How repulsive gravity contributes for cold fusion occurrence


Wladimir Guglinski
Mechanical Engineer graduated in the Escola de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais- UFMG, (Brazil), 1973, author of the book Quantum Ring Theory-Foundations for Cold Fusion, published in 2006

Abstract
Quantum Ring Theory (QRT) proposes a new model of neutron, a new hydrogen model, a photon model, a model structure for the aether, a model of electron, a model of proton, and a new nuclear model named Hexagonal Floors Model.
Here we analyze the Rossi-Focardi cold fusion experiment by considering the nuclear properties of the Hexagonal Floors Model.

259 comments to How repulsive gravity contributes for cold fusion occurrence

  • Hergen

    Here is a good article of Hank Mills on PESWiki:
    ” The New Solid State E-Cat”

    http://pesn.com/2012/06/30/9602121_Solid_State_E-Cat/

    There is rumor, that Andrea Rossi could go for a 1000°C e-cat.

  • Don Witcher

    Dr Rossi

    Do you have certifications for the low temperature one megawatt reactors now in production for industrial customers that you could publish now as guidelines for potential customers.

    I understand that you do not yet have certifications for the high temperature reactors or for the Home ecats.

    Best Regards,
    Don Witcher

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hergen
    thank you
    Warm regards
    AR

  • Hergen

    “Better surfaces could help dissipate heat”

    http://www.ecnmag.com/news/2012/06/better-surfaces-could-help-dissipate-heat-0

    I think these findings could be applied for e-cats as well.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven ,
    this info is confidential.
    Warm regards,
    AR

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Is the “fuel blend”, that is the type and/or amount of catalyst differ between the 100C and 600C eCats. I could foresee that some “tuning” of the mixture might be required for the two different applications.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Joseph,

    You are right. I had assumed an “open” system. But for purposes of estimating the level of the reactions and the water consumed, it was a useful computation. A.R. might address the output power level of the individual reactors as I had assumed 5kW each. His choice to do so or not.

  • Joseph Fine

    Steven, A.R.

    Based on earlier demonstrations in Bologna, water is not “consumed” and vented to the atmosphere as steam, but passes through an external heat exchanger/dissipator and recirculated. At 600 degrees C, the pressure may be high enough to keep ‘steam’ in a Super-critical state. The conditions for the super-critical state (for H2O) are above 374 C and pressures above 220.6 bar/(3200 psi).

    Joseph

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    My original question dealt with how much water would be consumed per hour with 20 eCat units to produce 600C steam. I was able to locate the following facts: (1) specific heat of water = 4.187 kJ / kg-K; (2) heat of vaporization of water = 2,257 kJ / kg; and (3) specific heat of water vapor = 1.996 kJ / kg – K. So assuming the input water temperature is 20C and it is raised to 600C we have: (100 – 20) *4.187 kJ /kg + 2,257 kJ / kg + (600 – 100) * 1.996 kJ / kg or 3,423.84 kJ required for 1 kg of water to become 600C steam.

    Assuming 20 eCats at 5 kW each = (100 kW = 100 kJ/sec) / 3,423.84 kJ / kg = 0.0292 kg / sec = 105.15 kg / hour.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michele:
    For commercial issues in Italy, please contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Einar Zettergren:
    Yes. In a container we have 70% of free space.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Einar Zettergren

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    My question was a bit unclear. I am aware that authorization could be an obstacle, but I was rather thinking if it will be possible soon to have more megawatts per cubic meter than today. A container with 1 MW is just too few MW/m3, considering that you might want 100 MW or more for preheating and reheating.
    So: will it be possible to have easily serviceable LENR heat generation of this scale? The need to service, control and monitor thousands of heaters and radio frequency generators seems a bit unpractical. Is there any research in a more convenient upscaling?
    Best Regards,
    Einar Zettergren

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    We do not produce steam boilers, so this issue will be assessed by the boiler manufacturer. We will not manufacture or engineer heat exchangers of any kind. What we have to do is to obtain the primary walls at a temperature above the temperature demanded for the steam, with the due power. We do not put these reactor in series, since they reach singularly the demanded temperature.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pekka Janhunen:
    Whatever you have to do in a power plant that has not be foreseen in the existing authorizations has to be authorized, and such integration risks to jeopardize the authorizations already issued. So I have been told.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Concerning your reply to Einar Zettergren. What is your opinion, is the difficulty of authorisation mainly due to the presence of fissionable materials and/or old radioactivity in the reactor or for some other reasons? I’m asking because we have a nuclear plant in Finland, Olkiluoto-3, which is still under construction and has never been loaded with nuclear fuel yet. Would authorisation for retrofitting still be prohibitively difficult in that case, according to your experience with authorisation laws?
    thanks, /pekka

