Hidden and intermediate states of nucleons

by
U.V.S. Seshavatharam
DIP QA Engineer, Lanco Industries Ltd, Srikalahasti-517641, A.P, India
E-mail: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com

Prof. S. LAKSHMINARAYANA
Department Of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Vizag-530003, AP, India.
E-mail: lnsrirama@yahoo.com


Read the whole article
Download the ZIP file

Abstract
Nuclear planck energy is given by

where Gs is the strong nuclear gravitational constant [1, 2, 3] and is equal to N²Gc.
Here N is Avagadro number and GC is the classical gravitational constant.
In the previous paper [1] it is suggested that there exists 2 kinds of mass units.

They are observed and hidden mass units and their mass ratio is XE = 295.0606338.
XE can be called as the lepton-quark mass generator [1 – 4].
In this paper this idea is applied to the nucleons.

Hidden mass unit of nucleon can be given as

It is noticed that there exists an intermediate hidden mass state in between neutron and proton.
If nuclear stability factor is defined as

hidden mass of the intermediate state can be given as

Observable mass of this hidden intermediate state can be given as

If mec² is the rest energy of electron, this observable intermediate state gains a mass-energy of ½mec²  and transforms to neutron.
By loosing a mass-energy of 2mec²  transforms to proton.

Error is related with

Here Ec and Ea are the semi emepirical mass formula [1, 3, 15, 16, 17] coulomb and asymmetry energy constants.
Finally it is suggested that pairing energy constant of the semi empirical mass formula is

Asymmetry energy constant

Ec, Ea are related with XE as

Volume and surface energy constants are related as

Read the whole article
Download the ZIP file

346 comments to Hidden and intermediate states of nucleons

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gills:
    Thanks to you for writing: I learn from this Journal.
    You can produce low energy gamma rays without transmutations of one atom into another.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    While for the 1 MW plants the tuning is easy, for the single Cats is much more complicated. We are thinking to make 10 mnimi inside to regulate with 10% steps.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    After listening and watching the Zurich conference, I am interested in how fine a control you have on an eCat? I know for the 1 MW eCat (consisting of approximately 100 10 kW eCat units), you can control the ensemble output by switching on and off combinations and output between 100% and 1% of the rated output. My question is for a single eCat with a nominal maximum output rating of 10 kW, can it be controlled to intermediate output levels between 100% (full on) and 0% (full off)? For example, can it be set to output 57% plus or minus a few percent?

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    Thank you for responding to questions so quickly. I appreciate the fact that you don’t have to answer anything- – and your wannnabe competitors almost never do!
    I don’t understand the logic of your most recent response to my question of yesterday on absence of nuclear transmutations. Your response indicates you do have “LENR”. Of course; LENR means Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. So; how do you get an energy producing nuclear reaction without nuclear transmutations of some type??
    Kind Regards; HRG.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. Rossi: Yours of 1:45 am today alarmed me. Please go into a low profile mode, with a lot of security. The snake and his owners are dangerous.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In a previous posting you said “In formers reactors we made closed heads, to push the energy through up to the external surface, but the reactors got molten.”

    Perhaps you should consider a different structural material for your reactors? If you choose a material that had better thermal conductivity than what you are using now, the temperature difference between the interior (where the heat is generagted) and the heat transfer surface or external surface will decrease for the same amount of power being transferred.

    If I assume you are currently using Stainless Steel, it has a melting point of around 1510 C and a thermal conductivity of about 16 ( a larger number is better). You could go to Silver or Copper but its melting point is around 1000 C but have thermal conductivities of 406 and 385, respectively. Aluminium is another candidate with a thermal conductivity of 204 but a relatively low melting point of 660 C. Brass could be used with a thermal conductivity of 125 but has a melting point of 930 C so Silver or Copper would be better choices. Or, you could use Nickel with a thermal conductivity of 91 and a melting point of 1453 C. Lastly, Carbon Steel has a thermal conductivity of 36 with a melting point of 1425 to 1540 C. So depending on what your current eCat enclosure is made of, you could possibly select another material to improve the thermal transfer characteristics and less the problem of a molten reactor. Assuming you replaced a Stainless Steel enclosure with a Nickel enclosure, you should see an improvement in thermal conductivity of approximately (91/16) or about 5.7.

