$).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • What would happen if I had a power failure in my home such that the ecat controls AND the (cooling-) water pump stops. Would the ecat overheat? Would it be reusable?

  • Andrea Rossi

    IMPORTANT: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY

    Information regarding Leonardo Corporation’s Commercial License Policy:
    Since some clown ( probably a “millionaire” clown, who has teamed up with a puppet snake) has put on the net an unvalid invoice from Leonardo Corporation, while our attorneys are working on the issue, I deem opportune to clarify the policy of Leonardo Corporation regarding the commercial licenses.
    We give exclusive commercial licenses for limited territories. When the interested persons ask to us a commercial license to sell the E-Cats we make an offer. The price of the license depends on many factors, regarding the Territory. If the interested persons agree upon the text that we propose, we send a text of an agreement, which is obviously covered by NDA. The uncorrect persons do not respect the NDA and our attorneys take care of them. After the interested persons sign the agreement, we send an invoice, and the agreement is deemed valid only after the payment of the license fee is done within the term agreed. If the payment is not done, the agreement expires and that invoice for which the payment has not been made is compensated in the accounting by a credit memo.
    When a Customer asks to buy a product of Leonardo Corp, he is addressed to the proper licensee.
    All the persons interested to our commercial licenses can send the request and a description of their organization to:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    I must add that practically all the world’s Territories have been already licensed. Soon we will organize a convention of all our Licensees, for the presentation of the E-Cat, in the final shape that will be marketed, and in that occasion we will give the full list of all our Licensees. The most important Territories in which we have not yet found the right licensee are:
    1- Russia
    2- Japan
    We take this occasion to solicit the People interested to these territories to contact us. Attention: we give the licences only to Organizations which are settled inside the Territories for which they want to buy the license.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi
    CEO of Leonardo Corp.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear AB:
    Thank you for the information. As a matter of fact, when I used the block letters my intention was to communicate that what I was writing was urgent.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • AB

    Sig. Rossi

    Le consiglio di evitare di scrivere interamente in lettere maiuscole. Secondo le regole della netiquette che detta le regole di comunicazione su internet, scrivere interamente in maiuscole vorrebbe dire urlare nei confronti dell’interlocutore. Vedi http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netiquette

  • Andrea Rossi

    I AM RECEIVENG EMAILS REGARDING: 1- THE “MILLIONAIRE” WHO OFFERS 1 MILLION FOR A TEST AND 2- WHAT WE THINK OF SOME WANNABE COMPETITORS WHO WILL MAKE OTHER TESTS ON A DEVICE OF THEM: I HAVE NOT TIME TO ANSWER SINGULARLY, SO HERE IS THE FINAL ANSWER VALID FOR ALL:
    1- MILLIONAIRE TEST: I AM THE CEO OF LEONARDO CORPORATION AND RECENTLY LEONARDO CORPORATION BECAME PROPERTY OF A TRUST OF INVESTORS TO THE ATTORNEYS OF WHICH I HAVE TO ANSWER. THIS, COMBINED WITH THE FACT THAT OUR 1 MW PLANTS HAVE BEEN SOLD TO AN ENTITY THAT WANTS NOT TO BE DISCLOSED (WE ARE UNDER NDA) FORBIDS ME TO TAKE DECISIONS ABOUT THIS ISSUE WITHOUT THE PERMISSIONS OF THE ATTORNEYS; THE OPINION OF THEM IS THAT THIS STUNT IS NOT SERIOUS AND THAT OUR TECHNOLOGY DOES NOT HAVE TO BE PROVEN BY A STUNT, BUT BY A REGULAR OPERATION BY THE CUSTOMERS. WE HAVE TO WORK ON MANUFACTURING LINES TO MAKE RELIABLE AND ECONOMIC OUR PRODUCTS, NOT TO MAKE SHOWS.
    2- COMPETITORS: WE NEVER COMMENT ON OUR COMPETITORS, BUT STILL WE DO NOT SEE ANY COMPETITOR ON THE MARKET AND NEITHER ON THE HORIZON. WHEN WE WILL FIND PRODUCTS WHICH WILL COMPETE WITH OURS, THEN WE WILL HAVE COMPETITORS, BUT NOW IT IS NOT THE CASE. I AM ABSOLUTELY SURE THAT WITH OUR PRICES NOBODY WILL BE ABLE TO COMPETE, ALSO FOR THE NEW TECHNOLOGY WE HAVE DEVELOPED FOR THE E-CATS AND FOR THE PRODUCTION LINE WE ARE MAKING. BY THE WAY: IF SOME COMPETITOR WILL BE ABLE TO COPY OUR TECH AND MAKE SOMETHING REALLY WORKING ( WHICH DIDN’T HAPPEN YET) OUR ATTORNEYS WILL WORK ON THE CASE.
    I WILL NOT ANSWER TO FURTHER QUESTIONS REGARDING THE MILLIONAIRE AND THE WANNABE COMPETITORS.
    WARM REGARDS,
    ANDREA ROSSI

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sebastian Trzaska:
    Yes, correct.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Engeneer:
    I thank you for your smart observation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Engineer

    Dear Ing. Rossi,
    I think your roadmap is the correct one – if you have heat production, just put the product on the Market and your Customers will do the rest. For instance, after the invention and the spread of the internal combustion engine, a hundreds of application has emerged – it’s used in cars, boats, generators, chain saws, pumps, and many more, probably never occurred to the inventors at the first place. The same will happen to the E-cat as well – your Customers will do various things with the e-cats and probably even resolve the issues you have with the efficiency, temperature, electrical energy production, etc. – there are lots of talented engineers able to help you and share with you their observations and innovations.
    Best of luck!

