Hidden and intermediate states of nucleons

by
U.V.S. Seshavatharam
DIP QA Engineer, Lanco Industries Ltd, Srikalahasti-517641, A.P, India
E-mail: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com

Prof. S. LAKSHMINARAYANA
Department Of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Vizag-530003, AP, India.
E-mail: lnsrirama@yahoo.com


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Abstract
Nuclear planck energy is given by

where Gs is the strong nuclear gravitational constant [1, 2, 3] and is equal to N²Gc.
Here N is Avagadro number and GC is the classical gravitational constant.
In the previous paper [1] it is suggested that there exists 2 kinds of mass units.

They are observed and hidden mass units and their mass ratio is XE = 295.0606338.
XE can be called as the lepton-quark mass generator [1 – 4].
In this paper this idea is applied to the nucleons.

Hidden mass unit of nucleon can be given as

It is noticed that there exists an intermediate hidden mass state in between neutron and proton.
If nuclear stability factor is defined as

hidden mass of the intermediate state can be given as

Observable mass of this hidden intermediate state can be given as

If mec² is the rest energy of electron, this observable intermediate state gains a mass-energy of ½mec²  and transforms to neutron.
By loosing a mass-energy of 2mec²  transforms to proton.

Error is related with

Here Ec and Ea are the semi emepirical mass formula [1, 3, 15, 16, 17] coulomb and asymmetry energy constants.
Finally it is suggested that pairing energy constant of the semi empirical mass formula is

Asymmetry energy constant

Ec, Ea are related with XE as

Volume and surface energy constants are related as

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346 comments to Hidden and intermediate states of nucleons

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carloluna:
    Prof Focardi and me have been very interested to what happens in the stars.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joe:
    1- confidential
    2- confidential
    3- confidential
    4- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Dr Rossi,

    1. Is there a difference in the rate of transmutation of Ni to Cu between the E-Cat and the Hot Cat?

    2. Is there ionization of Ni in the Hot Cat?

    3. Does the reaction in the Hot Cat occur in a vacuum?

    4. Is there a difference from background in the level of radio static noise in the vicinity of the Hot Cat when it is in NON-drive mode ONLY (electric heater switched OFF)?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • carloluna

    Dear Andrea

     You said that the excess heat is due to the transformation of hydrogen into deuterium with the decay gamma responsible for transmutations.
    It ‘exactly what happens in the sun on the theory of Boscoli the cold sun

    http://spazioinwind.libero.it/risvegliodiadamo/fusione_fredda.htm

    So I think the ECAT and the stars are working with the same mechanism.
    I would like to be the first to say it.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi,

    Grazie per il pensiero.

    :)

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Joseph Fine:
    Maybe I owe you something !!!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Wladimir Guglinski:
    Thanks for your comments and the link to the magnetic engine video. I had not heard of this before, and find it quite surprising. The obvious question is why is this not in wide spread use? Are you convinced it is real? It sounds “too good to be true” at face value, much like the Ecat. But the Ecat seems (or seemed) to have an explanation based on “accepted” science. Whats the catch?

  • So, if I understood well, the working of the E-cat is not SF (Science Fiction), but based on SF (Spin Fusion)? 😉

  • Joseph Fine

    Steven Karels, Andrea Rossi, Detective:

    Scientific American has this recent article on Desalination:

    http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=desalination-membrane-tech

    One line seems interesting:

    “That’s not to say membrane distillation is without problems. It requires a steady, inexpensive source of heat to prevent the temperatures of the water on either side of the membrane from equalizing, which would impede the vaporization/condensation process.”

    Anyone here know of a steady, inexpensive source of heat?

    I thought so.

    Best regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Markus K.
    Maybe you are right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sven Gudmundsson:
    The charge is inside the toroidal section, but in a sealed room. The putty has nothing to do .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Interesting, thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Detective:
    Thank you,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Maurizio Sporchia:
    With the high temperature Hot Cats we will need not low T turbines. The low T have a low efficiency.
    Warm Regards,

    A.R.