  • Steven N. Karels

    An Analysis of Hydrogen-Hydrogen as an Energy Source for eCat

    With the suggestion that Nickel conversion to Copper may not be the dominant energy source of eCat, I considered a Hydrogen-Hydrogen fusion as the possible energy source. From “A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion” by Edmund Storms, page 35, there are several predicted nuclear reactions involving isotopes of Hydrogen. Since natural Hydrogen gas is used in eCat, I assumed the H+H+e = D with an energy release of 1.4 MeV as Hydrogen (not Deuterium) is the vast majority of gas atoms available. (I recall Deuterium is about 1 part in 6,000 in natural Hydrogen).

    Assuming 10 kW continuous operation for 6 months with a COP of 6 will produce (10+4 J /s * 180 days * 86400 s / day * 5/6) 1.29 * 10+11 Joules of energy. 1 MeV = 1.61 * 10-13 J. So the eCat produced in 6 months approximately 8 * 10+23 Mev. So the number of Hydrogen atoms converted to Deuterium is (2 * 8 * 10+23 / 1.4) or 1.14 * 10+24 atoms.

    Dividing by Avogadro’s number of 6.022 * 10+23 means the eCat changed 1.84 grams of Hydrogen into Deuterium. If these numbers (and process) are correct, then at the end of six months of operation, the contents of an eCat should show a significant change in the Deuterium level in the gas. Andrea Rossi – has this been tested?

    With the assumption that you started with natural hydrogen gas, then the almost 2 grams of Deuterium possibly produced should be detectable as long as the amount of natural hydrogen gas used to load the Nickel + catalyst was less than 1200 grams.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Herb Gillis wrote in September 12th, 2012 at 7:58 PM

    “Andrea Rossi:
    Clearly; I don’t understand the theory as well as you do, but it seems (with all due respect) to be a violation of conservation of energy.”

    Dear Herb,
    there are two sort of conservation of energy violation:

    violation 1- according to the principles of current Theoretical Physics

    violation 2- according to the theories which consider a structure for the Aether.

    Violation 1 can occur, since the current Theoretical Physics is not complete.

    Violation 2 is impossible.

    Andrea Rossi will propose a theory trying to show that does not occur the sort of violation 1.
    I dont think it is possible to develop a successful theory.

    But perhaps he wants to avoid the resistance of the academic physicists against cold fusion, and the best way is to find a theory according to which the violation 1 does not occur.

    When Rossi publishes his theory, we will analyse it, and to verify if from his theory indeed does not occurs the violation 1.

    regards
    WLAD

  • Greg Leonard

    Dear AR
    It seems that the hot-cat and the original e-cat operate in quite different ways.
    Would you say that the reactions in each are substantially the same, or are there some significant differences?

  • M a r i o

    Good morning Dr Rossi
    do you think possible to use for example a constant 50% thermal feedback, so reducing the need of electricity for the stabilizing resistor ? This would increase the C.O.P. and may be satisfy the safety concerns.
    Keep up with your good work.

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    When do you expect to have a patent protection of your eCat??

    .. Respice te, hominem te memento.

  • Joe

    Dr Rossi,

    1. Is neon present in the Hot Cat?

    2. Is argon present in the Hot Cat?

    3. Is helium present in the Hot Cat?

    4. Are x-rays present in the Hot Cat?

    5. Are gamma rays present in the Hot Cat?

    6. If so, are they responsible for MOST of the heat?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Ronnie Johnston

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In response to a question at the Zurich conference (question regarding whether you have ever experienced failure of a single reactor module in the 1MW plant) you stated that you do not have total stable control over the output of the single reactor. This seems to me to imply that control of the reaction can only be achieved when the modules are in series with one module regulating the output of others. Is this the case ? If not could you clarify what you meant by this statement.

