Hidden and intermediate states of nucleons

by
U.V.S. Seshavatharam
DIP QA Engineer, Lanco Industries Ltd, Srikalahasti-517641, A.P, India
E-mail: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com

Prof. S. LAKSHMINARAYANA
Department Of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Vizag-530003, AP, India.
E-mail: lnsrirama@yahoo.com


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Abstract
Nuclear planck energy is given by

where Gs is the strong nuclear gravitational constant [1, 2, 3] and is equal to N²Gc.
Here N is Avagadro number and GC is the classical gravitational constant.
In the previous paper [1] it is suggested that there exists 2 kinds of mass units.

They are observed and hidden mass units and their mass ratio is XE = 295.0606338.
XE can be called as the lepton-quark mass generator [1 – 4].
In this paper this idea is applied to the nucleons.

Hidden mass unit of nucleon can be given as

It is noticed that there exists an intermediate hidden mass state in between neutron and proton.
If nuclear stability factor is defined as

hidden mass of the intermediate state can be given as

Observable mass of this hidden intermediate state can be given as

If mec² is the rest energy of electron, this observable intermediate state gains a mass-energy of ½mec²  and transforms to neutron.
By loosing a mass-energy of 2mec²  transforms to proton.

Error is related with

Here Ec and Ea are the semi emepirical mass formula [1, 3, 15, 16, 17] coulomb and asymmetry energy constants.
Finally it is suggested that pairing energy constant of the semi empirical mass formula is

Asymmetry energy constant

Ec, Ea are related with XE as

Volume and surface energy constants are related as

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346 comments to Hidden and intermediate states of nucleons

  • Hank Mills

    Hello Andrea,

    Thank you for the answer. I totally understand your need for secrecy. I’m just glad that it has been clarified that chemical catalysts are still used. In addition to my own personal intellectual interest in understanding your technology, I want to have the facts clear in my head so I do not accidentally spread misinformation when I talk about the ECAT.

    Thanks.

    Hank

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Andrea Calaon:
    No, I am not.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Joseph Fine:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ville Kanninen:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Hank Mills:
    The catalysts we use are chemical products, but the action they make is confidential. I understand you can be confused, I should be the same in your position, but until I cannot disclose the theory and process I must keep this information under cover.
    Thank you for your attention,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In the U.S., over the next several years, the government plans to shut down about 36,000 MW of coal-generated electricity. Assuming a 30% conversion factor, that means there is a requirement for 120,000 MW of thermal capacity. To replace this electricity, you have to produce either 120,000 1 MW Hot Cats (@ 30% conversion) or only 90,000 1 MW Hot Cats (@ 40 % conversion).

    http://dailycaller.com/2012/09/21/report-more-than-200-coal-fired-generators-slated-for-shutdown/

    And that’s just coal-fired plants. There are also several planned projects whose cost of electricity is somewhat exorbitant. (Does exorbitant mean ‘ Out in space or in orbit?)

    Please keep making progress and you will always be busy.

    Gigawatts of Regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Even after your hot E-Cat will reach the first stage commercial product status, you will have a great potential to develop it further in the coming years. Below might be one possible idea for improving stability control and COP.

    Maybe phase change materials (PCM) could be used to prevent possible local hot spots to spread and cause a thermal runway. I found this interesting article from ISIJ International, Vol. 42 (2002), No. 2, pp. 215–219, please see https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/isijinternational1989/42/2/42_2_215/_pdf .

    In the article 3 mm diameter copper balls are first coated with thin film of either carbon or ruthenium and then 90-950 um layer of nickel. Idea in the article is to use copper PCM material to recover short term periodic high temperature waste heat (much above the copper melting point 1083 C) in steel industry by utilizing the large latent heat of copper. In the hot E-Cat this might be used for totally different purpose: as a structural heat buffer to prevent temperatures to rise above 1083 C in fast transient situations. Coated copper balls could be used either as dummy heat transfer and heat buffer material within your reactive material (outermost coating might also be something else than nickel) or as base for your reactive material if that is possible.

    Good luck to your important work. It will eventually benefit all of us, the whole mankind.

    kind regards

    Ville Kanninen

  • Andrea Calaon

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I can not understand how you can produce superheated steam in 400 [mm] (the depth of the hot-cat drum), but I am not really an expert in this.
    Are you collaborating with Supercritical Steam Generator producers or military experts in superheated steam?

    Military submarines would be the perfect place where to put such a compact heat exchanger, and I guess there would be no price problem …

    Good luck

    Andrea Calaon

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Marco
    It is not possible.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    A few persons suggested you to use the steel tube for heating. I think this is a very important issue since reducing the components (getting rid of the resistors) improve the dependability, durability, reduce the risk of failures and improve the lasting of the product, improving the return of investment. You could guarantee the product for more than 20 years, making it more convenient.
    My question is: is this last test made also without the resistors? If not do you plan such a test? When?

