Integral charge 3 quark bound system with binding energy

by
U.V.S. Seshavatharam
DIP QA Engineer, Lanco Industries Ltd, Srikalahasti-517641, A.P, India
E-mail: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com

Prof. S. LAKSHMINARAYANA
Department Of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Vizag-530003, AP, India.
E-mail: lnsrirama@yahoo.com


Abstract
In the previous paper [1] it is suggested that there exists integral charge effective quark fermi-gluons and quark boso-gluons.
Effective quark fermi-gluons generates charged ground state baryons and quark boso-gluons generates ground state neutral mesons.
In this paper it is suggested that with a binding energy of 939 MeV any 3 (effective) quark fermi-gluons couples together to form a charged ground state baryon.
Square root of any 2 quark fermi-gluons or cubic root of any 3 quark fermi-gluons can be called as `hybrid’ quark fermi-gluons.
Hybrid quark fermi-gluons of up and down are 746 MeV, 779 MeV and 813 MeV. Out of 6 quark fermi-gluons, for a three quark bound system (with binding energy 939 MeV) different combinations of quark fermi-gluons and hybrid quark fermi-gluons can be possible and hence different ground state baryons can be generated with different quark flavors.
If n=1, 2, 3,.. excited energy levels follows

X sum of 3 quark fermi-gluons rest energy.
Another interesting thing is that light quark bosons like up boson mass=1.94 MeV and down boson mass=4.2 MeV couples with these ground or excited states to form doublets and triplets.
3 up quark fermi-gluons having rest energy 3×685 MeV and binding energy 939 MeV generates a ground state charged baryon of rest energy (3×685)-939≈1116MeV.
Up boson mass =1.94 MeV couples with this charged state and generates a neutral baryon at 1118 MeV.
Two up and one down quark fermi-gluons having binding energy 939 MeV generates charged (2×685+885)-939≈1316MeV .
One up and two down quark fermi-gluons having binding enegy 939 MeV generates charged (685+2×885)-939 1516MeV.
Thus 1177 MeV and 1377 MeV ground state charged baryons can be generated.
This idea can be applied to other heavy quark fermi-gluons.

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254 comments to Integral charge 3 quark bound system with binding energy

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear psi:
    Thank you for ther suggestion. We have a strategy in this field.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • psi

    Sorry for the off topic post. But, Eng. Rossi I know that you are a man who is committed to the betterment of humanity through appropriate technology. I’m therefore taking the liberty of suggesting to you one possible early deployment of e-cat technology via the non-profit sector. I have recently become acquainted with a project being undertaken in Haiti, which you can read about here:

    http://www.greatergoodhaiti.org/.

    The Facebook page is here:

    http://www.facebook.com/GreaterGoodInternational

    This project is already making a great difference in the lives of a few Haitians, and I’m convinced that the organization is laying the foundations for greater good to come. Many Haitians have almost no electricity, and the land is heavily deforested due to over-harvest of firewood – so even low level heat generation, perhaps at the neighborhood level – would be a great boon, for sanitation, cooking, and to help the reforestation already being undertaken by GreaterGoodInternational to grow in scope and impact by reducing the demand for firewood.

    So, in case you haven’t realized yet, this is my pitch for you to keep this tiny seed in mind as a possible case study in what the e-cat can do to improve lives. Improving the conditions of life in a place like Haiti can only bring hope to the world everywhere.

    Cheers (still wanting to shake your hand),

    Psi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle,
    Yopur insights are always very intriguing and, as such, useful.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Andrea,

    A few grams for something that produces 10kWatts…

    That makes us think about the weight of a cigarette, a (half) sheet of paper.

    If I break 100 old incandescent lamps of 100W, and I gather the filaments, then I have something that ever produced 10kW of heat and weighs few grams, or even a bit more.

    You can tell me very much, but this seems incredible. You cannot have 1000°C packed Nickel powder (that even reaches 1400°) that enables 10kW harvest of heat. 10kW in a volume that is less than 1cm³ is not possible I believe with metals. So, the powder is no longer compressed in a container, but on a conductive substrate that is also porous, or is coated as a layer on a tube or something, so that the energy production is harvested via a flow of hydrogen. So, I think you might have invented a high temperature hydrogen pump.