    Regards, Ronnie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gills:
    1- we have a precise theory, I just said we cannot publish it for IP protection waiting for patents granting
    2- there is no violation, I said we have only transmutations as a side effect, didn’t say we have not LENR.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gills:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giuseppe B.:
    Mr “Gary Wright” ( a false name that the coward snake – The Snake- is using for cowardice) has contacted SGS in an unproper way and has put an unproper question.
    So he published on his newbogusenergybricolage that we do not have a SGS certificate. This is the evidence, as if there was any necessity, that when the Snake ( or, better, the puppet Snake) writes, he usually publishes a falsity.
    Within hours you will find our Voluntary Safety Certificate.
    So you will see who is that says the truth and who is that has an agenda.
    Now we are very close to make a plant able to make power, and the puppeteers are trying all they can to discredit us: this is why I am caring not too much of the mumbojumbo growing up around and focus on the factory where we are making the real work. But from the violence of the attacs you can read the fear they have of the fact that we are making it. Not to mention the blackmails and the threats I am receiving on dayly scale. Just let me work and we’ll see.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    Do you think that some of the stability issues with E-Cat reactors [of all types] might possibly be reduced if the core of the reactor could be spun within the heating source? Since the cores of these reactors cannot be perfectly uniform, it stands to reason that small deviations from uniformity could be contributing to stability and reliability problems. Spinning the core would provide for more uniform heating (and improved performance) in the same way that a top becomes more stable the faster it spins. I appreciate there may be practical problems doing this, but it might be worth consideration.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Steven N. Karels wrote in September 12th, 2012 at 12:34 PM

    “Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Can you please clarify? Is the majority source of excess heat coming from some form of hydrogen fusion?”

    Dear Steven N. Karels,
    hydrogen fusion is also transmutation of elements.

    And since Rossi replied YES to Joe’s question:

    5. Does MOST of the heat generated by the Hot Cat come from phenomena OTHER than transmutation of elements?”

    then it means that the heat generated by the Hot eCat is NOT comming from any transmutation of elements

    regards
    WLAD

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    Since most of the energy appears to come from something other than nuclear transmutations, it must be something very exotic indeed. Do you think that recent difficulties with the hot-cat may be due to some fundamental limitation (not fully understood) that evidently does not apply at the lower temperatures achieved by the first generation e-cat? Also; do you have any way of estimating how much energy is “available”. Clearly; I don’t understand the theory as well as you do, but it seems (with all due respect) to be a violation of conservation of energy.

  • Giuseppe B

    Hi Mr. Rossi,
    As you have claimed during the Zurich Conference, your classic E-cat model, was certificated by the SGS. But the SGS when contacted cannot prove your claim, and show us any certification. Can you explain us why?

    Cheers,

    Giuseppe

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    As I said, I changed many ideas along all the experience made in the last 2 years. I cannot explain more about my theory until we have not more protection of the IP.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Your response:
    “Dr Rossi,

    5. Does MOST of the heat generated by the Hot Cat come from phenomena OTHER than transmutation of elements?”

    Andrea Rossi replied in September 12th, 2012 at 4:25 AM

    “Dear Joe:
    5- yes”

    was a “bombshell” to me. I had assumed ALL the excess heat came from a Nickel to Copper reaction. If I understand your comment correctly, then the Nickel to Copper reaction provides a minority of the excess heat. The only other reactions I can think of are H+H and H+D, since you are using natural hydrogen, a portion of it is deuterium. Can you please clarify? Is the majority source of excess heat coming from some form of hydrogen fusion?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    I agree totally with you. Nevertheless we will finish the third party validation in course, which will be the last, because shortly after that we will deliver our plants.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco Grande:
    I am very sorry to say that we are not ready for the production of electricity, and I am all the more sorry because I know that, should the Hot Cat be ready, we could save the jobs of that wonderful and courageous People.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Marco Grande

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    giving the situation of the ALCOA alluminum production plant in Italy, do you plan to write or have you already written to the italian government informing them about the E-CAT technology? They could ignore it, but if made public, they wil have to take responsibility for their actions once the plants will start to sell. Got it, Passera?