  • Maurizio Sporchia

    Caro ing. Andrea Rossi,mi rallegra l’idea che un Italiano ,stia trovando un energia alternativa al petrolio.Vorrei segnalarle una ditta di Brescia la quale produce,energia elettrica con turbine a bassa temperatura <120 gradi celsius abbinabili sicuramente al E. CAT.La ditta si chiama Turboden, le allego link http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=2k8uu1m8mNk
    Scusatemi se ho scritto in Italiano ma non scrivo bene in Inglese.Ancora tanti auguri, a lei in bocca al lupo per le certificazioni del E.CAT.
    Maurizio Sporchia

  • Detective

    Cheap desalination ? Sure 20 cents per cubic meter
    and this technology is in stage as yours:

    Ion Concentration Polarization (ICP)

  • Steven N. Karels

    Use of eCat Technology to Produce Potable Water
    Dear Andrea and Bernie,
    I do not see an economically viable way for eCat Technology to compete with ocean based Low Temperature Thermal Distillation (LTTD) processes in producing potable water – essentially using the warmth of the sun to provide a temperature difference required for LTTD. However, electricity is still required for the LTTD process to produce the partial vacuum to boil the water at the lower temperatures. So for geographic area adjacent to the sea, especially those near the equator, you cannot directly compete but you can assist by providing lower cost electricity.
    When eCat technology is used in the commercial production of electricity and 600+ C steam is generated, the waste energy could be used to heat local non-potable water sources and make potable water produced by LTTD methods. So the provision for LTTD from waste eCat heat should be considered by only implemented when it is economically viable. Why build the additional equipment into eCat if it will not be used due to economics?
    In geographic locations far removed from the sea, potable water can be either pumped in using the lower cost electricity from eCat, use of geothermal heat sources for LTTD or maybe it does not make economic sense to process local water? Sometimes, pumping it in makes more sense. Again, lower cost electricity is the key.
    Not satisfying answers but it is hard to compete with the sun.

  • Sven Gudmundsson

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Thank you for your answer describing how the hydrogen is made to stay inside the Hot-Cat.

    As described in the report “HIGH TEMPERATURE E-CAT MODULE, Test of July 16th, 2012” the Hot-cat is built from four components plus the active charge. The report can be found here: http://www.scribd.com/doc/105322688/Penon4-1.

    Two of the components are the concentric inner and outer stainless steel tubes. The other two components are two resistors that seem to fill the whole space between the tubes. The only thing that covers the open ends of the reactor is the high temperature putty sealant which is chiseled away in one of the pictures in the report. Are you saying that the putty is diffusion tight for hydrogen?

    Kind regards, Sven Gudmundsson

  • Markus K.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I hope you don’t find my question offending but what i don’t understand: Why are you spending your time on desalination now?
    There are companys that have the necessary expertise. All they need would be working E-Cats and then they would give you feedback about the specs they would need for perfectioning their systems.

    Desalination inbig scale is not only about building the plant, but also the waste must be managed with state of the art technology otherwise this would make more damage than it would do good.

    I’m concerned, that you work on to many different fronts and spread your forces, instead of concentrating them on the one task only you can achieve: give the world the E-Cat in it’s different variations and make it better and better.

    Best regards,
    Markus

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Hansson:
    Thank you for your suggestions. I do not see any competitor at the horizon, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Sven Gudmundsson:
    The charge is inside the ermetic torus between the 2 cylinders.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels,
    Your insights are always appreciated.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer, please help me: I need to make the desalination at a very cheap price, using the lower possible temperature: didtillation is not competitive, even with the E-Cat. We are working on it, but any help, if effective, will be paid.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Antonella

    Carissimo Andrea,

    vedo con piacere che il sito dello Snake è chiuso. Ne sai nulla?

  • Steven N. Karels

    Giuseppe,

    Energy calculations can be difficult. Here are the “facts” from the certification document: Flow rate: 1500 kg/hr; max temperature: 120C; max input power: 200 kW

    Assumption: inlet water temperature is 20C (typical assumption)

    It takes 4.18 kJ to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degC. It takes 2,260 kJ to boil 100 C water to 100 C steam.

    So to take 1500 kilograms from 20 C to 120 C takes (2,260 + 100 * 4.18) kJ * 1500 or 4,017,000 kJ of energy. This is done in one hour (3,600 sec) so the output rate is 1115.8 kW or 1.1158 MW.

    Note the COP is 1,115.8 kW / 200 kW or 5.579.

    The numbers in the certification are worst case so this is consistent with a COP of 6.

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Herb Gillis wrote in September 13th, 2012 at 10:37 AM

    Andrea Rossi:
    So; how do you get an energy producing nuclear reaction without nuclear transmutations of some type??
    Kind Regards; HRG.”

    Dear Herb,

    “What we know is a drop, what we dont know is an ocean”
    Isaac Newton

    Today, what we know is two drops, what we dont know is an ocean minus two drops.

    It’s possible that a portion of the energy obtained in cold fusion phenomena is coming from the same source of the energy responsible for the working of magnetic motors.