    Best regards,
    Marco.

  • Riccardo T.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Thank you for the detailed answer.

    Cin cin then !!!

    Riccardo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Adrian M.:
    We will make something like that.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear H.Hansson:
    Our Customers will be separate locations.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • H. Hansson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    When will your eCat be ready for third party validation on a separate location???

  • Adrian M

    Dear DR. Rossi.
    As time passes, there are some wishes that come forward related to the first ECat. It was somehow promised to us that we will have ECats Home Units by Winter 2012. Then it was delayed for certifications reasons. The common wisdom now is first to give it to the Industry and then to people. Understandable.
    But at this point, with all the bad vibes coming from economic news, political news, etc… there is this need for a Proof of HOPE.
    Dr. Rossi. Can you show us Proof of HOPE regarding ECat 1? We really need to see it again, working… lots of photos, if not videos. Is this request too much after almost 2 years waiting patiently for this technology to be validated, irrefutable?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ecco Liberation:
    Good point.
    1- the tests are both validation and development tests: the two tasks intertwine between themselves, because during the tests we learn, react, modify. Again: this is not a product, is a prototype growing up.
    2- the duration of the measurement campaign has to be distinguished from the operation time of the E-Cats.
    3- we make normally operation campaigns 24/7
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Hello Andrea,

    You stated today that you are not using a chemical catalyst. In the past you have confirmed that the catalyst is one or more chemical elements placed into the reactor core in addition to nickel and hydrogen. Were such elements, in addition to nickel and hydrogen, ever used? Are you using such chemical catalysts now? Did something change, or did you never really use them in the first place?

    I am very confused.

    Hank

  • Ecco Liberation

    Good to know you’re satisfied with the results, Dott. Andrea Rossi.

    …The test began this morning at 7 a.m., is finished few minutes ago at 22,30
    Said this I have the duty to repeat that the tests are going on, will continue…

    I’m not sure if what you’ve described are validation tests or development tests, but for the first, if more of them are to be yet performed, I would advise to also try increasing the continuous duration of a single testing session to 24 hours or more if possible, while optionally (although this might depend on confidential technical needs) keeping input power constant. Both of these aspects have been a considerable source of criticism and confusion.

    Ecco

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Riccardo T.:
    Thank you for the question, I wanted anyway to give this information.
    The test of today has been a particular session, in the context of the 4 month work of validation of the Hot Cat, because today we made important modifications : the reactor is now very different from the prototype we talked about in Zurich. It has no more the internal cylinder, has different dimensions, has many modifications: I hoped to get improvements in the minimum COP. We also made an electric measurement with new experts, to review the work made before, with new instruments. In the final report we will describe in particular the important work of today, that for now is under NDA. I am very satisfied. First, because the measurements have confirmed that the work made up to now has given resulkts very close to the ones obtained after a peer reviewing, second because my modifications have improved the Hot Cat. The test began this morning at 7 a.m., is finished few minutes ago at 22,30 .
    Said this I have the duty to repeat that the tests are going on, will continue, we are not ready to give final results. We are still in R&D, we still have not a Hot Cat ready for the market. All the data we got are stioll subject to variations.
    Champagne remains in the frigid, so far, but we can celebrate with a more humble Prosecco.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    1- The warm E-Cat has a range up to 120 °C; the Hot Cat ( that is so far a prototype under R&D, not a product yet) up to 1050 °C
    2- Below these limit they are stable.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You have two versions of eCat, some call them the Warm eCat and the other the Hot eCat. Can you tell us the output temperature range of each type? For example, is the Warm eCat limited to 100C to 120C? If you run a greater coolant rate through the eCat, can you obtain a stable lower temperature or is there another consideration/limitation? Is the Hot eCat’s temperature range 800C to 1250C? I am trying to understand if you can support a temperature continum or can you only cover certain temperature regions.

  • Riccardo T.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    You mentioned about a crucial test running today.

    Hoping not ask you too much, how you feel about the result:

    1) not satified
    2) quite satisfied
    3) satisfied
    4) very satisfied
    5) Champagne for everyone !!!!

    My finger are crossed.
    Best wishes for your work.