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Mr. G: Enough with public tests!!!! No matter what “tests” are made skeptics will find a reason to call them a fraud. The only “test” that will silence the skeptics with their agenda, is an owner of an industrial E-Cat stating he saved thousands of dollars using the E-Cat and other factory owners clamoring to get their E-Cat installed to stay competitive.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Wladimir Guglinski:
    1- I will publish the theory as soon as we will have IP protection
    2- Yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr. G:
    Yes, we will.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mr.G

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I think the one smart experiment will silence most of sceptics. Make two equal hot-cats, but put hydrogen tablet only in one of them, connect the resistances of both hot-cats in series and measure the temperatures of them. If the hot-cat with hydrogen will be hotter than the second one without hydrogen this will be clear evidence of LENR reaction.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Eric Ashworth wrote in September 11th, 2012 at 7:26 PM

    “Dear Wladimir,
    I agree that the simple n=p+e is incorrect as expressed but”

    Dear Eric,
    I did not say that n=p+e is incorrect.
    Unlike, actually I think n=p+e is the correct model, and n=d.d.u IS INCORRECT.

    In Quantum Ring Theory, the model n=p+e is actually n=(u.d.u-e), where:
    1- u.d.u is the quark model of proton
    2- “u-e” is the electron connected to a quark up, through the spin-fusion phenomenon.

    When I said that I did not understand your theory, I said it because:
    3- If you consider as correct the quark model n= d.d.u, then it makes no sense to propose a model n=p+e
    4- If you consider as correct the model n=p+e, then you must consider INCORRECT the quark model n= d.d.u

    regards
    WLAD

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Joe wrote in September 12th, 2012 at 4:14 AM

    “Dr Rossi,

    5. Does MOST of the heat generated by the Hot Cat come from phenomena OTHER than transmutation of elements?”

    Andrea Rossi replied in September 12th, 2012 at 4:25 AM

    Dear Joe:
    5- yes”

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    1- from where do you think the energy of heat generated comes from ?
    In another words: what is your hypothesis?

    2- do you think is it possible to consider a hypothesis based on the current prevailing foundations of Theoretical Physics?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joe:
    1- no, W shielding
    2- no
    3- yes
    4- i think so, but the possible variations are so small that it is difficult to know, they could be contained in the variation range of the natural composition
    5- yes

  • Joe

    Dr Rossi,

    1. Does the Hot Cat use Pb shielding?

    2. Does the Hot Cat use benzene?

    3. Does the Hot Cat use only STABLE isotopes of Ni?

    4. If so, does the Hot Cat leave the ratio of isotopes essentially UNchanged after use?

    5. Does MOST of the heat generated by the Hot Cat come from phenomena OTHER than transmutation of elements?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ivan:
    You are right, but to make a calorimetric measure we need to have a completed apparatus, which now we have not. As I repeatedly said, this is a prototype under R&D, made in a way that we can modify it anytime, anyway.We are making irradiation tests to check the COP imdipendently from the heat exchanger.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Felize:
    We will be able to couple the Hot Cat to a turnbine and make the Carnot Cycle only after our validation tests, R&D and measurements will have been finished. All the results we got so far, have to be confirmed with cross examinations.
    At that point we will make the coupling and with a good efficiency we will have a tremendous achievement: the drive will be made by the system itself. I think you understand. But a lot of work has to be done to arrive here. We are on our way…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Felize

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    congratulations for your conference. The “friendly fire” evidences that you are on the right path.
    I would like to know if you have already planned a new test, during which the hot-cat will be coupled to a turbine and an alternator.
    I know that driving this kind of things require experience (expecially for high temperatures) that you are making day by day. What is the maximum COP of the Hot-cat that you have reached during a limit test?