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland:
    I understand, in Italian “dramatic” (drammatico) has a totally different meaning: I was wrong in the translation, sorry!
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Omega Z:
    I uinderstand, I got a lack of translation. Yes, a report will be published.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    They will go in parallel, because the temp. they reach is very high. When I say above 600 Celsius I mean exactly this: the temperatureof the wall is well above, as you will see from the report we will publish soon ( matter of weeks). The temperature is constant, within a reasonable variation integral.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Einar Zettergren:
    Yes, you are right, but this kind of retrofitting implies a huge task regarding the authorizations. Existing power plants have very strict requirements and every retrofitting makes necessary a reprocessing of the authorizations. You can imagine the difficulties…
    Technologically this application is very possible, and I already proposed it, but the authorization stake is too high, so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Einar Zettergren

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    LENR technology could relatively easily be used to boost the efficiency of conventional and nuclear power plants, by simply using LENR on the feedwater preheater stage and on the reheater stage (between HP and LP turbines) instead of fresh steam. But that would require multi-MW LENR output. Do you foresee that LENR can be scaled upwards to accommodate this opportunity?
    Best Regards,
    Einar Zettergren

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea,

    Do all the test reactors operate in parallel, or are any two or more arranged in series to increase temperature above 600 degrees Celsius? In the past, you have used series arrangements to increase output temperature above that of a single unit.

    When you use the word “above” in… “above 600 degrees Celsius,” …. do you mean that the temperature characteristic is dynamic and goes over 600 degrees C or that the temperature is relatively constant and the average, or even the minimum operating temperature, is above 600 degrees C?

    Best Regards,

    Joseph

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If you could, please provide the thermodynamic details of heating water from 20C to 600C. I know the specific heat of liquid water and the heat of vaporization but how do you handle steam? I assume 20 eCats @ 5kW each means 100kW total. How much water is consumed per hour?

  • Omega Z

    Dear Mr. Rossi

    In your response to Ecatworld.com about “Dramatic”

    In English “dramatic” would be as in “Spectacular”

    Also,
    I was wondering. You had posted that your people documented all your tests that did not work.

    When you publish your work on the E-cat’s, Will this information also be published?

  • Michele

    Egr. Ing. Rossi,
    We are interested to distributed generation for small communities.

    I would like to know if the plant is ready for sale and if I may contact you for a direct approach.

    Greetings
    Michele Procida

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    By ‘dramatic’ I meant to convey something impressive and spectacular. One of my readers tells me in Italian ‘drammatico’ means ‘tragic’. I think your news about multiple high temperature E-Cats is the opposite of tragic.

    I am looking forward to learning more about this development.

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ecatworld.com:
    Why dramatic? I just wrote about the work we are doing, there is nothing dramatic.
    Thank you, anyway, for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • […] his work on the Journal of Nuclear Physics web site. Some are more dramatic than others, and this latest one could be considered more on the dramatic side: Italo R. June 24th, 2012 at 10:42 AM Dear dr. Rossi, […]

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco:
    After we will have finished the tests, that will be our next step.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    OK
    Red Hot Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,
    do you mean 20*10kWh/h@+600°C ?
    May I suggest to upgrade your greetings from “warm regards” to some “red-hot regards” ? 😉
    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Franco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    when You planned to drive a turbine with high temperature steam that now E-Cat is producing?

    Kind Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.:
    Actually, I am in the USA, close to 20 reactors working above 600 Celsius. We must collect at least 20 000 hours of test. This is not sweating: this is vaporizing, as correctly the snakes say.
    Soon (weeks) we will publish the report of the high temperature reactor validation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Italo R.

    Dear dr. Rossi, in these hot summer days we all are sweating.
    What about you, near your 600 °C device?

    Warm (or, better, fresh) regards…
    Italo R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bob K:
    We are testing the 600 C E-Cat since a couple of months, and we had to resolve problems that emerged. We will continue the tests for at least another month, after wich we will publish a report. In this precise moment I am testing it, and it works, it works.
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob K

    Hello Andrea Rossi…….Could you tell us how long the 600C reactor has been running continuously?

    Sincerely , Bob K

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Months.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Hansson:
    Now the question is clear. Yes, I think so within months.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • H. Hansson

    Hello Mr. Rossi,

    Yes will try to be clearer.

    Within the mainstream media, there is a resistance to report and cover the developments of LENR technology. Mainly due to lack of independent practical research or working LENR devices. Conclusive evidence that ”uninitiated” readers can understand (in layman’s terms) the concept of eCat and LENR..

    You have previously touched on this subject and said that when there are operational LENR devices, the mainstream media will start write about LENR.

    ..to the questions.

    When do you think there will be some LENR news for ordinary journalists to cover for their regular, layman readers.

    Will your coming presentation of the 600 degree steam eCat reactor have such qualities??