    Riccardo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    1- no, we call it a catalyst, but it is not a chemical catalyst
    2- I cannot give this kind of information
    3- Sorry, again I cannot give this information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mark Saker:
    1- we will, but it is a virtual product, without certification yet: the certification process will change many things.
    2- not for now
    3- not for now
    4- today we are having a tremendously important test with indipendent parties, with new series of measurements with a new generation of measurement instruments. If the test today goes well, we will be a big step forward.
    5- I am not ready to answer to this question. Many things must be done before.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Mark Saker

    Dear Andrea,

    1. Is there anyway you can release some pictures of the prototype domestic e-cat for us to look at. Even just the outside chassis. Perhaps e-mail some to e-cat world to upload?

    2. At the moment you only sell 1MW industrial units. Is there any plans to liaise with resellers to build intermediate units. i.e. 100-1000kilowatts. Customised products which have a rated power output that match the needs of the customer.

    3. If yes, how long?

    4. You mention you are currently working to create electrical power. Is that on a 1WM product. Has there been any progress you can tell us of?

    5. The new smaller design for the 1MW hotcat, how long before you will have a prototype ready?

    Many Thanks

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The catalyst that you guard so well — is it a catalyst in the chemical sense? That is — changes in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a substance called a catalyst.

    Alternatively, perhaps the catalyst is an additive in the Nickel powder surface preparation that makes the cracks in the Nickel surface the right size for a Nuclear Active Environment (NAE)?

    You haven’t discussed much about the Nickel powder size and surface preparation. Do you heat and cool and load and unload Hydrogen gas multiple times with the Nickel and the catalyst? Or is the catalyst chemically reacted with the Nickel powder once and then the resultant surface prepared? Are you using 1 micron diameter Nickel powder?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alex:
    The domestic E-Cats will not be for sale until they will be certified and we think that for the domestic apparatuses the certification will take time. We are selling the 1 MW industrial E-Cats.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • Alex

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    When will we we be able to purchase our 10kW domestic heater?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lucio Martini:
    Not so easy, but we will find a solution.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    At the moment we cannot release the theory behind our process. Sooner or later we will have to, I hope after the patents will be granted.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Felize:
    I cannot give this information,
    Warm Regards,
    AR.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gillis:
    Yes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Red5goahead:
    Thank you!
    A.R.

  • Red5goahead

    New record for turning heat into power
    http://goo.gl/wUovm

    Keep fight, Mr. Rossi.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    Is the amount of nickel consumed [all isotopes], after 6 months operation, also “so small that a measure of the quantity is very difficult”?
    Regards; HRG.

  • Felize

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    sorry for my curiosity. Are the neutrons produced by or a side effect of your main reaction?

    What is the energy of these neutrons?

    Best,

    Felize

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In previous postings you have stated the eCat “ash” is neither Deuterium nor Helium. You have also stated that Copper and other transmutation products (from Nickel) are not the majority heat source. So unless you are receiving anti-matter beamed from Cpt Kirk’s starship (LOL), I don’t see a known energy sequence. Can you enlighten us as to the primary energy path’s output product? A couple of years ago, you thought it was Copper.

  • Lucio Martini

    Estimated Dr Rossi,
    just for one simple question:
    It would be possible to think; now only as a hypothesis; a kit (?) allowing you to switch from an E-Cat home to a Hot-Cat? Or not.
    Warm Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joe:
    Nope,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Dr Rossi,

    Would it be possible to design the E-Cat to use the neutrons in a chain reaction that would eliminate the need for drive? A source of heat would always be ready just in case there would be the need to dilate the core of the reactor to prevent a runaway reaction.

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Guru

    Herb Gillis wrote: “…a fast LENR process might be used to “re-power” these obsolete facilities…”
    ——-
    Dear Herb,
    during last 5 years I conduct hundreds calculations, socio-systems simulations etc. What I may say: Mid-term future will be decentralized (distributed) power production. Your ex-Nuke refurbished powerplants will be uncompetetive. Think: Only today existing transmission fees are higher then future costs of future decentralized power systems. Remember Columbus ? When other nations see “it is possible”, every start trying too. China is very authoritative regime. When they will see “it is possible” they simply by government order/directive will regrouping 10, 20, 30 thousands engineers to invent their indigenous system. With 30.000 engineers you may try 60-100 thousands try/errors per day. In China 40 millions childs is teaching in classical music play, including 20 million childs in piano play. You now immediatelly understand a law of extreme numbers.
    So, near/mid term future will be decentralized/distributed power. Your refurbished exNuke will be bankrupt in 4 to 8 years timeframe from time of launching new technologies.