    Let us assume that you created a sponge that is coated with nickel powder and that creates 10kW of heat. If this heat-sponge was put in the head of the cylinder of a stirling engine, that would create reciproke pressure gradients and non optimal flow of the carrier through the sponge, causing some parts of the sponge to become hotter than other parts, and so burning (in casu melting) some parts of the sponge, and cooling others too much, resulting in a diminished LENR on these spots.
    On the other hand, a turbine system, with a flow through the sponge could create a pressure gradient and also a temperature gradient that has the same kind of problems.

    Therefore, it might be usefull to put the heat-sponge in a rotating spherical cage (you might need some brushes) and place it in the top of the stirling engine, so that the gradient of temperature and pressure is constantly moving and so allowing every part of the sponge to participate equal to the event at their time.

    I hope this can be usefull, or contains something usefull.

    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph:
    1- yes
    2- not necessarily
    3- yes
    4- yes
    5- yes
    6- start up 1 hour, shut out 1 hour.
    Does not depend on T.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea,

    I’m not sure why I didn’t ask these before.

    Various operating temperatures have been mentioned for the various reactor designs e.g. 120 deg C, 260 deg C, 600 deg C and now 1000 C. (Also, hints of 1200 deg C).

    1) Can newer E-Cats/(‘Tigers’) be adjusted to operate at any operating temperature value in the range of 250-1000 degrees C? Or, by default,

    2) Can the E-Cats only be operated at one of a few fixed temperatures? e.g. 600 or 1000 deg C.

    3) In the case of the recent design with a 600 degree C temperature, could that core be operated at a lower temperature of 550 or 580 degree C (for example) to accommodate a particular turbine device or technology?

    4) A similar question: Have you reached a design state where you are able to set an operating temperature to be at “X” degrees by merely adjusting a control setting? That is, do you have to redesign the core for each new application? That may be very interesting work, but that seems more difficult than entering parameters into the control system.

    5) More of the same: Can you operate the E-Cat/Hot-Cat/Tiger at one temperature and for some reason change the set point “on the fly” (i.e. while running) to a higher or lower temperature to generate more or less heat (and generate more or less power)?

    6) And since I forgot, a repeat question: How long does it take for normal start-up? I recall it used to take about 1 hour of external drive before the E-Cat gets to its set temperature. Is that still the case, or can you reach the operating point much sooner? What is the time for a shut-down? Does that time depend on the operating temperature?

    I thought I would run out of new questions by now.

    But reading the other comments and questions here gives me new ideas.

    You too have many good ideas.

    Do you think this Blog still helps you as much it did a year or two ago?

    Best regards,

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    TO THE READERS OF THE JORNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS:
    Today has been published on the JONP the interesting article
    ” PROPOSED VARIATION TO FARADAY’S LINES OF FORCE TO INCLUDE A MAGNETIC POLE IN THEIR STRUCTURE”
    JONP

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear g. Luca from Italy:
    Your pre-order has been accepted.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • g.Luca from Italy

    Gentile le A.R.
    non ricordo se ho già manifestato la mia richiesta di
    essere inserito nella lista di preordine per E-CAT domestico.
    Se così non fosse chiedo a Lei se sia ancora possibile ottenerlo.
    Grazie ancora.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    I am here, in the USA, no problem.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    I would suggest a meeting between Applied Materials, Northwater Capital Management, MTPV and Mr. Rossi as soon as possible.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    You are perfectly right, that’s also what we are doing.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Ing. Rossi:

    You have been testing multiple Hot-Cats (or Tigers) at elevated temperatures for several months. In spite of the expense, would you consider destructively testing (at least) one of the current modules to prove (if it needs to be proven again) that there are no serious fire hazards, risks of explosions, radiation transients et cetera. You have intentionally melted down several modules in the past to verify safety.

    The best outcome would be if you tried to melt down a module and it “refused” to melt down. That is, the production of Hydrogen would cease, the reaction would halt and, at worst, the charge might be damaged and have to be replaced.

