A new energy – Exp.results

Experimental results

In this paper we report the results obtained with a process and apparatus not described here in detail and protected by patent in 90 countries, consisting of a system whose heat output is up to hundred times the electric energy input. As a consequence, the principle of the conservation of energy ensures that processes involving other energy forms are occurring in our apparatus.

The system on which we operate consists of Ni, in H atmosphere and in the presence of additives placed in a sealed container and heated by a current passing through a resistor. The maximum temperature value can be set to a wide range of values and an external meter allows us to measure the electric energy input. The container is in thermal contact with an external tank full of water and thermally insulated in order to minimize outside heat exchanges. As consequence of the energy production of the system, water boils and the water pipe is under pressure. The steam pressure cannot exceed a limit, whose value can be changed in the range 3-6 bar, because of the opening of a valve. When the valve opens, new water, whose amount is measured by a meter, enters from the supply. These data allow us to calculate the power produced by our system.

In stationary conditions the power output turns out to be much greater than the input (measured with an electric power meter). Some examples of the results obtained with this system (method A) in brief periods (~1-1,5 hours) are reported in lines 1-3 of the Table 1. The ratio between output and input power depends on changes occurring in the Ni-H system and on the time interval elapsed between the starting of the experiments and the measuring moments.

We have subsequently achieved a forced warm water movement through some radiators connected in series. In this case, the energy produced has been evaluated by measuring the power needed to obtain the same radiator temperature with a normal heating system (method B). In Table 1, lines 4 and 5, the results of these measurements are also reported. The patented apparatus is able of producing a constant and reliable amount of energy for a period of months.

A third method (method C) based on a closed circuit in which water is forced to circulate by means of a pump was used in order to measure the power generated: a section of the circuit contains the energy amplifier opportunely insulated in order to minimize thermal exchanges with outside.

Two thermocouples placed before and after the energy amplifier allow to detect continuously the water temperatures which are recorded on a computer. As a consequence the measured temperature difference allows to calculate the thermal energy transferred from the energy amplifier to the water. The electric input energy is measured by means an electric power meter.

In all cases the energy production is too high for any chemical process.

Table 1: Input and output energies, expressed in kWh, in some experiments.
(*) The anomaly in this experiment is due to contamination of the fuel.

In fact, assuming that each Ni atom in sample can realise, in optimal conditions, a typical chemical energy of some eV, the amount of energy emitted in the long lasting experiments would required at least 10ˆ28 atoms. That is something like a million of grams, a quantity enormously larger than the sample we have employed. For such a reason, we believe that form of energy involved is nuclear, and more specifically, due to fusion processes between protons and Nickel nuclei. They are exothermic with an energy release in the range 3-7,5 MeV, depending on the Nickel isotope involved.

It is remarkable that similar results have been obtained in the factory of EON in Bondeno (Ferrara, Italy) in a test performed with ENEL spa on June, 25th 2009 and in another sery of tests made in Bedford, New Hampshire (USA) in a lab of LTI with the presence of the DOE (November 19 2009) and of the DOD (November 20 2009).

The proton capture process performed by a Nickel nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the scheme

(3)

Copper nuclei, with the exception of the stable isotopes Cu63 and Cu65, decay with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni nuclei according to the scheme

(4)

A process alternative to (4), electron capture, in abbreviated form indicated as EC, consists in the nuclear capture of an orbital electron which gives rise to the process

(5)

As a consequence, in this case, the reaction (4) must be replaced by

(6)

with emission of an antineutrino.

Table 2: Energy (in MeV) released by Ni->Cu and Cu->Ni transformations for different Ni isotopes.

The two decay processes (positron emission and EC) are alternative: their relative frequencies for the various copper isotopes are generally unknown with the only exception of Cu64 for which EC decay (6) is about twice as frequent as positron decay [4].