    Nobody knows where this energy comes from.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PDeK6rprA4&feature=related

    Regards
    WLAD

  • Steven N. Karels

    Estimating the Amount of Hydrogen in an eCat

    If we assume a Hot eCat configuration of 33 cm by 9 cm diameter with a 3 cm inner diameter and if we also assume 1 cm thick walls, the volume between the two cylinders is 622 cc or 0.622 liters. Also assuming 50 grams of Nickel powder with a typical apparent denisty of 1.3 g/cc (for 1 micron powder), we are left with 0.572 liters for the Hydrogen gas. If we now assume 40 bars of pressure at room temperature and at STP 1 mole occupies 22.4 liters, we can compute a Hydrogen mass of approximately 2 grams. Note Hydrogren is diatomic so I used 2 grams per mole.

    Since approximately 50 grams of Nickel is assumed and with a typical atomic weight of 58, we have almost 1 mole of Nickel. Deuterium can load Palladium almost 1:1. So assuming somewhat less loading in the Nickel, I would estimate around 2.5 grams of Hydrogen are in the eCat initially.

    On a previous posting, I computed that 2 grams of Hydrogen could be converted to 2 grams of Deuterium in 6 months of continuous operation at 10 kW output. This is consistent with a 6 month eCat operating time.

    Any comments Andrea Rossi?

  • Sven Gudmundsson

    Dear Andra Rossi,

    I am very impressed by the simplicity of the Hot-Cat design and also by the openness that you have shown regarding it. But there is one thing that I do not understand: how do you prevent the atomic hydrogen from diffusing out from the sides of the reactor?

    Kind regards, Sven Gudmundsson

  • Joe

    Steven N. Karels,

    I was curious about the possible role of these noble gases as dielectric media. Plus, the low thermal conductivity of argon would improve the problem of directing and keeping the applied heat where it is needed by acting as channel and retaining wall, respectively.

    All the best,
    Joe

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    Your answer regarding when patent protection can be expected is in line with what one can read to from other sources on the Internet. Namely, that no major patents will be granted in the LENR field before the first Nobel Prize has been awarded (typically 10-30 years after discovery).

    A year ago, it was assumed that your project was more than six months ahead of the nearest competitor, a central part of your business plan. Now it seems that (with your latest schedule in mind) have lost this advantage. Manufacturing “30 to 100 1 MV units the first year” seems far away.

    With regard to the above, it is not so that your information policy had force you and Leonardo Corporation into a very defensive and harmful position?.. a self imposed “catch 22”.

  • Dear Wladimir, This is a recapitulation of my information regarding u.u.d. quarks proton and d.d.u. quarks neutron plus further information that may iterest Andrea as well. The equation n=p+e is false and presents an obstacle in physics to those who concern themselves with it. I do not think there is an equation for the neutron because of the atomic structure and of its binary nature that applies to two opposite dimensions. The atom has not a triple make-up but a quadruplet make-up. Also to understand structure I believe you must understand fusion and fission and this involves understanding geometry i.e. shapes, patterns and positions with regards atomic dimensions. I also believe there are such things as macro atoms and micro atoms and this too is due to the binary nature of energy that exists throughout nature. I shall keep this explanation simple but – Please reference my earlier work 9th Sept – otherwise this information would require lots more space. There are positive quarks and negative quarks that form a proton and thereby two spiral cones of quarks contained within the spiral cone of a proton. The positive cone of quarks is a spectrum of positive charges and the negative cone of quarks is a spectrum of negative charges that together form a proton cone/mass because both quark spirals spin around a common axis. The proton is a proton because of its position within the macro atom (see 9th Sept info.). The neutron is an inverted proton and represents a negative receptacle. It has been inverted by crossing the line of neutrality upon the macro atomic spiral ( macro atomic spirals are horizontal planes between atomic poles). The electron is structured as the proton with two spiral quark cones, one of a positive spectrum, one of a negative spectrum to form the electron cone. Because both the proton and electron are comprised of quark structure the macro atomic structure with regards its positive gravity can be considered stable. The quark structure is formed of two spectrums composed of particles in spiral format. This is where I believe LENR can be better understood. If you destabilize the macro atom structure i.e. overcome the positive gravity of the structure such as hydrogen then the proton and its associates i.e. two neutrons and one electron with regards the macro atomic structure will collapse into the neutral spiral of the macro atom but the integral parts will not regain the same format due to a loss of its positive gravity. The proton will remain as a neutral spiral upon which the particles of a quark will become cones and thereby in retrospect a mini atom of positivity (the charges of a proton are of a positive spectrum). The electron will likewise do the same i.e. form a mini atom of negativity (due to its negative spectrum of charges). Micro atoms occur when macro atoms fall to pieces and thereby micro out of macro but when micro atoms fall to pieces no further structure exists. Thereby, two mini atoms of opposite charges will attract and annihilate one another (annihilate: reduce to heat. Heat: particles of aether in a random chaotic format). I suspect that when the mini neutron atoms interact they produce low energy heat and this would retard the high energy heat given off by the mini atomic proton and alectron interaction. High energy heat provided by mini proton atom and mini electron atom. Low energy heat provided by mini neutron atom positive and mini neutron atom negative. I suspect mini atoms are responsible for LENR. A particular potential of aether fizzed off from a mini atom is able to be absorbed by a macro atom. The rest of the aether remains as chaotic heat due to the break/missing links within the aether spectrum i.e. it lacks cohesion.