  • Sebastian Trzaska

    I was thinking. ECAT must have any kind of software and this software sometime should be updated. So maybe the fuel cartridge can also do this job.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Archibald Fields:
    This is a Clownerie. If this guy wants to test a 1 MW plant and has 1 million to spend he can buy a 1 MW plant, with a regular contract, that gives him all the necessary guarantees and to us the logic financial guarantees. Our plants Are tested by Our Customers and the Consultants they choose. I have not time at all for this clownery. Besides: when Our E-CATS will be in the market, this “millionaire” will have the chance to buy for few hundred dollars an E-Cat and test it as he wants, so why waste money? I do not need his money.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Archibald Fields

    Dick Smith Offer

    Dear Andrea,
    Australian millionaire Dick Smith has written an open letter to you offering more than $1,000,000 unconditionally if you can successfully repeat March 29 demo. This is easy money and you have till 20 Feb to accept. Kullander and Essen can be validators. This will provide you with easy and much needed funding. What good reason is there to decline this offer?

    Yours Faithfully, Archibald Fields

  • sakis

    http://www.infiniacorp.com/howitworks.html

    Hello Mr. Rossi
    Abut the the transfer from heat to electricity !Have you Thought of stirling engines? I found this one and I had to share it with you !Please check the link above!Thank you !
    Greetings from Greece

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Renato:
    The idea is good, and I must say that we already worked on it, but there is a but: it is practically impossible to mofify the permissions that the power stations have already.
    So such application can only be considered a R&D option, with no practical outputs in the short and middle term.
    Warm Regartds,
    A.R.

  • Renato

    Dear Dott. Rossi,

    It is clear from what You say that e-cats are not ready for -direct- electrical power production.

    In my opinion it is still possible to efficiently obtain electricity from e-cats, in an -indirect- way: by coupling them to the feed lines of an existing power plant to warm up the fuel before it is burned into the power plant boiler or turbine.
    When steam turbines are concerned, preheating the water to be transformed in steam would also work to an extent.

    The power generated in the “coupled” system, would include all the e-cat energy that could efficiently be transformed into cheap & clean electrical power with the efficiencies of the high temperatures reached in the combustion.
    A fuel pre-heater might work also with small diesel portable generators for off-grid generation.

    Did you check with your chemical engineers for such optimisations?

    I guess that power companies could be interested in it, because “ceteris paribus” they would get a help against pollution, and most important, reduce fuel cost.
    In places where CO2 certificates are required, like in Germany, you might find eager customers.
    Besides, that would eventually speed up the massive industrial diffusion of bigger e-cats too.

    Thanks for the time you invest in reading our suggestions, comments and requests, and good luck.

    Best regards,

    Renato

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sazad:
    You are right, I am late, because I still didn’t have the time to go in one of the houses where the E-Cats are working, take a picture, publish it. But don’t expect a much of a photo: you will just see a normal E-Cat, not yet industrialized, as the ones you saw in all the public tests we made, set in proximity to a standard heater and connected to it. The E-Cat is static, no parts in movement, so, basically, you will see absolutely nothing more that what you have already seen many times. Also consider that the photo will cancel any reference to the location, otherwise the user should receive tens of thousands of visits, messages, or worst.
    This is why I am not eager about this.
    But I will.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gregory Goble:
    I am at full disposal where we can be useful.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gregory Goble

    This is not my idea. I heard rumor of it and think it is important.

    An Ecat as a space heater with a one or two gallon cook pot on top; for use in areas where charcoal and wood are used for heat and cooking. Charcoal and wood use is devastating and to the environment and those breathing the smoke.

    Environmental groups would most likely help fund the distribution of such Ecats to those in need. I would gladly participate in such a program

  • sazad

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A person asked you on 30.january on this blog named Giuliano Bettini if you could provide some new working ecat pictures and you said next week. that week was last week ago, can you please post some news pictures. it has been a while since we saw a picture of the ecat. we know youre really busy.

    Thanks you.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Josh:
    Yes, any source can generate electricity, but at different levels of efficiency, depending on the quality of the source. To produce electricity with a good efficiency you need steam at least at 400 Celsius.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Josh

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You said in one of your responses that the heat generated by the 1MW plant can’t be used to generate electricity.