The capture rate of protons by Nickel nuclei cannot depend on the mass values of different isotopes: in fact they possess the same nuclear charge and the same distribution of electrons in the various atomic shells. In practice, starting from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes, Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62 is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62. In Table 2, for every Nickel isotope, we report, expressed in MeV, the energies obtained from the process Ni(A)+p -> Cu(A+1) (column 2), those obtained from the process Cu(A+1) -> Ni(A+1) (column 3) and their total for the complete transformation Ni(A) -> Ni(A+1) (column 4). Data reported in columns 2 and 3, are obtained as differences between the mass values of the initial and final state: that reported in column 3 contain also the neutrino (or antineutrino) energy, particles which interact weakly with the matter and does not hand their energy locally.

On the other hand we have to consider the energy equivalent of the electron rest mass due to the positron annihilation. Cu64 also decays in Zn64 with negative electron emission; the energies relative to both decays are reported in Table 2 (third column); the value carried in column four takes into account the relative frequencies of both Cu64 decay modes. The two isotopes Ni59 and Ni63 are unstable, but because their long lifetime (8×10ˆ4 years and 92 years respectively for Ni59 and Ni63) can be considered as stable in the times of our experiments.

Ni64, coming from the decay of Cu64, decays with electron emission, releasing 2,14 MeV: such a value must be added to 8,22 MeV reported in Table 2 (line 6, column 4).The two isotopes Ni59 and Ni63 are unstable, but because of their long lifetime (8×104 years and 92 years respectively for Ni59 and Ni63) can be considered as stable in the times of our experiments.

For every nucleus in the mass range 58 – 64 amu, we have built Table 3 which contains:

  • the mass value expressed in amu (column 1)
  • the total energy obtainable from all transformations (column 2)
  • the percentage in natural composition (column 3)
  • the product of columns 2 and 3

The sum of the energy releases in the last column gives ≈ 35 MeV, which represents the mean energy value obtainable for every Ni nucleus (in the hypothesis that all nuclei give rise to the whole sequence of events).

Such a figure must be compared with E ≈ 200 MeV for every U235 fission in a nuclear reactor [5] and ≈ 18 MeV for every reaction between deuterium and tritium in not still existing fusion reactor.

For the same number of nuclei, the ratio between Ni and U masses is 0,25 and the ratio between the energies that can be obtained is ≈ 0,2. Taking into account the world reserves of these elements, their extraction costs and the great investments needed for the building and maintenance of a nuclear reactor, the nuclear processes (based on Nickel) appear on the economical point very interesting.

During experimental tests, continuous controls on the radioactivity levels in close proximity to the apparatus suitably lead shielded, were performed by using a gamma ray detector [6] and three passive neutron bubble detectors BTbubble [7], one of which for thermal neutrons: no radiation was observed at levels greater than natural radiation background. No radioactivity has been found also in the Nickel residual from the process.

The 10th of march 2009, during the run whose data are reported in Table 1, line five, measurements were performed, around the running Energy Amplifier, by the Bologna University Health Physics Unit which verified that emissions around the Energy Amplifier are not significantly different from the natural background. The water drawn from the Energy Amplifier has resulted to have the same concentration of natural radioisotopes of the tap water: therefore there is no difference between the tap water and the water from the Energy Amplifier.

Two different samples of material used in the experiments labelled in table 1as method A (288 kWh produced) and method B (4774 kWh produced) were analysed at Padova University SIMS. In the long period sample, the mass analysis showed the presence of three peaks in the mass region 63-65 a.m.u. which correspond respectively to Cu63, elements (Ni64 and Zn65) deriving from Cu64 decay and Cu65.


Table 3: Energy obtained by every Ni isotope due to all successive transformations

These allowed us the determination of the ratio Cu63/Cu65=1,6 different from the value (2,24) relative to the copper isotopic natural composition. The Zn64 derives from the β‾ Cu64 decay: as it.s shown in Table 3, formation of Cu64 requires the existence of Ni63 which, absent in natural Ni composition, must have been in precedence produced starting by more light nickel isotopes. More details on this analysis will be given in a successive paper [8].

Sergio Focardi
Andrea Rossi


110 comments to A new energy – Exp.results

  • Zhengang

    Andrea,

    Congratulations on the great discover. I believe your discovery will remake the whole world profoundly, and make it much better place for all.