    If you have any quaestions Wladimir I would be only too pleased to answer them, if I am able, as I am aware of the importance of this subject. Also as an after thought and this too is my belief on an important aspect of structural physics. Theory without practical is as lacking as practical without theory. Nothing in nature exists as a solo entity i.e. a body without a mind nor a mind without a body. This is a law that comes from the highest principal in nature and is based on a structure or a team being formed of a quadruplet at its absolute minimum to ensure its existence/acceptance. Hope you find this information interesting. Best regards Eric Ashworth

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    Steven N. Karels, Andrea Rossi: Desalination. Good news. If there is anything I can do to speed the process, please call on me.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Our Team is researching in the field of low temperature desalination systems, to allow the E-Cats to desalinate water with high competitiveness.
    As soon as we will have it, we will be able to give an important contribution to the problem that within 30 years will affect the planet: scarsity of fresh water.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    As I watched the video-recording of one of your interviews, I thought you said something about learning of a water purification system that operated at 30 C and would be well suited for eCat integration. If I did not mis-understand you, do you have any information on the system/technology? As you may recall, providing water for indiginous people is a passion for me.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Joe,

    I can see the question on Helium but why Neon and Argon? Are you looking at products of nuclear reactions or inert “cooling” gases or other such usage?

    Given the assumption of nuclear-like reactions, the emitted energy must surely be x-ray or gamma ray. I still lack a clear understanding of how the gamma rays can be contained/absorbed in so little shielding that appears to be in the eCat. But the “proof” is in the measurements (or lack of) for any external gamma radiation.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ronnie Johnston:
    Thank you,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Brian:
    The reports are under NDA.
    Also the testing done is under NDA
    The SGS engineers have worked for the safety certification, not for the product certifications, therefore they did not work on the COP issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ronnie Johnston

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Snake never tasted better :) Thank you again for your inspiring work.
    Yours in admiration, Ronnie

  • Brian

    Mr. Rossi

    Thank you for releasing the SGS certification, which is very interesting. The SGS certification mentions two technical reports performed by its engineers. Are you able to share these technical reports with us? If not, can you tell us about the testing done? Did the SGS engineers verify the COP/performance aspects of the device?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions

    Brian

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ronnie Johnston:
    Did you eat snake for supper? it makes this effect…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland:
    Thank you, actually I could not publish this certificate, we cannot use it for commercials, I asked the permission to do this, explaining that I had to defend myself from the accusation of having said not truly that we had it . It is a Voluntary Safety Certificate, it enables us to put the CE mark on our 1 MW plants.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ronnie Johnston

    Dear Andrea Rossi, thanks for the answer. I think Steven N Karel’s question was the sImilar but better and your answer to him answered mine.

    Andrea Rossi
    September 13th, 2012 at 2:33 PM
    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    While for the 1 MW plants the tuning is easy, for the single Cats is much more complicated. We are thinking to make 10 mnimi inside to regulate with 10% steps.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Also can I just say well done on the SGS safety certification…. YEEE HAAAAA

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ronnie Johnston:
    Sorry, but I think there have been a translation problem: I did not make that statement. Either I did not understand the question, or my answer has not been understood. I do not remember the question and answer and I have not record of it, but to that question now I can answer clearly as follows:
    ” of course we had failures in single E-Cats, for many causes and many times: this is why tests are made”.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joe:
    1- confidential
    2- confidential
    3- confidential
    4- yes
    5- yes
    6- yes
    Confidential Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H. Hansson:
    Oraculum non habemus.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mario:
    Sorry, I do not understand. Can you explain?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Greg Leonard:
    Yes, they are very different things, one goes up to 120 C, the other in these days is working at 1050 C: different control, different materials. The E-Cats are ready, the hot not, but they will give us enormous satisfaction, I hope soon.
    The reactions basically are the same.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    Your insights are always stimulating.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    p.s. we are testing the “toy” you know.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Bernie Koppenhofer:
    You are right. Not so much the Snake ( a coward), but his payers yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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