  • Guru

    Herb Gillis wrote: “…a fast LENR process might be used to “re-power” these obsolete facilities…”
    ——-
    Dear Herb,
    during last 5 years I conduct hundreds calculations, socio-systems simulations etc. What I may say: Mid-term future will be decentralized (distributed) power production. Your ex-Nuke refurbished powerplants will be uncompetetive. Think: Only today existing transmission fees are higher then future costs of future decentralized power systems. Remember Columbus ? When other nations see “it is possible”, every start trying too. China is very authoritative regime. When they will see “it is possible” they simply by government order/directive will regrouping 10, 20, 30 thousands engineers to invent their indigenous system. With 30.000 engineers you may try 60-100 thousands try/errors per day. In China 40 millions childs is teaching in classical music play, including 20 million childs in piano play. You now immediatelly understand a law of extreme numbers.
    So, near/mid term future will be decentralized/distributed power. Your refurbished exNuke will be bankrupt in 4 to 8 years timeframe from time of launching new technologies.

  • g.Luca from Italy

    Caro ORSOBUBU,

    da profano e popolano quale sono posso dirmi già sollevato per quanto affermi nelle ultime tre righe. Da come scrivi, anche per Te “l’invenzione” potrebbe cambiare molte cose e questo è sufficiente per riconoscerle un ruolo “taumaturgico” in un mondo devastato da ogni sorta di nefandezza.
    Per le prime undici righe, invece, condivido forse un paio di virgole. Il fatto che le ns aziende non siano competitive già facendo semplicemente i conti energetici “sulle carta”, rende tutto più difficile.
    Non entro nel discorso di capitalismo/sovraproduzione/saggio del profitto. Qui le teorie sono tante e disparate. La Tua è solo una delle tante versioni che, per altro, non condivido.
    Saluti

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gills:
    The amounts of Cu are so small that a measure of the quantity is very difficult, considering the range relatively wide of standard isotopes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herb Gills:
    The retrofitting of existing nuclear plants is a completely different scenario, I am not prepared for, but your suggestion is worth thinking about it. Many socio-political implications can put strong hurdles, though. It is not easy to answer, it is a very complex issue.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    I am hoping you might be willing to elaborate more on your response to my earlier question about running the E-cat reaction ‘flat out’ [max COP] and using a neutron absorber. You said this approach was “impossible, for safety reasons”. It is hard for me to imagine any LENR process being as “unsafe” as conventional nuclear fission (or hot fusion, which produces 14Mev neutrons). There are fission plants which have been shut down (or soon will be). Needless to say these facilities are very heavily shielded against neutrons. My thinking, in asking my initial question, was that a fast LENR process might be used to “re-power” these obsolete facilities. Are you really saying that your process, run at maximum COP, could even approach the safety risks associated with conventional fission power (and hot fusion) production? Thank you in advance for clarifying the issue.
    Regards; HRG.

  • orsobubu

    Caro g.Luca from Italy,
    mi sembra che tu attribuisca alle potenzialmente meravigliose invenzioni di A.Rossi delle virtù taumaturgiche che probabilmente non hanno. Esse possono senz’altro creare una ricca industria, beneficiare gli azionisti, gli impiegati e l’ambiente, ecc ma non potranno certo risolvere le contraddizioni fondamentali del sistema di produzione capitalistico. Una volta diffusasi velocemente la nuova tecnologia sul mercato, i sovraprofitti derivanti dal vantaggio competitivo dell’Italia verrebbero meno, e si avrebbe il normale profitto medio capitalistico dovuto allo sfruttamento dei lavoratori salariati. La concorrenza mondiale ripresenterebbe quindi ben presto il conto, con i consueti problemi legati alla sovraproduzione, all’abbassamento dei prezzi e alla caduta del saggio del profitto, aggravati dal fatto che, in questo nuovo giro, nuovi paesi – prima esclusi – si affaccerebbero nella competizione e, in quelli vecchi, si avrebbero larghi strati di disoccupati provenienti dalle vecchie tecnologie energetiche a più intenso impiego di manodopera. La contraddizione tra valore d’uso (che le nuove tecnologie aumenterebbero) e valore di scambio (che le nuove tecnologie ridurrebbero) non è eliminabile nell’attuale ordinamento economico-sociale; ma l’apprezzamento per il lavoro di A.Rossi è d’obbligo perchè le sue scoperte segnerebbero un avanzamento della produttività del capitale, fisso e variabile, e avvicinerebbero quindi il punto di rottura dell’ordine mondiale e la transizione ad una fase successiva della storia dell’umanità.

  • Herb Gillis

    Andrea Rossi:
    You recently mentioned that only very small amounts of copper were detected in the reaction products.
    Does the amount of nickel consumed during operation significantly exceed the amount of copper formed? Or does the nickel consumption roughly correspond to the amount of copper formed?
    Regards; HRG.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Steven N. Karels:
    1- no
    2- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Zero:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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