    As “Tony the Tiger” of Kelloggs Frosted Flakes fame might say (of E-Cats):

    ” They’re Grrrrrreat! ”

    http://1951club.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/tony-the-tiger.jpg

    Grrrrrreat Regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear g.Luca from Italy:
    I am not at all worried about external reactions. I receive daily blackmails, insults, subtle proposal of collaboration aimed to hit us from snakes disguised as enthusiast friends….( we have very good intelligence): just tennis balls against a tank. We are marching, the market, supreme judge of any product, will confirm if our work is useful or not.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • g.Luca from Italy

    Good morning Ing. Rossi,
    continuo a non capire il comportamento di istituzioni e aziende.
    Non c’è nessuno che prende atto di ciò che sta avvenendo, quasi che nulla
    potesse cambiare. Che tutto potesse restare immutabile.
    Ho appena letto l’articolo riassuntivo apparso su E-Catworld.com a cura di
    Tyler van Houwelingen, e penso non vi possa, e debba, avere più nessun dubbio circa LENR.
    Ieri ero a colloquio con un amico, responsabile di una grossa azienda che utilizza vapore e acqua calda per il proprio ciclo produttivo, il quale mi ha detto che presto la sua Società dovrà effettuare un bel investimento per la realizzazione di una centrale di cogenerazione e che la cosa preoccupava non poco per via della congiuntura economico/sociale che stiamo vivendo (trattandosi di un’investimento
    stimato in alcuni ML di euro).
    Ho accertato in quel momento che, anche chi dovrebbe sapere,…..nulla sa!!!
    Compresi i cosidetti CONSULENTI, che continuano imperterriti a proporre turbogas
    dai costosi preventivi ed esorbitanti consumi.
    Ovviamente ho subito accennato alla LENR e all’E-CAT, fornendo tutto quanto il materiale sin qui pubblicato e da me raccolto.
    La commercializzazione e pubblicizzazione dell’ECAT, cortese ing. Rossi, non è
    semplicemente un fatto commerciale (speculativo) ma bensì un obbligo morale e culturale che tutti dovrebbero coltivare per migliorare il nostro pianeta nel
    minor tempo possibile.
    Cordialità

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luca Salvarani:
    Sorry for the misunderstanding.
    The domestic E-Cat to make also electric power is on his way, we are studying for it a direct conversion system, because it is unthinkable to make in a house a Carnot Cycle. We got very good advise in the USA fir this. The technology is not ready, though, but we are working on it. Anyway, same problems as for the heating E-Cat will rise under the point of view of the certifications.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Luca Salvarani

    Dear Andrea

    Likely there was a little misunderstanding and it’s my fault! I meant a domestic e-cat that gets not only heating, but ALSO ELECTRIC ENERGY, both! It seems me a further generation device in next to the current one. Is this correct?

    Anyway thank you and good luck!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Italo R.:
    Thank you very much, interesting.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luca Salvarani:
    1- I referred to an extremely important test made at 1 000 C.
    2- I think above 1 000 Celsius is useless and very expensive for the kind of the materials that would be necessary. We already use very expensive materials, I would say extreme materials, some of them invented because they do not exist in commerce.
    3- Thye domestic apparatus issue is exclusively bound to the certification: while the product is ready, it is unthinkable to put it in commerce without a certification.
    Thank you for your very kind attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear gio:
    Thank you, I mean what I said.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hamdi Ucar:
    I do not know underwater vehicles. This application could be a future declination along the development of the technology, beyond my capacities.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hamdi Ucar

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    There would be a good number of enthusiasts looking units for their underwater vehicles. I don’t think efficiency figures nor criteria for domestic use is a factor here. Wouldn’t be great a under water demonstration of ECAT?

  • gio

    carissimo ing. Rossi
    I read your reply to Hank Mills.
    I envy your sense of belonging…… to the Country.

    I wish you much more than maximum.

    gio

  • Luca Salvarani

    Gentile Andrea,

    Seguo gli sviluppi della sua avventura praticamente tutti i giorni fin dall’inizio e sono molto contento sia per i risultati che è riuscito ad ottenere fino a questo momento, sia per lei che merita senz’altro una rivincita per le cose spiacevoli che le sono capitate qui in Italia. Solo alcune velocissime domande:
    1) Quando diceva “proprio questa settimana stiamo facendo la storia” si riferiva ai 1,000 gradi stabili degli “hot cats” o ad altre cose positive? Cosa ci può essere di ancor più positivo?
    2) Dopo aver raggiunto i 1,000 gradi (o più?) sarebbe di qualche utilità salire ulteriormente o non ne vale la pena? C’è qualche temperatura target più elevata che permetterebbe di sbloccare particolari applicazioni?
    3) Al di là degli aspetti burocratici e autorizzativi… quanto pensa ci vorrà per sviluppare un e-cat domestico in grado di produrre anche energia elettrica, magari sfruttando la tecnologia degli hot cats? E’ un traguardo davvero troppo lontano o in 2-3 anni ci si può arrivare? (Non parlo di quando lo vedremo in commercio dato che dipenderà anche da cose non sotto il suo diretto controllo tipo autorizzazioni e altro.. ma di quando ci potreste arrivare voi nei vostri laboratori)
    Grazie mille e un grande in bocca al lupo per il suo lavoro!