    My question is:
    Can’t -any- heat source be used to generate electricity? All you need is to boil water with it, and turn a turbine with the steam generated. All power plants are built essentially this way.
    It should be fairly trivial to replace the heat source in an existing plant with your e-cat cell.

    Am I missing something?

    Regards,
    Josh

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gio:
    I mean kW/$
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • gio

    dear Ing rossi

    what do you mean when you write “we are improving the ratio power:cost”?

    Improving the ratio for the production( costs of production) or for the consumer( costs of the e-cat when is working)?

    thanks

    cordialità

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Vidar:
    I did not say we are improving the COP. I said we are improving the ratio power:cost.
    We made a tremendous improvement, thanks to the engineering of the production line and the substantial change of technology for what concerns the domestic E-Cats.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Vidar

    Hello Andrea

    You mentioned previously about a partner helping you with improving the COP. Have you had any progress in this area? If so, do you think the improvement will be implemented with the first batch of the e-cat home units or will this only happen with later models?

    Best Regards
    Vidar

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Tom Swan:
    The certifications are in course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear S. Broenink:
    Thank you for your comment, because it gives me the chance to make clear that:
    1- I NEVER APPROACHED THIS DICK SMITH, I DO NOT EVEN KNOW WHO IS HE.
    2- HIS REMARKS ARE SIMPLY RIDICULOUS, JUST GO TO CHECK ALL THE REPORTS MADE ON OUR TESTS, JUST GO TO NYTEKNIK TO READ ALL OUR TESTS, IN PARTICULAR THE OCT 6TH TEST AND YOU WILL SEE THAT ALL THE WIRING HAS BEEN CHECKED. ALL THESE WANNABE VALIDATORS SIMPLY INSULT THE SCIENTISTS WHO MADE THE TESTS, LIKE THEY COULD BE SO NAIF NOT TO CHECK PROPERLY ALL THE WIRING CONNECTIONS. BY THE WAY: THE ENERGY CONSUMED HAS BEEN MEASURED NOT ONLY AT THE WIRES TO THE PLUG (ALL OF THEM, WIRE BY WIRE), BUT ALSO TO ALL THE CABLES CONNECTED INSIDE THE E-CAT !!!!
    ALSO THE PLUG ( THE ONLY ONE USED) HAS BEEN DETECTED, TO CHECK THAT THERE WERE NOT ANOMALIES!!!
    I REMEMBER THAT THE 6TH OCTOBER TEST HAS BEEN ATTENDED FROM SCIENTISTS FROM ALL THE WORLD, AND THAT THE 28TH OCTOBER TEST HAD BEEN MADE INDIPENDENTLY AND WITH INDIPENDENT INSTRUMENTATION BY A COLONEL ENGINEER OF AN ARMY AND THAT HE, USUALLY, WITH 30 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE, TESTS THERMODYNAMIC PLANTS AND MISSILES HEADS OF NUCLEAR CARRIERS.
    3- I DO NOT THINK THIS GUY IS A SNAKE, I THINK HE HAS BEEN MISINFORMED FROM SOME PERSON WHO SAID TO HIM STUPIDITIES.
    4- WITHIN ONE YEAR WE WILL START TO SELL OUR E-CATS IN MASS, SO ALL THE SKEPTICS WILL BE ABLE TO BUY ONE AND TEST IT.
    END OF DISCUSSIONS.
    WARM REGARDS,
    A.R.

  • S. Broenink

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I have come across this article http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/02/australian-engineer-says-wiring-errors.html?m=1 in which is claimed that you approached Dick Smith for an investment.
    As you can read Mr. Smith claimes that – after due dilligence – the energy gains are attributed to faulty wiring.
    Just want to know if you know Dick Smith and weather or not he is a snake…

    Thanks

    S. Broenink

  • Tom Swan

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Thank you for your time in replying to my earlier questions.

    My plumber friend is ready to do the installation. He asked if full installation instructions will be provided or will he need to be trained?

    Rachel insisted I talked to our home insurer and they of course never heard of an E-Cat, so I sent them to your http://ecat.com/ecat-products/ecat-home web site. They said there was not sufficient enough information on the web site and they needed the actual UL certification numbers which the home E-Cat will carry to give me an answer to my question of “Will installing a 10 kW home E-Cat water heater be covered under my home insurance policy”. Can to let me know the UL certification numbers you are working to obtain so I can get their reply?

    We are also keen to see the photos you promised of the E-Cat production line. Is it correct to assume we will be able to see the photos on your E-Cat web site?

    Tom & Rachel Swan

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Edwin Crook:
    Your pre-order has been accepted,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Edwin Crook

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    I have been following your progress since January 2010. I would like to pre-order an E-Cat. Please added my name to your list of pre-orders.

    Regards
    Edwin Crook

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wladimir Giglinski:
    With this it’s 1010!
    Thank you very much, very welcome,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Maarten:
    Of course: ecat.com is our site, and the pre-orders can be put here as well.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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