    My only concern is that your finding and know how will able to preserved no matter what. Historically, there are great discoveries that found and lost like some from Telsa. Oil companies, Energy companies etc will like your finding of cheap energy, and will be trying to prevent it from the public. Please make precautionary arrangement to preserve what you find, and make it a lasting asset of humanity.

    Thanks,

    Zhengang

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Rolando:
    I have not postponed, I said that the 1 MW plant was going to be started up by October 2011.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rolando

    Then have you postponed the date ??? In fact, we wait for a press conference at start of 2011 year… maybe we didnt correctly understud ? Which kind of difficulty you found in the job ? Thanks !

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Rolando:
    For sure in October we will make the start up of the 1 MW plant we are manufacturing for our Customer of Athens. This also will cut off all the chattering which is coming from persons financed by who wants not this technology take place, and envy. Should envy be turned into energy it could move at maximum power all the high speed trains of the world. This is why I am not answering to the lot of superficial things I am reading in some blog. To too many words only facts can give answers.
    Warm Regards
    Andrea Rossi

  • Rolando

    Hallo Mr. Rossi, when do you think it will be the public announce about new plant ? We hope very soon ! Best regards an good job !

  • Andrea Rossi

    FIRST OF ALL, GOOD MORNING TO ALL THE READERS OF THE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS ATTENDING THIS PRESS CONFERENCE ONLINE. THIS PRESS CONFERENCE WILL GO AHEAD WITHOUT LIMITS OF TIME, WE ARE RECEIVENG A BIG AMOUNT OF QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS AND WE WILL ANSWER TO ALL OF THEM. JUST EXCUSE US IF MAYBE THE ANSWERS WILL ARRIVE WITH A DELAY DUE TO THE MASS OF WORK.

    Dear Mr Sesselman: soon will be delivered to ou Customers plants which will work regularly every day.
    We will continue our research program with the University and the INFN.
    The thermochemical reactions you have cited could not produce the amount of energY measured.
    I absolutely agree with you that much work has to be done about the theoretical interpretation, but the practical operative effect has numbers which are under the eyes of everybody.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Dear Dr Rossi,

    I find it hard to accept that any nuclear reaction is taking place in this apparatus, without a simple gamma spectrum as evidence. The annihilation of electrons and positrons would produce clear peaks at 511 Kev and 1022 kev. This equipment must be available at your university, so why not use it?

    My understanding of your experiment is that the the formation of Nickel Hydrate from Ni-62 and H-2 releases potential energy by rearrangement of the molecules into a more space efficient arrangement. This is essentially the same heat energy as we see when mixing water and sulphuric acid, the combined liquid occupies less space than the two liquids separately, thereby allowing the resultant mix to fall to a lower potential.

    Your discovery may have commercial value, but I doubt that any nuckear reaction is taking place.

  • Andrea Rossi

    DIMENTICAVO: GRAZIE INFINITE PER LA SUA CORTESE ATTENZIONE E CARI AUGURI PER IL 2011, L’ANNO DELL’ATOMO…
    ANDREA ROSSI

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gentile Sig. Rolando, Le rispondo sia in Italiano che in Inglese, per i nostri lettori internazionali.
    Non credo che si possa applicare questa tecnologia ad utilizzi di tipo militare, dato che le reazioni nei nostri reattori sono lente e relativamente deboli, quindi non idonee ad utilizzi violenti, che richiedono la concentrazione di reazioni in spazi di tempo estremamente brevi.
    Dear Mr Rolando: I do not think this technology can find military applications, because the reactions are slow and weak, while for military applications ( to which I am not interested at all) should be needed series of very energetic reactions in very short time. The applications you listed, regarding civil applications, are possible.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • Rolando