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Once again you are correct. When I was in Grad School, one of my professors had worked at Hughes where the Laser was first demonstrated/invented. The inventor went to his Management and asked for funding. They could see no practical use of a laser. So he borrowed materials and got favors from technicians to construct the basic system. He used Aluminum Foil as the reflector as a design “can only get better” and did the work on weekends.

    Similarily with eCat technology, once released, engineers will find improvements to make and new applications not yet dreamt of.

    I understand the other poster’s question to be “When will it be released or made publically available? – weeks, months, years.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Hanssen:
    I am sorry, but I did not understand your question: can you explain?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Probably this technology will find application also in fields which are not my turf, like rockets. The inventors of the LASER could not even think to telecommunications by means of optic fibers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    My old engineering mentor would tell me “Better is the enemy of good enough” While exotic mass-light drives and drives that violate Newton’s laws are nice to talk about, they will not be the backbone of space technology in the near future.

    A steam rocket, powered by an eCat could be done for above the earth’s atmosphere orbit movements. Water is readily available on the earth’s surface and Dr. Bull (of supergun fame) showed how water and other non-compressables could be sent into low earth orbit using a large caliber gun and done much more economically that chemical rockets. Once you have an economic means of moving the propellant to low erth orbit coupled with eCat’s tremendous energy density, a steam rocket to the space station or to the moon and back becomes economically viable. Not the “ultimate” solution but economic and good enough.

  • Hi everyone!

    With in the next 10 days, I will disclose something related to the Propelantless Propulsion and additionally without moving parts technology. It is an experiment that took place back in the year 2009 and conducted by me. We speak about of solid mass of 200 grams to move on the surface of a table for about 80 cm with a speed of 0.5cm/sec and it is powered from a Power supply with a maximum of 100V Output.

    The Aether Technology in action!

    Web Site: http://www.ioannisxydous.gr/

    Stay tuned!

    Ioannis Xydous

    Electronic Engineer

    Switzerland

  • Greg Leonard

    Dear Guru
    I have helped Hugh in the early development of his project, with several FEMM simulations.
    I think it is fair to say we are all looking forward to seeing a practical working device.
    GL

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    You have in answers indicating that this a key catalyst for breaking LENR news into mainstream media is a working LENR device/plant (eCat) showing both commercial and have news potential.

    In your mind when will this critical point happens (weeks, months, year??)?

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Guru, P.G.,
    For a space-drive you need:
    1 one absolute vacuum chamber.
    2 A strong magnetic field.
    3 A very high voltage power source, to make “jump” electrons trough the vacuum and trough the magnetic field.

    Your magnet wil undergo a non-Newtonian force. There you have your space drive.

    I have built one, fifteen years ago. Very tiny effect, because all the energy (of the high voltage source) is lost in the arc that follows after the jumping electron. It was impossible for me to create perfect vacuum. I do not know products that do not ionize.

    In fact, is IS Newtonian, and it does not break any laws, because it is energy that is converted into mass and vice-versa on the moment of the electron-jump. In fact, you create a “temporary mass” that moves at the speed of light and attracts the magnet. One “spark” is not enough, but after some 20-50 sparks/second, a magnetic pendulum starts moving. At that time I had no camera. I should rebuild the experiment

    So the phenomenon exits, and can be demonstrated, just as Ni-H fusion systems worked for 20 years, but we will need another Andrea Rossi type to make it efficient.

    I think P.G. is also right. With very high voltages, it is possible to make objects move, but I have never understood that.

    Best Regards,
    Koen

  • Guru Gurovitsch

    For Mr. Leonard:

    Your classical view on rocket propulsion is obsolete.

    Mr. Hugh Deasy from European Space Agency as his afterhours hobby invented absolutely stunning N3 Breaker (Newton 3rd Law breaker). Device which is capable of action without reaction.
    Mr. Deasy stated that his invention is capable of output in “MegaWatt range from small system as side effect”.

    Such propulsion is revolutionary not only for rocket business, also for aircraft, shipbuilding etc. industries. Probably it is sufficient for hovering cars too.

    I don’t know details, folks may contact Mr. Deasy at his blog.

  • For True space flight propulsion I need Electricity, not steam. Rocket science is horse and buggy, no matter the propellent or energies used, you can not carry enough mass for a mass ejection drive to be practical.

    Two gifts are to be given to the humans during this time period. The first is an energy device such as the Ecat, the second is an electric space drive. pg

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Interesting, thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Greg Leonard

    Dear Steven N Karels
    The effectiveness of a rocket is the product of the weight of ‘fuel’ times the speed of ejection. I would imagine that the ejection speed of the steam at 4400 psi would be quite low by rocket standards, and so need an enormous weight of water.
    What a rocket really needs is a ‘Photon’ drive where tiny amounts of mass are ejected at the speed of light.
    GL

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