    Dear Andrea

    I’m following your adventure every day since the very beginning and I’m fully satisfied for the great results achieved so far, and also for yourelf because you really deserve a “return match” expecially here in Italy. Only few quik questions:
    1) When you said “this very week we’re making history” what did you refer to? 1,000 °C or something else? It’s hard to imagine something more positive..
    2) Would be usefull to further increase the 1000°C or it isn’t worth the effort? Are there any particular reachable target temperatures to unlock particular applications over 1,000°C.
    3) Keeping bureaucratic and authorizative matters apart… Would be possible in the foreseeable future (2-3 years) to get a domestic e-cat able to produce also electric energy, maybe through “hot-cats” technology? Or this is something too difficult and far away?

    Thank you very much and very very good luck (I would have written “break a leg” but I don’t want to seem a “snake”)!

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi, I have found this site “Micron-gap ThermalPhotoVoltaics (MTPV)” that claim to be “…a new technology that offers a breakthrough in the solid-state conversion of heat to electricity…”

    Maybe could it be useful to you?

    http://www.mtpv.com/technology.php?tab=2

    Kind regards,
    Italo R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hank Mills:
    I assure you that nobody in the USA is putting hurdles to the development of the E-Cats. In the USA we will make our maximum effort of development, as we are doing right now. I reside in the USA and I assure you that we are making extremely important things. It is in this Country that I had always the maximum support to my work and it is in this Country that we will make the fastest development.
    You are a paradigmatic example of the support we have here.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Hello Andrea,

    If the government or other institutions in the United States try to prevent the certification of the E-Cat technology (including the high temp version) for home use, then I sincerely hope that you will take the technology to a nation that will embrace it with open arms.

    The fact is that the E-Cat technology is safe, and is far LESS dangerous than many other already marketed technologies. Every year people burn themselves using propane tanks while grilling out, burn their homes down with turkey friers (which can be purchased at Wal-Mart), and kill themselves by improperly installing gas powered heating systems. I could cite a dozen other examples of technologies that can be dangerous when used improperly, but are already sold on the market.

    On the other hand, your technology does not consume fossil fuels, does not cosnume nuclear fuel, does not produce nuclear waste, does not emit radioactivity into the environment, cannot experience a nuclear criticality, does not emit particulate matter, does not have a hydrogen tank, and does not emit CO2 into the atmosphere. It is a super safe technology that should be allowed to be FAST TRACKED into the market place.

    If the powers that be in the USA try to prevent the public from having access to the E-Cat technology to heat and provide electric power to their homes, I know there are other nations out there who would welcome the chance for their citizens to have the same opportunity. There are many nations that are experiencing a much worse energy crisis than the United States. These nations spend huge sums of money to pay for their energy needs. Your technology could provide their nation and PEOPLE will a solution that would save them money, give them access to all the energy they need, and improve their lives.

    To be blunt with you, if the officials and others in my nation are giving you a hard time about the certification of your technology, as a natural born US citizen I would like to apologize for their actions. I also want you to know that I honestly feel if my nation tries to hinder the proliferation of the E-Cat technology by denying certifications, I won’t be upset in the least if you take it elsewhere.

    If China or some small African nation has to become the first brilliant example of an energy independent, cold fusion economy based on the E-Cat technology, so be it.

  • lenr4you

    Dear Andrea,
    think about that:
    Very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generation_IV_reactor#Very-high-temperature_reactor_.28VHTR.29

    H2 is the coolant.
    High temperature are in gas better to handel as with liquids.
    LENR4you

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ecco Liberation:
    We are studying how to make a direct conversion into electric power, therefore we are probing all the possibilities. We are far from the solution, but this is a very interesting field of R&D.
    Maybe we have found a thread, thanks to precious help we are getting here, in the USA.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Koen Vandewalle:
    Presently the charge of a 10 kW E-Cat weights few grams.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,

    Now you are creating the capability of building low cost ships that can sail around the world, allmost for free, with onboard preparation of drinking water for their passengers.

    For military and law enforcement applications it becomes possible to build helicopter drones that have unlimited range, and can fly non-stop for months or even years. Shielding may be of less importance for these applications.

    The same devices can be used for long-range transportation of goods and people, if lighter shielding can be developed.