    Preg.mo Ing. Rossi, le scrivo per sottoporle alcune riflessioni, ma non credo che queste siano necessariamente da pubblicare, quindi se desidera rispondermi può farlo direttamente alla mia mail. Innanzitutto, complimenti a Lei ed al Prof. Focardi, nonché ai collaboratori che vi stanno aiutando in questo strabiliante lavoro. Le mie riflessioni ineriscono le probabilità che il risultato del vostro lavoro possa effettivamente essere divulgato, nel senso che il vostro apparato venga prodotto in grande quantità e che numerosi esemplari possano essere installati in varie parti del mondo. E’ chiaro che io mi auguro che sia così, ma la portata delle conseguenze generate dai vostri risultati è tale, che temo possano essere pesantemente ostacolati. Le applicazioni potenzialmente positive sono numerosissime, basti pensare alle possibilità di disinquinamento, all’irrigazione di zone desertiche, ai trasporti marittimi rivuluzionati dalla vostra nuova fonte di energia. Oltre che, ovviamente, alla produzione di elettricità non inquinante e senza effetto serra. Tuttavia, qualche mese addietro, in un programma radiofonico sulla Rai 3 italiana, a proposito della fusione basata su palladio-deuterio, un commentatore sosteneva che, se anche si raggiungesse il risultato, esso avrebbe applicazioni anche militari, nel senso della possibile produzione di nuove armi. Il vostro dispositivo potrebbe essere “trasformato” ed avere applicazioni distruttive ? Se così fosse, temo che ancor più difficilmente si potrebbe sperare in uno sviluppo a largo raggio delle sue applicazioni civili, perché ai molti ostacoli già esistenti se ne aggiungerebbe uno forse definitivo. Spero quindi ardentemente che non sia in alcun modo possibile rendere la reazione deflagrante. Con questo auspicio di pace e progresso, auguro a Lei ed a tutti i suoi collaboratori un glorioso 2011 che, con un po’ di fortuna, potrebbe passare alla storia proprio grazie a voi ed al vostro lavoro. Grazie.

  • Hey! Keep up the good work. That was a fascinating post. I am ready to hear more about this interesting line of information. See ya. Greetings from Luxembourg.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Forgot to say: as you know, between the sublime and the ridiculous there is a step…

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pierre,
    I think I will be allowed to make a press conference: is not impossible within the end of the year, as I hoped, in any case within January 2011.
    I hope in December 2010.
    I promise within January 2011.
    Should I get enough time to see a foot ball game, surely I would have enjoyed the match. Unfortunately, believe me, in this period I work over any possible limit, in the USA and in Europe. I am afraid to do something wrong. The price of a mistake will be very high.
    Warmest Regards,
    Andrea

  • pierre CLAUZON

    Dear Andrea,

    I hope that you are still on schedule and that we can expect your press conference before the end of this year . 30 days only left…

    As an Italian guy, I am sure that you have appreciate the clasico Madrid-Barça…

    Best regards from also a fan of Buonaparte !

  • Will be checking this site regularly!

  • Thanks a bunch for posting about this. Please keep up the fantastic work. I will be returning lots.

  • I’ve been to this blog once before yet this is probably the best articles yet. keep writing!

  • Thanks for sharing this valuable information with us, I am very much surprised after reading this blog.

  • Hi buddy, your blog’s design is simple and clean and i like it. Your blog posts are superb. Please keep them coming. Greets!!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    IMPORTANT DISCOVERY today, SEPTEMBER 21st 2010, BY THE LHC (LARGE HADRON COLLIDER) OF THE CERN OF GENEVA. AN UNPRECEDENTED PHENOMENON ALLOWS THE HYPOTHESYS OF THE PRIMORDIAL MATTER, THE QUARKS AND GLUONS PLASMA PRODUCED IN THE FIRST 20-30 MICROSECONDS AFTER THE BIG BANG.THE PHENOMENON HAS BEEN OBSERVED DURING THE COMPACT MUON SOLENOID EXPERIMENT DIRECTED BY THE ITALIAN PHYSICIST GUIDO TONELLI
    http://public.web.cern.ch

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sir,
    So far we are on schedule, and crossing our fingers..
    Warm regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Jean de Lagarde

    on july 31, you wrote

    My team and I still we are on schedule for the end of year rendez vous with the Customer. I

    Are you still on schedule and can we expect your press conference before the end of the year ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dera Ivor:
    Your questions regard issues which at the moment are covered with industrial secret. I am sorry, I cannot answer.
    I want anyway to thank you for your interest in our work.
    Warmest regards,
    Andrea