    Best regards,

    Felize

  • ivan

    Why to do black body radiation test? what you need to know is how high the temperature of a colant element (water) will be so work could be extracted from it.
    What is the point to find the back body radiation at the end of the day you want to know how much of this heat you could transfer to a coolant before the reactor shuts down for being to cold.

  • Dear Wladimir, Thank you for your reply Sept 10th. ‘I do not understand your theory’. I will provide you with more information. I agree that the simple n=p+e is incorrect as expressed but I do have more information to help explain my reasoning. In my next message I shall re-capitulate this complex subject. Regards Eric Ashworth

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear g.Luca from Italy:
    Thank you!
    A.R.

  • 2012 E-Cat Conference Report: 1 MW E-Cat Ready – Here’s my next installment on the E-Cat conference. Rather than fixating on how low the 2.5 COP is, remember that the most significant data is the Ragone plot, which puts the energy density in the same region as nuclear power. Donovan’s theory on the atomic process. (PESN; September 11, 2012)

  • g.Luca from italy

    Dear A.,
    oh yes! I agree! Important is only that the plant will work.
    Maybe, for the people that wait a new energy, this “passion” it is extremely
    long and hard. especially for those people who believe that it can change his life.
    Thank you for your courtesy, availability e for your work.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brian:
    Yes, but only after the plant will be in regular operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear G.luca from Italy:
    At the end of the indipendent third party validation in course a report will be published on a scientific magazine. We will inform our Readers , of course. Until then any information would be incomplete and useless. About the snakes: they count nothing, at the end the only thing that counts will be working plants.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • G.luca from italy

    Ciao A.,
    per cortesia ci puoi dare una nuova scadenza per ulteriori importanti informazioni sul
    Congegni E-CAT? Abbiamo bisogno, in questa giungla di piena di serpi, di avere una nuova speranza

  • Brian

    Mr. Rossi

    Thank you for letting me know. When you ship the 1MW plant to the new customer will you be able to share the name of the customer?

    Thanks
    Brian

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Yes, we are working now on the issue of the interior cylinder energy: it is not easy, in the former phase we just made a rough consideration considering the T internal equal to the T external, also to compensate the loss of convective energy, mainly ( conuctive is poor) In formers reactors we made closed heads, to push the energy through up to the external surface, but the reactors got molten. But many measurements are in course, we will have very precise calculations.
    We have calculated the energy in the classic way, it is considering only the surface of the heads as radiating surface. But in this case we must make an integration of the convective energy.
    Please write to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    I want to talk with you.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Regarding the Hot eCat design, it seems like a large amount of energy is lost due to conduction, convection and radiation to the outside environment. Have you considered an alternative housing design where the Hot eCat cylinder is placed in an elliptical cylindrical cavity, the Hot eCat at one foci and a water heating tube at the other foci. Recall the old elliptical cylinder laser designs with a laser rod at one foci and the flashlamp at the other foci.

    The interior surface of the cavity could be gold plated to maximize the IR reflections and the interior evacuated to remove convection losses and the Hot eCat and heat exchange tube mounted on insulators. The ratio of the Hot eCat external diameter to that of the heat exchange pipe will help determine the relative temperatures for a given power transfer rate. With reflectances in the 95% or greater region, the heat loss due to absorption should be around 500 Watts or less for a 10 kW eCat, with no convection losses and little if any conduction losses.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Detective:
    You will know the scientific magazine’s name when the paper will have been published.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Detective

    Dear reporters,

    at Sept 10 this year there was publication of some tests and results of E-Cat device in number of “Scientific Magazines”.

    Folks may you told me and whole world, which Scientific Magazines so was ?

  • Renzo

    dear Andrea Rossi
    I read the following article about a new type of turbine with increased efficiency, another interesting combination to experiment with the ecat technology.

    http://newenergyandfuel.com/http:/newenergyandfuel/com/2012/09/11/a-50-efficient-turbine-solution/

    my regards
    R

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>