    Do you believe that Hot Cat technology will surpass 200.000,0 Watt/kg in future ?

    I know that this is a very tricky question, so I do not ask for the actual results, but only your opinion as the only person who fully knows (as if it were part of your nerves and bones) the technology and its limitations for the foreseeable (near) future. With foreseeable, I mean in our lifetime. With nano-structures as Dr. Joseph Fine suggested, maybe it could be “next month”. Maybe in September, we will learn that you are already further than that.

    Now with these densities in energy (as with most nuclear power), not the reactor or the e-cat becomes the bottleneck, but the cooling capacity. So, flying and sailing applications may be better than cars that work on e-cats.

    Another important issue is the dynamics. Do you believe (in the same sense) that (future) Hot cats can be regulated from, let’s say 5% to 100% in seconds, and back from 100% to 5% in a time that allows reasonable replacement for an internal combusion process ? (E.g. to land a helicopter on the north pole ice, and have a picknick there, without creating a lake of melting water around the helicopter) It does not take too much time to heat some grams of Nickel from 101°C to 1000°C when you have 10kW to 100kW or more available.

    Last week, you talked about some “momentous events”, and the above is then something I start to dream about with my out of the box thinking, you force me to.

    This week, it is very hot here, and there is already too much electricity from solar panels, so the people are very convinced this week that they will not need E-cat. Our government just has to make a law that the weather must stay as it is now. I have heard also that there is enough money in the world to solve all of our problems, so let’s start financing the refill of the depleting oil fields, and invest in a big freezer that “makes” cold to repair polar and glacier ice.

    Dreaming and flying regards,
    Koen

  • Ecco Liberation

    Dott. Rossi,

    This might sound like a stupid question, but I’m wondering if you’ve ever tried measuring the electrical potential (or tension, voltage) of your working reactors. You might know about the existence of Ni-H chemical electrical batteries used in certain applications (now declining). It would be extremely interesting, to say the least, if you discovered that the triggering system used to make your Ni-H LENR cells generate large amounts of heat also recharges their electrical potential, if they have one.

    I think it’s something very much worth investigating, in my opinion, possibly opening up a myriad of possibilities and applications.

    Ecco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    I think the certificators are right. The certification of an industrial plant is easier, because it goes to operate in a concern where safety is already organized and it is going to be operated by certified operators that we certify after an exam during which they have to give evidence of a careful study of the instruction manuals; besides, they have to make a course to learn how to operate. In addition, the industrial plants have to obtain the permissions from the local Authorities.
    On the contrary, the domestic apparatuses go directly from the manufacturer to the Customer, without control and without enforced instructions.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: A question about the delays you have announced for the domestic E-Cats because of certification: In your estimation are these delays credible and not the result of attempts to derail the introduction of the E-Cat for other than safety issues? Congratulations on your important Hot Cat revolution. Keep making and selling safe E-Cats.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Felize:
    For now we work on the Carnot cycle and we are too researching to make a direct conversion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pierino S.:
    The domestic E-Cats will have a longer period than expected for the certification. It is impossible for me to know the term, because it does not depend from me.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pierino S.

    Caro Ing. A. R.
    Ho fatto il pre ordine di un ecat domestico Dall’Italia;
    Pensi che, non questo, ma il prossimo inverno (2013-2014) potrò riscaldare la mia casetta con l’ecat?
    Con infinita stima per Te e per tutto quel che stai facendo e come lo stai facendo.
    Buon lavoro!!!

  • Ivan

    Dear Mr Rossi, talking about e_cats, lets hope your test gives the world an e_tiger, and no a e_pussy_cat.

    Any way we will celebrate your report, and developments and success!!!.

    What conditions have to be fulliled for you to fully disclose all your knowlegde to us simple humans?

    Will you eventually allow other people to work in the improvements of your devices, I think in the wrigth brother’s and the modern aviation of today!!!!!

    Kind Regards.
    Ivan.

  • Felize

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I congratulate you for your recent improvements! 1000 °C is very close to a flame temperature. Are you going to develop a turbogas application in the future?.

    Best regards,

    Felize

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Chris Johnson:
    Definitely interesting, but the real efficiencies of the system you are proposing, as far as I tested, are far lower. We have to verify, though the last improvements.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Chris Johnson

    Ing. Rossi,

    Have you thought of using the high temperature eCat for Steam Electrolysis? At 850C it is 64% efficient. Followed by a 50% efficient fuel cell would get you 32% overall efficiency, with no moving parts. I think that a solid oxide fuel cell could also use the high temperature to generate up to 60% efficiency. I’m not sure if the eCat heat could be used in the fuel cell.