  • Ivor Paech

    Dear Andrea,

    Would you regard the (nuclear) reaction as being primarily a surface reaction, after all Ni is noted for its aDsorbing properties as distinct from palladium?
    If this is a surface effect, can you advise how the surface is prepared and maintained to allow continued operation ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    I WANT TO SAY PUBLICLY HOW DEEPLY I AM INDEBTED WITH PROF. COOK FOR HIS BOOK “MODELS OF THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS”, SPRINGER 2006.
    THIS BOOK IS AN ABSOLUTE MUST.
    FOR A CONTACT: cook@res.kutc.kansai-u.ac.jp
    Andrea Rossi

  • Andrea Rossi

    INFORMATION FOR THE READERS OF THE JOURNAL: IN OCTOBER WILL BE PUBLISHED THE ADJOURNMENT OF THE WORK OF DR PIERRE CLAUZON WITH TUNGSTEN AND OTHER METALS OPERATING CELLS. I’M PARTICIPATING TO THE REVIEW OF IT AND IT’S REALLY INTERESTING.
    ANDREA ROSSI

  • Andrea Rossi

    INFORMATION FOR THE READERS OF THE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS: IN OCTOBER WE WILL PUBLISH THE ADJOURNMENT OF THE WORK OF DR PIERRE CLAUZON WITH CELLS WORKING WITH TUNGSTEN AND OTHER METALS. VERY INTERESTING INDEED.
    WARM REGARDS TO ALL AND GOOD SUMMER HOLIDAYS,
    ANDREA ROSSI

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pierre,
    First of all, thank you for your kind comment.
    As you know, we do not use electrolytic cells ( I assume you read my patent). Our work is very well in progress, we are preparing the delivery for the Customer and the tests upon the modules are going well. My team and I still we are on schedule for the end of year rendez vous with the Customer. I wish good luck to you for youe experiments. I know what you are doing and I think you are doing well.
    If you want to send an article of yours regarding your work, we’ll be glad to publish it.
    Warmest Regards,
    Andrea

  • Pierre Clauzon

    Dear Andrea,

    In the past ICCMNS meetings, we presented Mizuno type experiments with Tungsten cathods showing abnormal excess heat. Recent preliminary tests with Nickel cathods seem to give also abnormal excess heat. We are planning to go to hydrogen discharges with W and Ni in the future…
    But, in fact, I would like to know if your cells production is always going well and then if your end of the year rendez-vous will be well in hand? we hope really a total success for you and your team !

    Best regards Pierre

  • Andrea Rossi

    At the point 1 I wanted to write “powders”. not “powder”.
    Sorry for the refuse,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pierre,
    Thank you for your important questions, here are the answers:
    1- the Ni powder I utilized were pure Ni, no copper . At the end of the operations in the reactor the percentage of copper was integrally bound to the amount of energy produced. A charge which has worked for 6 monthes, 24 hours per day, at the end had a percentage of Cu superior to 30%
    2- About the Ni isotopes: the isotopes after the operations were substantially changed in percentage. We are preparing a campaign of analysys with a Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometer at the University of Padua (Italy), at the end of which the data will be published on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • Pierre Clauzon

    Dear Andrea,

    You have explained the observed abnormal heat by transmutation of Ni to Cu and then may-be back to Ni.
    Could you tell us if, due to your lengthy experiments, you were able to measure the content of Cu in the Ni powder and/or the change of the isotopic aboundance of the Ni?

    Best regards Pierre

  • Andrea Rossi

    GRAZIE E COMPLIMENTI PER IL VOSTRO GIORNALE, CHE LEGGO SPESSO PERCHE’ E’ BEN FATTO E DIVERTENTE,
    ANDREA ROSSI

  • Andrea Rossi

    I will pass to my Customers your request.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • what is the best energy comparison site to change your gas and elecy in the United kingdom?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pierre: The Customer ordered a 1 MW plant.
    Warmest regards, and thank you for your kind attention.