    See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-temperature_electrolysis for info on Steam Electrolysis

    Another much simpler conversion is a JTEC direct thermal converter. At high temperature it can be about 60% efficient in converting heat to electricity. It is still in the research stage with Xeros PARC, but demo versions have been built. See http://www.johnsonems.com/?q=node/2 and http://www.parc.com/event/713/high-efficiency-solid-state-engine.html

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Joseph Fine:
    1- I can only confirm that we stick on COP 6
    2- We need more shielding
    3- The Journal Of Nuclear Physics has received about 11 000 comments published, and counting…
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giorgio:
    I confirm, they are our commercial Licensees for Australia. Please contact them directly. I am sure they will answer.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Franco:
    You will see the module in the report.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alessandro Coppi:
    Thank you for your suggestion, but I do not agree with you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    DearSteven N. Karels:
    We will use the Carnot cycle to begin. We are working also on alternatives.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    The last Heat Transfer course I took was in 1972 so I am dated but the physics is the same — Conduction, Convection and Radiation transfer. I understand that modern electrical power plants typicaly use 600C steam pressure as a means of doing the Carnot cycle and I have seem some suggestions of higher temperatures that can lead to some improvements in efficiency but with the additional technical issues of handling the higher pressures and associated material problems. So what is the driving application(s) for a high temperature eCat or a Very High temperature eCat? What market niche is Andrea pursuing? Ideas?

  • Alessandro Coppi

    Dear Andrea, I enjoy about the last big news about Australia and Italy: the E-CAT is available for the market! but I cannot completely enjoy because the business model seems to me not completely adequate to the importance of the materia, it is like if Guglielmo Marconi would have to manage by himself all the radio related factories in the whole world. It is true that the globalization make it quite possible, but no doubt this way is far less fast than opening the door of the knowledge to the mankind.
    Guglielmo did not have money issue.
    Making conferences, experiments, getting royalties over the patent (when granted) would be your alternative, and stop going mad with the handling of the world scale production of the E-CATs.

    Alessandro Coppi

  • g.Luca from Italy

    Cortese dott. Rossi,
    il comportamento della comunità scientifica lascia sempre stupefatti in particolar modo per la ritrosia verso quello che per loro è, per il momento, incomprensibile.
    Mi riferisco, evidentemente, a tutto quanto gravita intorno alle LENR ed in particolare al Vs. lavoro.
    Non ci si può nascondere dietro il solito dito del “principio della precauzione” perchè le evidenze sono ormai incontrovertibili. Che si tratti di reazioni nucleari o qualcosa d’altro, a questo punto non ha nessuna importanza. Funziona? Si?
    Benissimo. Lasciamo ai “testoni” la spiegazione scientifica, mentre le “young tiger “, cambiano il mondo, che ne ha un’immane bisogno!!
    Certo sarebbe auspicabile che tutto il mondo scientifico condividesse l’eccezionale lavoro svolto, ma meno male che non l’avete fatto e avete continuato per la vostra strada. D’altronde il libero pensiero non è proprio in dotazione a tutti.
    Resta il rammarico, se mai, che il comportamento degli scettici (per non dire negazionisti) abbia rallentato, in maniera significativa, il cammino della scoperta e così condizionare le vite e la salute di milioni di persone a causa di: inquinamneto, climate change e tumori.
    Ora anche NASA, MIT e DARPA (casualmente tutti enti e istituzioni americane) si rimangiano le sentenze dell’89 (allora furono pronte a falsificare dati e resonconti su sperimentazioni e controanalisi) e investono milioni di dollari sulle LENR.
    Forse, quando l’E-CAT e gli altri saranno diffusi in tutto il mondo, forse, sarebbe auspicabile aprire una commissione di inchiesta al fine di stabilire eventuali responsabilità per ciò che il mondo ha dovuto sopportare dall’89 ad oggi grazie a quelle infauste decisioni.
    Come molti altri che qui scrivono, aspetto il più bel settembre degli ultimi 1000 anni.
    Saluti

  • Franco

    Dear Ing. Rossi,

    I would like to know the approx. dimensions of the surface that now the E-Cat heats at temperature of 600C or 1000C.
    How many square meters is it?
    Thanks.
    Kind Regards

    Franco

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