  • Pierre Clauzon

    Dear Andrea,
    Your calorimetry seem to me quite satisfatory and I am surprised to notice doubts in some comments in this area, in spite of your lengthy runs. However, I am wondering why you did choose 1MW power for your demo plant instead of 100 kW for example… The results, that we are all waiting for, obtained even at 100kW would be largely convincing… and more rapidly achieved !
    Pierre

  • Andrea Rossi

    Yes, we are working well and fast. As I said in past, we hope to be in operation by the end of the year. We already are working with the modules already made and they confirm the reliability of the former ones.
    Thank you very much for your kind interest,
    Warm regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Jean de Lagarde

    Is your one megawatt unit near completion ? will it be working in the coming summer ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Re-reading the comments, as I usually do on Saturdays, I saw that an important question had remained unanswered, and the question is: ” Are the papers published on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics ‘peer reviewed’? “.
    The answer is: yes, the papers are peer-reviewed. More precisely, every paper before the publication is reviewed by at least one University Professor of Physics, to control the scientific sustainability of the content, and by an attorney, to certify the respect of the law. This is why between the presentation of an article to its publication it takes about 30 days. The authors whose articles have not been accepted have received a motivation for the refuse and of course they can send again the papers corrected, if they want. The Board Of Advisers, anyway, do not make any editing of the papers, which, if accepted, are published integrally as the Authors sent them; therefore, the Authors are totally responsible for their publications.

  • Andrea Rossi

    We are interested to your work; why don’t you mail us your papers?
    Warm regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Electricity is one of the most amazing discoveries of all times, but we have to learn to love it in order to get the best from it. Don’t get me wrong, we know that it wont last forever but we always find ways to get cheap electricity from diferent sources. I wanted to share my story about the use of electricity for getting healthy but don’t thing you will be interested. Thank you for such a nice contribution.

  • Andrea Rossi

    I said ‘eventually’ because it is exactly what happens. Of course you know that in English ‘eventually’ means ‘after some time’.We know exactly why and how to make H after the injection of H2 and know exactly how difficult is to use this radical before H2 recombination. This is one of the most important parts of our know how. When we use terms, in this field, we know exactly what we say. We not just made models and calculations, but we made apparatuses which are working from 2 years now. What we are working on is no more an ‘experimental set’, as you wrongly wrote,it is an apparatus which heats up a factory and of which we are organizing the industrialization. I understand you get fun, we don’t: we work on this in a factory totally dedicated to this, and we are pretty good at, as you soon will see. In our team there are Nuclear Physics University professors, with experience from CERN of Geneva, INFN, etc., etc.
    Your lecturing and sarcastic tone does not qualify you a lot, but we know, you get fun…
    About the second question, yes, the paper has been peer-reviewed.
    Get fun, ‘MR BROWN’, and let your sun smile for ever.
    A.R.
    p.s. Now, after your lecturing, I want to put you some questions:
    1- Who are you? D.Brown is a fake name, so you approached us unonimously, which is not fair, is it? But I know: it’s fun..
    2- which is your profession? What do you do, besides cozy smiling suns?

  • D. Brown

    Thanks for the kindly and quick answer :-)
    Hmmmm….
    You said: “eventually”. In sciences you should be careful useing such terms.
    Do you have any idea what’s the amount of energy you need to break up H2 molecules?
    Any modelling or calculations? Some idea about reaction velocity and mass-flow?
    By the way: you forgot to answer to the other question :-)
    best regards,
    D. Brown

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr. Brown, about the difference between H2 and H: in your post you asked:’ why don’t you use H2 atmosphere?’. Your question is obviously referred to the initial iniection of gas in the reactor. Eventually H2 breaks up and we get atomic hydrogen. This is why I answered you that we use H2 and why in the paper you read that the reaction is between Ni and H.
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • D. Brown

    You wrote:
    ‘Yes, we use H2 atmosphere.’

    But you have written in your paper:
    “The system on which we operate consists of Ni, in H atmosphere ……”

    H atmosphere is not the correct expression. You should use correct terms.
    I think your paper is not peer-reviewed? Or is it?
    Hope you know whats the difference between H and H2.
    Nevertheless the blog is funny :-)
    Regards
    D. Brown

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sir,
    Thank you for your reading. Yes, we use H2 atmosphere.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • D. Brown

    Nice blog and nice joke :-)
    Why didn’t you use H2 atmosphere? Think it was not easy to handle H radicals in your experimental set.

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